Special Issue "Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Sergey A. Ponomarenko

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: statistical nonlinear optics; rogue waves; solitons; self-similarity; random lasers; optical coherence; fiber optics; statistical plasmonics; random walks and speckle statistics
Guest Editor
Prof. Sergei Popov

Photonics Division, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nano-photonics; polymer photonics; novel optical materials; near-field optics; optical communication; solid-state organic lasers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Statistical optics deals with the optical fields generated by realistic light sources, such as multimode lasers, light-emitting diodes, random lasers, etc., which are inherently noisy, or by light with controllable coherence, such as coherent light randomly modulated by rotating ground glass diffusers or spatial light modulators. Light propagation through—and scattering by—random media, such as the turbulent atmosphere, falls under the purview of statistical optics as well. The study of random light field coherence and statistics, apart from its intrinsic fundamental interest, opens up a door to diverse applications, including lithography and image resolution, spatial and/or temporal ghost imaging, beam and pulse shaping in free space, optical fibers and random media as well as the information transfer through random media and optical communications, to mention but a few exciting avenues. Recently, there has been growing interest in the exploration of random light statistics on propagation in nonlinear media. In particular, rogue wave and extreme event generation in conservative and amplifying optical media has triggered a flurry of research activity, highlighting the reinvigorated interest in the fundamental subject of non-Gaussian statistics emergence in nonlinear optical systems. Lately, the generation of surface plasmon polaritons with controllable statistical properties has intrigued the plasmonics community as such partially coherent surface plasmon polaritons can prove versatile tools for near-field interaction studies, nanoparticle manipulation, and information and/or energy transfer on the nanoscale. These advances are giving rise to a burgeoning field of statistical plasmonics.

The objective of this Special Issue is to showcase recently obtained results and highlight exciting new developments in this thriving field. Original contributions and concise reviews on any topic related to statistical optics and plasmonics, linear or nonlinear, experimental or theoretical, are welcome.

Prof. Sergey A. Ponomarenko
Prof. Sergei Popov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-Gaussian statistics
  • surface plasmon polaritons
  • rogue waves
  • nonlinear waves
  • coherence
  • speckles
  • random lasers
  • random media
  • partially coherent beams and pulses
  • ghost imaging...

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Nonparaxial Propagation Properties of Specially Correlated Radially Polarized Beams in Free Space
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050997
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
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Abstract
A specially correlated radially polarized (SCRP) beam with unusual physical properties on propagation in the paraxial regime was introduced and generated recently. In this paper, we extend the paraxial propagation of an SCRP beam to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form 3 × 3 [...] Read more.
A specially correlated radially polarized (SCRP) beam with unusual physical properties on propagation in the paraxial regime was introduced and generated recently. In this paper, we extend the paraxial propagation of an SCRP beam to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form 3 × 3 cross-spectral density matrix of a nonparaxial SCRP beam propagating in free space is derived with the aid of the generalized Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction integral. The statistical properties, such as average intensity, degree of polarization, and spectral degree of coherence, are studied comparatively for the nonparaxial SCRP beam and the partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam with a conventional Gaussian–Schell-model correlation function. It is found that the nonparaxial properties of an SCRP beam are strikingly different from those of a PCRP beam. These nonparaxial properties are closely related to the correlation functions and the beam waist width. Our results may find potential applications in beam shaping and optical trapping in nonparaxial systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Optical Spin Angular Momentum Flux of a Vector Beam with Radially-Variant Polarization in Near Field
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050960
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
The near-field characteristics of a radially-variant vector beam (RVVB) are analyzed by using the vectorial angular spectrum method. The non-paraxial RVVB can be decomposed into the propagating wave and the evanescent wave in near field. The coherent superposition of the longitudinal and transverse [...] Read more.
The near-field characteristics of a radially-variant vector beam (RVVB) are analyzed by using the vectorial angular spectrum method. The non-paraxial RVVB can be decomposed into the propagating wave and the evanescent wave in near field. The coherent superposition of the longitudinal and transverse components of the RVVB results in a three-dimensional (3D) profile of the spin angular momentum flux density (SAM-FD). The evanescent wave part dominates the near field of a highly non-paraxial RVVB. The longitudinal component has a large impact on the 3D shape of the optical SAM-FD. Therefore, the 3D SAM-FD configuration of the RVVB can be manipulated by choosing the initial states of polarization arrangement. In particular, the transverse SAM-FD with a spin axis orthogonal to the propagation direction offers a promising range of applications spanning from nanophotonics and plasmonics to biophotonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Image Transmission through Scattering Media Using Ptychographic Iterative Engine
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050849
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Random scattering media prevent light information from directly transmitting through, them as the photons will deviate from their original propagation directions due to the inhomogeneity of the refractive index distribution in scattering media. Based on recent developed methods, light information transmission through scattering [...] Read more.
Random scattering media prevent light information from directly transmitting through, them as the photons will deviate from their original propagation directions due to the inhomogeneity of the refractive index distribution in scattering media. Based on recent developed methods, light information transmission through scattering media is realized using a memory effect. However, the memory effect range limits it to a small field of view. To enlarge the field of view, in this article, we propose to use the ptychographic iterative engine to deliver information through scattering media. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can deliver images beyond the memory effect range through the scattering layer with outstanding imaging performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Generation and Propagation of a Hermite-Gaussian Correlated Schell-Model LG0l Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030610
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
A partially coherent beam under the combined action of a Hermite-Gaussian correlated function and vortex phase, named the HGCSMLG0l beam has been explored both theoretically and experimentally. The statistical properties, such as the intensity and distribution of the degree of coherence [...] Read more.
A partially coherent beam under the combined action of a Hermite-Gaussian correlated function and vortex phase, named the HGCSMLG0l beam has been explored both theoretically and experimentally. The statistical properties, such as the intensity and distribution of the degree of coherence (DOC) on propagation are analyzed in detail, based on the deduced equations. We find that the intensity is determined dominantly by the non-conventional correlated function when the coherence length is comparatively small and by vortex phase when the coherence length is large. The modulus of the DOC is not vulnerable to coherence width, rather, it is affected by both non-conventional correlated function and vortex phase. Our results are verified well by the experiment results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Generation of an Adjustable Optical Cage through Focusing an Apertured Bessel-Gaussian Correlated Schell-Model Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030550
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
An adjustable optical cage generated by focusing a partially coherent beam with nonconventional correlation function named the Bessel–Gaussian correlated Schell-model (BGCSM) beam is investigated in detail. With the help of the generalized Huygens–Fresnel integral and complex Gaussian function expansion, the analytical formula of [...] Read more.
An adjustable optical cage generated by focusing a partially coherent beam with nonconventional correlation function named the Bessel–Gaussian correlated Schell-model (BGCSM) beam is investigated in detail. With the help of the generalized Huygens–Fresnel integral and complex Gaussian function expansion, the analytical formula of the BGCSM beam passing through an apertured ABCD optical system was derived. Our numerical results show that the generated optical cage can be moderately adjusted by the aperture radius, the spatial coherence width, and the parameter β of the BGCSM beam. Furthermore, the effect of these parameters on the effective beam size and the spectral degree of coherence were also analyzed. The optical cage with adjustable size can be applied for particle trapping and material thermal processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Hyperspectral Image Cryptosystem Based on Affine Transform and Fractional Fourier Transform
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020330
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
An encryption algorithm for hyperspectral data in fractional Fourier domain is designed. Firstly, the original hyperspectral image is separated into single bands and then each pair of bands are regarded as the real and imaginary part of a complex function by using an [...] Read more.
An encryption algorithm for hyperspectral data in fractional Fourier domain is designed. Firstly, the original hyperspectral image is separated into single bands and then each pair of bands are regarded as the real and imaginary part of a complex function by using an affine transform. Subsequently, the complex functions are encoded and transformed in fractional Fourier domain (FrFT). The parameters in affine transform and FrFT serve as the key of the encryption system. The proposed encryption scheme can not only protect the image information in spatial domains but also the spectrum information in spectral domains. Various experiments are given to demonstrate the validity and capability of the proposed encryption scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations for Scattering of a Partially Coherent Plane-Wave Pulse
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020244
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
We derived analytical expressions for the correlation of intensity fluctuations of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model plane-wave pulse scattered by deterministic and random media. Our results extend the study of correlation of intensity fluctuations at two space points for scattered stationary fields to [...] Read more.
We derived analytical expressions for the correlation of intensity fluctuations of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model plane-wave pulse scattered by deterministic and random media. Our results extend the study of correlation of intensity fluctuations at two space points for scattered stationary fields to that at two time points for scattered non-stationary fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Incoherent Shock and Collapse Singularities in Non-Instantaneous Nonlinear Media
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122559
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
We study the dynamics of a partially incoherent optical pulse that propagates in a slowly responding nonlinear Kerr medium. We show that irrespective of the sign of the dispersion (either normal or anomalous), the incoherent pulse as a whole exhibits a global collective [...] Read more.
We study the dynamics of a partially incoherent optical pulse that propagates in a slowly responding nonlinear Kerr medium. We show that irrespective of the sign of the dispersion (either normal or anomalous), the incoherent pulse as a whole exhibits a global collective behavior characterized by a dramatic narrowing and amplification in the strongly non-linear regime. The theoretical analysis based on the Vlasov formalism and the method of the characteristics applied to a reduced hydrodynamic model reveal that such a strong amplitude-incoherent pulse originates in the existence of a concurrent shock-collapse singularity (CSCS): The envelope of the intensity of the random wave exhibits a collapse singularity, while the momentum exhibits a shock singularity. The dynamic behavior of the system after the shock-collapse singularity is characterized through the analysis of the phase-space dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Propagation of Optical Coherence Vortex Lattices in Turbulent Atmosphere
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122476
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Propagation properties in the turbulence atmosphere of the optical coherence vortex lattices (OCVLs) are explored by the recently developed convolution approach. The evolution of spectral density distribution, the normalized M2-factor, and the beam wander of the OCVLs propagating through the atmospheric [...] Read more.
Propagation properties in the turbulence atmosphere of the optical coherence vortex lattices (OCVLs) are explored by the recently developed convolution approach. The evolution of spectral density distribution, the normalized M 2 -factor, and the beam wander of the OCVLs propagating through the atmospheric turbulence with Tatarskii spectrum are illustrated numerically. Our results show that the OCVLs display interesting propagation properties, e.g., the initial Gaussian beam distribution will evolve into hollow array distribution on propagation and finally becomes a Gaussian beam spot again in the far field in turbulent atmosphere. Furthermore, the OCVLs with large topological charge, large beam array order, large relative distance, and small coherence length are less affected by the negative effects of turbulence. Our results are expected to be used in the complex system optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Anisotropic Turbulence on Propagation Characteristics of Partially Coherent Beams with Spatially Varying Coherence
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112025
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel (eHF) principle, approximate analytical expressions for the spectral density of nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams are derived with the help of discrete model decompositions. The beams are propagating along horizontal paths through an anisotropic turbulent medium. Based on the [...] Read more.
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel (eHF) principle, approximate analytical expressions for the spectral density of nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams are derived with the help of discrete model decompositions. The beams are propagating along horizontal paths through an anisotropic turbulent medium. Based on the derived formula, the influence of the anisotropic turbulence (anisotropy factors, structure parameters) on the evolution of the average intensity, the shift of the intensity maxima and the power-in-the-bucket (PIB) are investigated in detail through numerical examples. It is found that the lateral shifting of the intensity maxima is closely related to the anisotropy factors and the strength of turbulence. Our results also reveal that, in the case of weak turbulence, the beam profile can retain the feature of local intensity sharpness, but this feature degenerates quickly if the strength of the turbulence increases. The value of PIB of the NUC beams can be even higher than that of Gaussian beams by appropriately controlling the coherence parameter in the weak turbulence regime. This feature makes the NUC beams useful for free-space communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Propagation Characteristics of a Twisted Cosine-Gaussian Correlated Radially Polarized Beam
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091485
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, partially coherent beams with twist phases have attracted growing interest due to their nontrivial dynamic characteristics. In this work, the propagation characteristics of a twisted cosine-Gaussian correlated radially polarized beam such as the spectral intensity, the spectral degree of coherence, the degree [...] Read more.
Recently, partially coherent beams with twist phases have attracted growing interest due to their nontrivial dynamic characteristics. In this work, the propagation characteristics of a twisted cosine-Gaussian correlated radially polarized beam such as the spectral intensity, the spectral degree of coherence, the degree of polarization, the state of polarization, and the spectral change are investigated in detail. Due to the presence of the twisted phase, the beam spot, the degree of coherence, and the state of polarization experience rotation during transmission, but the degree of polarization is not twisted. Meanwhile, although their rotation speeds closely depend on the value of the twist factor, they all undergo a rotation of π / 2 when they reach the focal plane. Furthermore, the effect of the twist phase on the spectral change is similar to the coherence, which is achieved by modulating the spectral density distribution during transmission. The twist phase opens up a useful guideline for manipulation of novel vector structure beams and enriches potential applications in the field of beam shaping, optical tweezers, optical imaging, and free space optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle Coupling Efficiency of a Partially Coherent Radially Polarized Vortex Beam into a Single-Mode Fiber
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081313
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
We study the problem of coupling partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) vortex beams into a single-mode optical fiber. Using the well-known concept of the cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix, we derive a general expression for the coupling efficiency of the partially coherent beam into [...] Read more.
We study the problem of coupling partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) vortex beams into a single-mode optical fiber. Using the well-known concept of the cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix, we derive a general expression for the coupling efficiency of the partially coherent beam into a single-mode fiber. We adopt PCRP vortex beams for incident beams and use our general results to discuss the effects of the coherence, topological charge, and wavelength on the coupling efficiency of an optical beam focused onto a single-mode fiber with a lens. Our results should be useful for any application that requires coupling of partially coherent beams into optical fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of Super-Resolution Imaging through Optical High-Order Interference [Invited]
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061166
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
PDF Full-text (5233 KB)
Abstract
Resolution is crucially important for optical imaging, which defines the smallest spatial feature of object that can be delivered by light wave. However, due to the wave nature of light, optical imaging is of limited resolution, widely known as Rayleigh limit or Abbe [...] Read more.
Resolution is crucially important for optical imaging, which defines the smallest spatial feature of object that can be delivered by light wave. However, due to the wave nature of light, optical imaging is of limited resolution, widely known as Rayleigh limit or Abbe limit. Nevertheless, this limit can be overcome by considering the loopholes in the derivation of the Rayleigh limit, such as light–matter interaction, structured illumination, and near-field interference. In contrast to the conventional single-photon interference, multi-photon amplitudes responsible for optical high-order interference could be designed to possess a reduced effective wavelength, enabling the breakthrough of the Rayleigh limit. In this review, we will present recently developed super-resolution imaging schemes based on optical high-order interference, and discuss future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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