Special Issue "Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Sergey A. Ponomarenko
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
Interests: statistical nonlinear optics; rogue waves; solitons; self-similarity; random lasers; optical coherence; fiber optics; statistical plasmonics; random walks and speckle statistics
Prof. Dr. Sergei Popov
Website
Guest Editor
Photonics Division, School of Engineering Sciences,Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: nano-photonics; polymer photonics; novel optical materials; near-field optics; optical communication; solid-state organic lasers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Statistical optics deals with the optical fields generated by realistic light sources, such as multimode lasers, light-emitting diodes, random lasers, etc., which are inherently noisy, or by light with controllable coherence, such as coherent light randomly modulated by rotating ground glass diffusers or spatial light modulators. Light propagation through—and scattering by—random media, such as the turbulent atmosphere, falls under the purview of statistical optics as well. The study of random light field coherence and statistics, apart from its intrinsic fundamental interest, opens up a door to diverse applications, including lithography and image resolution, spatial and/or temporal ghost imaging, beam and pulse shaping in free space, optical fibers and random media as well as the information transfer through random media and optical communications, to mention but a few exciting avenues. Recently, there has been growing interest in the exploration of random light statistics on propagation in nonlinear media. In particular, rogue wave and extreme event generation in conservative and amplifying optical media has triggered a flurry of research activity, highlighting the reinvigorated interest in the fundamental subject of non-Gaussian statistics emergence in nonlinear optical systems. Lately, the generation of surface plasmon polaritons with controllable statistical properties has intrigued the plasmonics community as such partially coherent surface plasmon polaritons can prove versatile tools for near-field interaction studies, nanoparticle manipulation, and information and/or energy transfer on the nanoscale. These advances are giving rise to a burgeoning field of statistical plasmonics.

The objective of this Special Issue is to showcase recently obtained results and highlight exciting new developments in this thriving field. Original contributions and concise reviews on any topic related to statistical optics and plasmonics, linear or nonlinear, experimental or theoretical, are welcome.

Prof. Sergey A. Ponomarenko
Prof. Sergei Popov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-Gaussian statistics
  • surface plasmon polaritons
  • rogue waves
  • nonlinear waves
  • coherence
  • speckles
  • random lasers
  • random media
  • partially coherent beams and pulses
  • ghost imaging...

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Spatial-Temporal Self-Focusing of Partially Coherent Pulsed Beams in Dispersive Medium
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3616; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173616 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Partially coherent pulsed beams have many applications in pulse shaping, fiber optics, ghost imaging, etc. In this paper, a novel class of partially coherent pulsed (PCP) sources with circular spatial coherence distribution and sinc temporal coherence distribution is introduced. The analytic formula for [...] Read more.
Partially coherent pulsed beams have many applications in pulse shaping, fiber optics, ghost imaging, etc. In this paper, a novel class of partially coherent pulsed (PCP) sources with circular spatial coherence distribution and sinc temporal coherence distribution is introduced. The analytic formula for the spatial-temporal intensity of pulsed beams generated by this kind of source in dispersive media is derived. The evolution behavior of spatial-temporal intensity of the pulsed beams in water and air is investigated, respectively. It is found that the pulsed beams exhibit spatial-temporal self-focusing behavior upon propagation. Furthermore, a physical interpretation of the spatial-temporal self-focusing phenomenon is given. This is a phenomenon of optical nonlinearity, which may have potential application in laser micromachining and laser filamentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Random Laser Action in Dye-Doped Polymer Media with Inhomogeneously Distributed Particles and Gain
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173499 - 24 Aug 2019
Abstract
The properties of random lasing are investigated for bubble-structure (BS) dye-doped polymer random media in which non-scattering and no-gain regions are distributed. Experimental results demonstrate that, for BS random media, spectral narrowing and a decrease in the number of spectral spikes occur for [...] Read more.
The properties of random lasing are investigated for bubble-structure (BS) dye-doped polymer random media in which non-scattering and no-gain regions are distributed. Experimental results demonstrate that, for BS random media, spectral narrowing and a decrease in the number of spectral spikes occur for incoherent and coherent random lasing, respectively, resulting in an increase in the spectral peak intensity in both cases. These features were observed owing to the differences in the diffusion properties of the pumping and emitted lights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of a Semi-Rough Target in Turbulent Atmosphere by an Electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-Model Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142790 - 11 Jul 2019
Abstract
The interaction of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam with a semi-rough target located in atmospheric turbulence was studied by means of a tensor method, and the corresponding inverse problem was analyzed. The equivalent model was set up on the basis of a bistatic [...] Read more.
The interaction of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam with a semi-rough target located in atmospheric turbulence was studied by means of a tensor method, and the corresponding inverse problem was analyzed. The equivalent model was set up on the basis of a bistatic laser radar system and a rough target located in a turbulent atmosphere. Through mathematical deduction, we obtained detailed information about the parameters of the semi-rough target by measuring the beam radius, coherence radius of the incident beam and the polarization properties of the returned beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Besinc Pseudo-Schell Model Sources with Circular Coherence
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132716 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Partially coherent sources with non-conventional coherence properties present unusual behaviors during propagation, which have potential application in fields like optical trapping and microscopy. Recently, partially coherent sources exhibiting circular coherence have been introduced and experimentally realized. Among them, the so-called pseudo Schell-model sources [...] Read more.
Partially coherent sources with non-conventional coherence properties present unusual behaviors during propagation, which have potential application in fields like optical trapping and microscopy. Recently, partially coherent sources exhibiting circular coherence have been introduced and experimentally realized. Among them, the so-called pseudo Schell-model sources present coherence properties that depend only on the difference between the radial coordinates of two points. Here, the intensity and coherence properties of the fields radiated from pseudo Schell-model sources with a degree of coherence of the besinc type are analyzed in detail. A sharpening of the intensity profile is found for the propagated beam by appropriately selecting the coherence parameters. As a possible application, the trapping of different types of dielectric nanoparticles with this kind of beam is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Self-Consistent Quantum Field Theory for Random Lasing
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122477 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The spatial formation of coherent random laser modes in strongly scattering disordered random media is a central feature in the understanding of the physics of random lasers. We derive a quantum field theoretical method for random lasing in disordered samples of complex amplifying [...] Read more.
The spatial formation of coherent random laser modes in strongly scattering disordered random media is a central feature in the understanding of the physics of random lasers. We derive a quantum field theoretical method for random lasing in disordered samples of complex amplifying Mie resonators which is able to provide self-consistently and free of any fit parameter the full set of transport characteristics at and above the laser phase transition. The coherence length and the correlation volume respectively is derived as an experimentally measurable scale of the phase transition at the laser threshold. We find that the process of stimulated emission in extended disordered arrangements of active Mie resonators is ultimately connected to time-reversal symmetric multiple scattering in the sense of photonic transport while the diffusion coefficient is finite. A power law is found for the random laser mode diameters in stationary state with increasing pump intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Underwater 2D Image Acquisition Using Sequential Striping Illumination
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112179 - 28 May 2019
Abstract
Structured lighting techniques have increasingly been employed in underwater imaging, where scattering effects cannot be ignored. This paper presents an approach to underwater image recovery using structured light as a scanning mode. The method tackles both the forward scattering and back scattering problems. [...] Read more.
Structured lighting techniques have increasingly been employed in underwater imaging, where scattering effects cannot be ignored. This paper presents an approach to underwater image recovery using structured light as a scanning mode. The method tackles both the forward scattering and back scattering problems. By integrating each of the sequentially striping illuminated frame images, we generate a synthesized image that can be modeled on the convolution of the surface albedo and the illumination function. Thus, image acquisition is issued as a problem of image recovery by deconvolution. The convolutional model has the advantage of integrating the forward scattering light into a recovered image so as to eliminate image blur. Notably, the removal of the back scattered light from each frame image can be easily realized by a virtual aperture to limit the field of view; the same principle as of the synchronous scanning systems in underwater imaging. Herein, the implementation of the proposed approach is described, and the results of the underwater experiments are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Approach for Studying the Evolution of the Degrees of Coherence of Partially Coherent Beams Propagation through an ABCD Optical System
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102084 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a numerical approach to simulate the degree of coherence (DOC) of a partially coherent beam (PCB) with a Schell-model correlator in any transverse plane during propagation. The approach is applicable for PCBs whose initial intensity distribution and DOC [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a numerical approach to simulate the degree of coherence (DOC) of a partially coherent beam (PCB) with a Schell-model correlator in any transverse plane during propagation. The approach is applicable for PCBs whose initial intensity distribution and DOC distribution are non-Gaussian functions, even for beams for which it is impossible to obtain an analytical expression for the cross-spectral density (CSD) function. Based on our approach, numerical examples for the distribution of the DOC of two types of PCBs are presented. One type is the partially coherent Hermite–Gaussian beam. The simulation results of the DOC agree well with those calculated from the analytical formula. The other type of PCB is the one for which it is impossible to obtain an analytical expression of CSD. The evolution of the DOC with the propagation distance and in the far field is studied in detail. Our numerical approach may find potential applications in optical encryption and information transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Patterns of Transmission Losses of Low-Frequency Sound in Shallow Sea Waveguides with Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Fluctuations
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091841 - 05 May 2019
Abstract
Based on the local mode method, the problem of the average intensity (transmission loss) behavior in shallow waveguides with losses in the bottom and fluctuations of the speed of sound in water is considered. It was previously shown that the presence in a [...] Read more.
Based on the local mode method, the problem of the average intensity (transmission loss) behavior in shallow waveguides with losses in the bottom and fluctuations of the speed of sound in water is considered. It was previously shown that the presence in a waveguide with absorbing penetrable bottom of 2D random inhomogeneities of the speed of sound leads to the appearance of strong fluctuations in the acoustic field already at relatively small distances from the sound source. One of the most important and interesting manifestations of this is the slowing down of the average intensity of the acoustic field compared with a waveguide, which has no such random inhomogeneities of the speed of sound. This paper presents the results of a numerical analysis of the decay of the average field intensity in the presence of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian fluctuations in the speed of sound. It is shown that non-Gaussian fluctuations do not fundamentally change the conclusion about reducing losses during the propagation of a sound signal but can enhance this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinearity of Microwave Electric Field Coupled Rydberg Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Autler-Townes Splitting
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081720 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of a cascade-three-level atom involving Rydberg level in a room-temperature cell, formed with a cesium 6S 1 / 2-6P 3 / 2-66 S 1 / 2 scheme, is employed to detect the Autler-Townes (AT) [...] Read more.
An electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of a cascade-three-level atom involving Rydberg level in a room-temperature cell, formed with a cesium 6S 1 / 2-6P 3 / 2-66 S 1 / 2 scheme, is employed to detect the Autler-Townes (AT) splitting resulted with a 15.21-GHz microwave field coupling the 66 S 1 / 2 → 65 P 1 / 2 transition. Microwave field induced AT splitting, f A T, is characterized by the distance of peak-to-peak of an EIT-AT spectrum. The f A T dependence on the microwave Rabi frequency, Ω M W , demonstrates two regions, the strong-coupling linear region, f A T Ω M W and the weak-coupling nonlinear region, f A T Ω M W. The f A T dependencies on the probe and coupling Rabi frequency are also investigated. Using small probe- and coupling-laser, the Rabi frequency is found to enlarge the linear regime and decrease the uncertainty of the microwave field measurements. The measurements agree with the calculations based on a four-level atomic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Partially Coherent Flat-Topped Beam Generated by an Axicon
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071499 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The intensity distribution of a partially coherent beam with a nonconventional correlation function, named the multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) beam, focused by an axicon was investigated in detail. Our numerical results showed that an optical needle with a flat-topped spatial profile and long focal [...] Read more.
The intensity distribution of a partially coherent beam with a nonconventional correlation function, named the multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) beam, focused by an axicon was investigated in detail. Our numerical results showed that an optical needle with a flat-topped spatial profile and long focal depth was formed and that we can modulate the focal shift and focal depth of the optical needle by varying the width of the degree of coherence (DOC) and the parameters of the correlation function. The adjustable optical needle can be applied for electron acceleration, particle trapping, fiber coupling and percussion drilling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Centrosymmetric Optical Vortex
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071429 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We report on a novel optical vortex, named as centrosymmetric optical vortex (CSOV), which is constructed via four conventional optical vortices (OVs) with different topological charges (TCs). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) density satisfies centrosymmetric distribution. Meanwhile, it is confined within a single [...] Read more.
We report on a novel optical vortex, named as centrosymmetric optical vortex (CSOV), which is constructed via four conventional optical vortices (OVs) with different topological charges (TCs). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) density satisfies centrosymmetric distribution. Meanwhile, it is confined within a single ring whose radius is determined by the cone angle of an axicon. Furthermore, its magnitude and distribution are modulated by a parameter determined via the TCs of the four OVs, named as phase reconstruction factor. Our work provides a novel detached asymmetric light field, which possesses the potential application in macro-particle manipulation, especially separating cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonparaxial Propagation Properties of Specially Correlated Radially Polarized Beams in Free Space
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050997 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A specially correlated radially polarized (SCRP) beam with unusual physical properties on propagation in the paraxial regime was introduced and generated recently. In this paper, we extend the paraxial propagation of an SCRP beam to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form 3 × 3 [...] Read more.
A specially correlated radially polarized (SCRP) beam with unusual physical properties on propagation in the paraxial regime was introduced and generated recently. In this paper, we extend the paraxial propagation of an SCRP beam to the nonparaxial regime. The closed-form 3 × 3 cross-spectral density matrix of a nonparaxial SCRP beam propagating in free space is derived with the aid of the generalized Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction integral. The statistical properties, such as average intensity, degree of polarization, and spectral degree of coherence, are studied comparatively for the nonparaxial SCRP beam and the partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam with a conventional Gaussian–Schell-model correlation function. It is found that the nonparaxial properties of an SCRP beam are strikingly different from those of a PCRP beam. These nonparaxial properties are closely related to the correlation functions and the beam waist width. Our results may find potential applications in beam shaping and optical trapping in nonparaxial systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Optical Spin Angular Momentum Flux of a Vector Beam with Radially-Variant Polarization in Near Field
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050960 - 07 Mar 2019
Abstract
The near-field characteristics of a radially-variant vector beam (RVVB) are analyzed by using the vectorial angular spectrum method. The non-paraxial RVVB can be decomposed into the propagating wave and the evanescent wave in near field. The coherent superposition of the longitudinal and transverse [...] Read more.
The near-field characteristics of a radially-variant vector beam (RVVB) are analyzed by using the vectorial angular spectrum method. The non-paraxial RVVB can be decomposed into the propagating wave and the evanescent wave in near field. The coherent superposition of the longitudinal and transverse components of the RVVB results in a three-dimensional (3D) profile of the spin angular momentum flux density (SAM-FD). The evanescent wave part dominates the near field of a highly non-paraxial RVVB. The longitudinal component has a large impact on the 3D shape of the optical SAM-FD. Therefore, the 3D SAM-FD configuration of the RVVB can be manipulated by choosing the initial states of polarization arrangement. In particular, the transverse SAM-FD with a spin axis orthogonal to the propagation direction offers a promising range of applications spanning from nanophotonics and plasmonics to biophotonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Image Transmission through Scattering Media Using Ptychographic Iterative Engine
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050849 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Random scattering media prevent light information from directly transmitting through, them as the photons will deviate from their original propagation directions due to the inhomogeneity of the refractive index distribution in scattering media. Based on recent developed methods, light information transmission through scattering [...] Read more.
Random scattering media prevent light information from directly transmitting through, them as the photons will deviate from their original propagation directions due to the inhomogeneity of the refractive index distribution in scattering media. Based on recent developed methods, light information transmission through scattering media is realized using a memory effect. However, the memory effect range limits it to a small field of view. To enlarge the field of view, in this article, we propose to use the ptychographic iterative engine to deliver information through scattering media. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can deliver images beyond the memory effect range through the scattering layer with outstanding imaging performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation and Propagation of a Hermite-Gaussian Correlated Schell-Model LG0l Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030610 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A partially coherent beam under the combined action of a Hermite-Gaussian correlated function and vortex phase, named the HGCSMLG0l beam has been explored both theoretically and experimentally. The statistical properties, such as the intensity and distribution of the degree of coherence [...] Read more.
A partially coherent beam under the combined action of a Hermite-Gaussian correlated function and vortex phase, named the HGCSMLG0l beam has been explored both theoretically and experimentally. The statistical properties, such as the intensity and distribution of the degree of coherence (DOC) on propagation are analyzed in detail, based on the deduced equations. We find that the intensity is determined dominantly by the non-conventional correlated function when the coherence length is comparatively small and by vortex phase when the coherence length is large. The modulus of the DOC is not vulnerable to coherence width, rather, it is affected by both non-conventional correlated function and vortex phase. Our results are verified well by the experiment results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of an Adjustable Optical Cage through Focusing an Apertured Bessel-Gaussian Correlated Schell-Model Beam
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030550 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An adjustable optical cage generated by focusing a partially coherent beam with nonconventional correlation function named the Bessel–Gaussian correlated Schell-model (BGCSM) beam is investigated in detail. With the help of the generalized Huygens–Fresnel integral and complex Gaussian function expansion, the analytical formula of [...] Read more.
An adjustable optical cage generated by focusing a partially coherent beam with nonconventional correlation function named the Bessel–Gaussian correlated Schell-model (BGCSM) beam is investigated in detail. With the help of the generalized Huygens–Fresnel integral and complex Gaussian function expansion, the analytical formula of the BGCSM beam passing through an apertured ABCD optical system was derived. Our numerical results show that the generated optical cage can be moderately adjusted by the aperture radius, the spatial coherence width, and the parameter β of the BGCSM beam. Furthermore, the effect of these parameters on the effective beam size and the spectral degree of coherence were also analyzed. The optical cage with adjustable size can be applied for particle trapping and material thermal processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Hyperspectral Image Cryptosystem Based on Affine Transform and Fractional Fourier Transform
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020330 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An encryption algorithm for hyperspectral data in fractional Fourier domain is designed. Firstly, the original hyperspectral image is separated into single bands and then each pair of bands are regarded as the real and imaginary part of a complex function by using an [...] Read more.
An encryption algorithm for hyperspectral data in fractional Fourier domain is designed. Firstly, the original hyperspectral image is separated into single bands and then each pair of bands are regarded as the real and imaginary part of a complex function by using an affine transform. Subsequently, the complex functions are encoded and transformed in fractional Fourier domain (FrFT). The parameters in affine transform and FrFT serve as the key of the encryption system. The proposed encryption scheme can not only protect the image information in spatial domains but also the spectrum information in spectral domains. Various experiments are given to demonstrate the validity and capability of the proposed encryption scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Intensity Fluctuations for Scattering of a Partially Coherent Plane-Wave Pulse
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020244 - 10 Jan 2019
Abstract
We derived analytical expressions for the correlation of intensity fluctuations of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model plane-wave pulse scattered by deterministic and random media. Our results extend the study of correlation of intensity fluctuations at two space points for scattered stationary fields to [...] Read more.
We derived analytical expressions for the correlation of intensity fluctuations of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model plane-wave pulse scattered by deterministic and random media. Our results extend the study of correlation of intensity fluctuations at two space points for scattered stationary fields to that at two time points for scattered non-stationary fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Incoherent Shock and Collapse Singularities in Non-Instantaneous Nonlinear Media
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122559 - 10 Dec 2018
Abstract
We study the dynamics of a partially incoherent optical pulse that propagates in a slowly responding nonlinear Kerr medium. We show that irrespective of the sign of the dispersion (either normal or anomalous), the incoherent pulse as a whole exhibits a global collective [...] Read more.
We study the dynamics of a partially incoherent optical pulse that propagates in a slowly responding nonlinear Kerr medium. We show that irrespective of the sign of the dispersion (either normal or anomalous), the incoherent pulse as a whole exhibits a global collective behavior characterized by a dramatic narrowing and amplification in the strongly non-linear regime. The theoretical analysis based on the Vlasov formalism and the method of the characteristics applied to a reduced hydrodynamic model reveal that such a strong amplitude-incoherent pulse originates in the existence of a concurrent shock-collapse singularity (CSCS): The envelope of the intensity of the random wave exhibits a collapse singularity, while the momentum exhibits a shock singularity. The dynamic behavior of the system after the shock-collapse singularity is characterized through the analysis of the phase-space dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Propagation of Optical Coherence Vortex Lattices in Turbulent Atmosphere
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122476 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Propagation properties in the turbulence atmosphere of the optical coherence vortex lattices (OCVLs) are explored by the recently developed convolution approach. The evolution of spectral density distribution, the normalized M 2 -factor, and the beam wander of the OCVLs propagating through the atmospheric [...] Read more.
Propagation properties in the turbulence atmosphere of the optical coherence vortex lattices (OCVLs) are explored by the recently developed convolution approach. The evolution of spectral density distribution, the normalized M 2 -factor, and the beam wander of the OCVLs propagating through the atmospheric turbulence with Tatarskii spectrum are illustrated numerically. Our results show that the OCVLs display interesting propagation properties, e.g., the initial Gaussian beam distribution will evolve into hollow array distribution on propagation and finally becomes a Gaussian beam spot again in the far field in turbulent atmosphere. Furthermore, the OCVLs with large topological charge, large beam array order, large relative distance, and small coherence length are less affected by the negative effects of turbulence. Our results are expected to be used in the complex system optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Anisotropic Turbulence on Propagation Characteristics of Partially Coherent Beams with Spatially Varying Coherence
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112025 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel (eHF) principle, approximate analytical expressions for the spectral density of nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams are derived with the help of discrete model decompositions. The beams are propagating along horizontal paths through an anisotropic turbulent medium. Based on the [...] Read more.
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel (eHF) principle, approximate analytical expressions for the spectral density of nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams are derived with the help of discrete model decompositions. The beams are propagating along horizontal paths through an anisotropic turbulent medium. Based on the derived formula, the influence of the anisotropic turbulence (anisotropy factors, structure parameters) on the evolution of the average intensity, the shift of the intensity maxima and the power-in-the-bucket (PIB) are investigated in detail through numerical examples. It is found that the lateral shifting of the intensity maxima is closely related to the anisotropy factors and the strength of turbulence. Our results also reveal that, in the case of weak turbulence, the beam profile can retain the feature of local intensity sharpness, but this feature degenerates quickly if the strength of the turbulence increases. The value of PIB of the NUC beams can be even higher than that of Gaussian beams by appropriately controlling the coherence parameter in the weak turbulence regime. This feature makes the NUC beams useful for free-space communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Propagation Characteristics of a Twisted Cosine-Gaussian Correlated Radially Polarized Beam
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091485 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Recently, partially coherent beams with twist phases have attracted growing interest due to their nontrivial dynamic characteristics. In this work, the propagation characteristics of a twisted cosine-Gaussian correlated radially polarized beam such as the spectral intensity, the spectral degree of coherence, the degree [...] Read more.
Recently, partially coherent beams with twist phases have attracted growing interest due to their nontrivial dynamic characteristics. In this work, the propagation characteristics of a twisted cosine-Gaussian correlated radially polarized beam such as the spectral intensity, the spectral degree of coherence, the degree of polarization, the state of polarization, and the spectral change are investigated in detail. Due to the presence of the twisted phase, the beam spot, the degree of coherence, and the state of polarization experience rotation during transmission, but the degree of polarization is not twisted. Meanwhile, although their rotation speeds closely depend on the value of the twist factor, they all undergo a rotation of π / 2 when they reach the focal plane. Furthermore, the effect of the twist phase on the spectral change is similar to the coherence, which is achieved by modulating the spectral density distribution during transmission. The twist phase opens up a useful guideline for manipulation of novel vector structure beams and enriches potential applications in the field of beam shaping, optical tweezers, optical imaging, and free space optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling Efficiency of a Partially Coherent Radially Polarized Vortex Beam into a Single-Mode Fiber
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081313 - 07 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
We study the problem of coupling partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) vortex beams into a single-mode optical fiber. Using the well-known concept of the cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix, we derive a general expression for the coupling efficiency of the partially coherent beam into [...] Read more.
We study the problem of coupling partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) vortex beams into a single-mode optical fiber. Using the well-known concept of the cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix, we derive a general expression for the coupling efficiency of the partially coherent beam into a single-mode fiber. We adopt PCRP vortex beams for incident beams and use our general results to discuss the effects of the coherence, topological charge, and wavelength on the coupling efficiency of an optical beam focused onto a single-mode fiber with a lens. Our results should be useful for any application that requires coupling of partially coherent beams into optical fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessReview
Dynamical Manipulation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3297; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163297 - 11 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As the fundamental and promising branch of nanophotonics, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) with the ability of manipulating the electromagnetic field on the subwavelength scale are of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists. Composed of metallic or dielectric structures whose shape and position [...] Read more.
As the fundamental and promising branch of nanophotonics, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) with the ability of manipulating the electromagnetic field on the subwavelength scale are of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists. Composed of metallic or dielectric structures whose shape and position are carefully engineered on the metal surface, traditional SPP devices are generally static and lack tunability. Dynamical manipulation of SPP is meaningful in both fundamental research and practical applications. In this article, the achievements in dynamical SPP excitation, SPP focusing, SPP vortex, and SPP nondiffracting beams are presented. The mechanisms of dynamical SPP devices are revealed and compared, and future perspectives are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Super-Resolution Imaging through Optical High-Order Interference [Invited]
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061166 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Resolution is crucially important for optical imaging, which defines the smallest spatial feature of object that can be delivered by light wave. However, due to the wave nature of light, optical imaging is of limited resolution, widely known as Rayleigh limit or Abbe [...] Read more.
Resolution is crucially important for optical imaging, which defines the smallest spatial feature of object that can be delivered by light wave. However, due to the wave nature of light, optical imaging is of limited resolution, widely known as Rayleigh limit or Abbe limit. Nevertheless, this limit can be overcome by considering the loopholes in the derivation of the Rayleigh limit, such as light–matter interaction, structured illumination, and near-field interference. In contrast to the conventional single-photon interference, multi-photon amplitudes responsible for optical high-order interference could be designed to possess a reduced effective wavelength, enabling the breakthrough of the Rayleigh limit. In this review, we will present recently developed super-resolution imaging schemes based on optical high-order interference, and discuss future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Statistical Optics and Plasmonics)
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