Special Issue "Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Sarah Eunkyung Kim

Graduate School of Nano-IT Design, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
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Interests: microsystems packaging; semiconductor process; transparent material
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Caroline Sunyong Lee

Department of Materials Science and chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Korea
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Interests: electrochromic devices, coating, dry deposition, artificial photosynthesis, semiconductor oxides
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jihwan An

Department of Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering (MSDE), Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
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Interests: thin film energy devices; energy materials; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jong-Sook Lee

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electroceramics; impedance spectroscopy for energy and electronic applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Union of Materials Research Society—International Conference on Electronic Materials 2018 will be held 19–24 August, 2018, at the Daejeon Convention Center in Daejeon, Korea. IUMRS-ICEM is a continuation in a series of conferences of international MRS members.

This Special Issue on “Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018” is expected to select excellent papers presented at IUMRS-ICEM 2018 on electronic materials, 2D materials, soft electronics, functional materials, energy and energy storage, bio-engineering, and emerging advanced materials. This conference has become a fundamental ground to exchange quality results and ideas provided by the researchers and scientists from universities, industry and institutes. Furthermore, it also provides a forum to present cutting-edge research outputs for future collaborations, which would help both students and researchers within their future research studies and works.

The main goal of this Special Issue, “Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018”, is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to electronic materials, 2D materials, soft electronics, functional materials, energy and energy storage, bio-engineering, and emerging advanced materials.

We cordially invite researchers from the conference who would like to publish their original research articles in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Sarah Eunkyung Kim
Prof. Dr. Caroline Sunyoung Lee
Prof. Dr. Jihwan An
Prof. Dr. Jong-Sook Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Study on the Annealing Ambient Effect on the Anti-Pollution Characteristics of Functional Film for PV Modules
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112285 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
In this study, functional coating film was fabricated on glass for photovoltaic (PV) modules to improve the anti-pollution characteristics of PV modules. The functional coating film applied to a glass substrate through the spray coating method was annealed at 300 °C for 10
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In this study, functional coating film was fabricated on glass for photovoltaic (PV) modules to improve the anti-pollution characteristics of PV modules. The functional coating film applied to a glass substrate through the spray coating method was annealed at 300 °C for 10 min in H2, N2, Ar, O2, and vacuum ambient. The contact angle of the coated surface was measured and it was confirmed that the anti-pollution characteristics were improved as the contact angle decreased. The light transmittance was measured and it exhibited the most excellent characteristics in vacuum. The hardness and adhesion were measured as the mechanical characteristics and they were all excellent regardless of the annealing ambient. Based on the analyzed characteristics, the process conditions of functional coating films were optimized to improve the anti-pollution and mechanical characteristics. If the coating process optimized in this study is applied to PV modules based on these results, improvement in the anti-pollution characteristics can be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Nanocomposite of Si/C Anode Material Prepared by Hybrid Process of High-Energy Mechanical Milling and Carbonization for Li-Ion Secondary Batteries
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112140
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
Si/C nanocomposite was successfully prepared by a scalable approach through high-energy mechanical milling and carbonization process. The crystalline structure of the milled powders was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology of the milled powders was investigated by Field-emission
[...] Read more.
Si/C nanocomposite was successfully prepared by a scalable approach through high-energy mechanical milling and carbonization process. The crystalline structure of the milled powders was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphology of the milled powders was investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The effects of milling time on crystalline size, crystal structure and microstructure, and the electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite powders were studied. The nanocomposite showed high reversible capacity of ~1658 mAh/g with an initial cycle coulombic efficiency of ~77.5%. The significant improvement in cyclability and the discharge capacity was mainly ascribed to the silicon particle size reduction and carbon layer formation over silicon for good electronic conductivity. As the prepared nanocomposite Si/C electrode exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance, it is potentially applied as a high capacity anode material in the lithium-ion secondary batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Additive and Current Conditions for Void-Free Filled Through-Silicon Via
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112135
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
Studies of through-silicon vias (TSVs) have become important owing to the increasing demand for 3D packaging. To obtain high-performance devices, it is important to fill the holes inside TSVs without voids. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol), bis-(3-sodiumsulfopropyl disulfide), and Janus Green B are
[...] Read more.
Studies of through-silicon vias (TSVs) have become important owing to the increasing demand for 3D packaging. To obtain high-performance devices, it is important to fill the holes inside TSVs without voids. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol), bis-(3-sodiumsulfopropyl disulfide), and Janus Green B are used as a suppressor, accelerator, and leveler, respectively, to achieve void-free filling of a TSV. The optimum conditions for the additives were studied, and electrochemical analysis was performed to confirm their effects. Different current conditions, such as pulse, pulse-reverse, and periodic pulse-reverse, were also employed to enhance the filling properties of copper (Cu) for a TSV with a hole diameter of 60 µm and depth/hole aspect ratios of 2, 2.5, and 3. The behavior of Cu filling was observed through a cross-sectional analysis of the TSV after Cu plating under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Recovery of Silver from Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Controlling the Viscosity of Electrolyte Solvent in an Electrochemical Process
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112131
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
We present electrowinning of silver (Ag) from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells using a solution of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as the electrolyte. Ag dissolved effectively in MSA because of its high solubility in MSA; however, the electrochemical recovery of Ag from MSA solutions
[...] Read more.
We present electrowinning of silver (Ag) from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells using a solution of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as the electrolyte. Ag dissolved effectively in MSA because of its high solubility in MSA; however, the electrochemical recovery of Ag from MSA solutions was found to be inefficient because of the low mobility of Ag ions in MSA, owing to its high viscosity. Therefore, we decreased the viscosity of MSA by adding deionized (DI) water, as a possible method for enhancing the mobility of Ag ions. The concentrations of added DI water were 0, 1.1, 5.0, 9.3, and 20.8 M, respectively. Further, we performed cyclic voltammetry for each solution to calculate the diffusion coefficient using the Randles–Sevcik equation, and analyzed the viscosity of MSA solutions depending on the concentration of added water using a rheometer. The morphologies of the electrochemically recovered Ag particles changed with variations in the amount of the added water, from branch-like structures to dendritic structures with a decreasing size. Moreover, the cathodic current efficiency increased considerably with increasing concentration of the added DI water. Finally, we recovered Ag with >99.9% (3N) purity from c-Si solar cells by electrowinning, as determined by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Precipitation of Secondary Phase on the Thermal Diffusivity Change of Al-Mg2Si Alloys
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112039
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
Al-Si-Mg alloys are investigated to determine the relationship between changes in the thermal diffusivity and precipitation behavior of the Mg2Si phase with various contents of Mg2Si and aging treatment conditions. The samples were solid solution-treated and then quenched with
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Al-Si-Mg alloys are investigated to determine the relationship between changes in the thermal diffusivity and precipitation behavior of the Mg2Si phase with various contents of Mg2Si and aging treatment conditions. The samples were solid solution-treated and then quenched with water (80 °C). Aging treatments were implemented at temperatures ranging from 180 to 240 °C for 5 h. The precipitation behavior of Mg2Si was observed using a heat flow curve using differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The thermal diffusivity of Al-Mg2Si alloy was affected by the precipitation of the Mg2Si phase, particularly in the meta-stable β phase. In the temperature range of precipitation occurrence, the thermal diffusivity of the alloy increased with the temperature when the precipitation of the meta-stable β phase of the sample was incomplete. However, at the same temperature, the samples in which precipitation had completed did not have any increased thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity of the samples decreased when the meta-stable Mg2Si phase had dissolved in the matrix. The precipitation and dissolution of Mg2Si mainly affected the variation of thermal diffusivity in Al-Si-Mg. In contrast, the stable Mg2Si phase was not affected by changes in thermal diffusivity at a high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Silicon Carbide from Recycled Silicon Wafer Cutting Sludge and Its Purification
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101841
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
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Abstract
Around the world, silicon carbide (SiC) is used as a raw material in several engineering applications because of its various beneficial properties. Currently, though the Acheson method is one of the most emblematic to manufacture SiC, the direct carbonization of metallic silicon is
[...] Read more.
Around the world, silicon carbide (SiC) is used as a raw material in several engineering applications because of its various beneficial properties. Currently, though the Acheson method is one of the most emblematic to manufacture SiC, the direct carbonization of metallic silicon is simple and beneficial. In this reaction, silicon wafer cutting sludge can be used as an alternative silicon source material. The silicon wafer sludge contains silicon, ethylene glycol, cooling water, and a small amount of impurities. In this study, SiC was synthesized using silicon wafer sludge by a carbothermal process. In a typical experiment, the silicon sludge was mixed with carbon at different molar ratios. Then, the mixture was turned into pellets, which were placed in alumina crucibles and heat-treated at a temperature from 1400 °C to 1600 °C to fabricate SiC. To deduce the optimum condition for the synthesis of SiC, an investigation was carried out on the effects of different mixing ratios, temperatures, and heating times. To ensure sufficient carbonization, excess carbon was mixed, and the synthesized SiC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subsequently, purification of the synthesized SiC products by oxidation of excess carbon was performed. The removal of extra carbon could be confirmed by XRD and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. This process can give basic information for the development of a technology to produce SiC using recycling Si wafer cutting sludge waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Thermally Stable Reactive Polyurethane and Its Physical Effects in Epoxy Composites
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091587
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
A flame retardant polyol (EP-DOPO) with epoxy functional groups was synthesized by reacting a 1,6-hexanediol glycidyl ether with a flame retardant 10-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-10H-9-oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The polyurethane (EPPU) with enhanced heat resistance was prepared by the reaction of a polyol blend of EP-DOPO
[...] Read more.
A flame retardant polyol (EP-DOPO) with epoxy functional groups was synthesized by reacting a 1,6-hexanediol glycidyl ether with a flame retardant 10-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-10H-9-oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The polyurethane (EPPU) with enhanced heat resistance was prepared by the reaction of a polyol blend of EP-DOPO and polytetrahydrofuran (PolyTHF) at a ratio of 1:1 with isophorone diisocyanate. EPPU useful for the preparation of cables or coatings showed higher thermal decomposition temperature rather than that of reference polyurethane synthesized by the reaction between pure PolyTHF and isophorone diisocyanate by thermogravimetric analysis. Further study of the polyurethane as a toughening agent for epoxy polymers was carried out. Epoxy compositions consisting of bisphenol A epoxy resin and dicyandiamide as a hardener have a brittle property allowing crack propagation after cure. Polyurethane plays an important role as an impact modifier to prevent from cracks of epoxy polymers. Various contents of EPPU were added into epoxy compositions to measure the physical property changes of epoxy polymers. The tensile and flexural strengths of the cured specimen were compared with those of epoxy compositions including reference polyurethane. Furthermore, the crosslink density of the cured epoxy compositions was compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IUMRS-ICEM 2018)
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