Special Issue "Achievements and Prospects of Advanced Pavement Materials Technologies"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Zhanping You
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA.
Interests: pavement design and analysis; civil engineering materials; bituminous materials; sustainable pavement engineering; advanced asphalt materials; pavement mechanics; simulations and modeling of pavement materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jian-long Zheng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology (CSUST), Changsha 410004, China
Interests: asphalt mixture mechanical property; asphalt pavement design; special soil subgrade; road maintenance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Hainian Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Highway, Chang'an University, South Erhuan Middle Section, Xi'an 710064, China
Interests: transportation materials; pavement design; asphalt mixture characterization and optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Road transportation is a basic need for business, travel, and daily life. Currently, the distressing of pavement is still the main problem for maintenance. Therefore, it is important for us to conduct further research on pavement materials: 1) The improvement of pavement performance can be reached through pavement structure, materials and designs; 2) pavement models would help researchers to identify a better solution for pavement constructions; 3) pavement mechanics provide underlying views for mechanism analyses; 4) utilization of recycling materials is still a hot topic, and is a better solution for environmental issues; 5) maintenance and rehabilitation is still a challenge for the service life extension of pavement; 6) intelligent construction focuses on the project management, energy conservation and future constructions; and 7) innovative ways to test and evaluate the performance of pavement materials are expected.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to explore new research ideas for pavement materials. This issue aims to collect new pavement material technologies from different areas, which include but are not limited to, pavement materials mechanics, advanced tests, and recycling materials. This issue provides a platform for researchers to communicate and discuss new or emerging pavement material technologies.

All the papers will be peered reviewed. This journal is an open access journal and therefore a fee setup by the publisher will be charged which is not related to the guest editors.

Prof. Dr. Zhanping You
Prof. Dr. Jian-long Zheng
Prof. Dr. Hainian Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • advanced pavement materials;
  • mechanics of pavement materials;
  • recycling materials;
  • materials for maintenance and rehabilitation;
  • biomass derived asphalt,
  • new rubber materials for pavement,
  • sealant materials for pavement,
  • nano modified materials for pavements

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Performance Test on Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) Modified Asphalt Based on the Different Evaluation Methods
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030467 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To uniform the evaluation indicators of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, the SK70# and SK90# matrix asphalt were modified by different SBS modifier dosage in this study. The test methods in China and Superpave were used to test the performance of each SBS-modified asphalt [...] Read more.
To uniform the evaluation indicators of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, the SK70# and SK90# matrix asphalt were modified by different SBS modifier dosage in this study. The test methods in China and Superpave were used to test the performance of each SBS-modified asphalt respectively, from which the appropriate evaluation index of SBS-modified asphalt was determined. The results showed that the addition of SBS modifier improved the high temperature performance and lowered the temperature sensitivity of asphalt binder, while it increased the viscosity of asphalt binder in high temperatures. Due to the variability that appeared in the results of the penetration test by the swelling of SBS-modified asphalt, the penetration test was not recommended to evaluate the performances of SBS-modified asphalt. The softening point of SBS-modified asphalt with the modifier dosages of 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% increased 5.7%, 12.8%, 22.5% and 26.4% respectively compared to the matrix asphalt for SK70# matrix asphalt, and increased 21.2%, 26.3%, 33.6% and 46.6% respectively compared to the matrix asphalt for SK90# matrix asphalt. The effect of SBS-modifier on the softening point of SK90# matrix asphalt is significantly better than that of SK70# matrix asphalt. The improvement effect of SBS modifier on low temperature performance of matrix asphalt decreased with a decrease in test temperature. When studying the influence of the SBS modifier on the low temperature performance of asphalt binder, it was recommended to use the bending beam rheometer (BBR) test to evaluate the low temperature performance of SBS-modified asphalt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Evaluation Method of Particle Clustering Phenomena in RAP
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030424 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The particle clustering phenomena in reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) particles is one of the most important factors to affect the efficient recycling of asphalt concrete. In this study, the particle composition, clustering degree, crushing properties and clustering stability of RAP were studied by [...] Read more.
The particle clustering phenomena in reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) particles is one of the most important factors to affect the efficient recycling of asphalt concrete. In this study, the particle composition, clustering degree, crushing properties and clustering stability of RAP were studied by extraction test and cantabro-crushing test. It was found that the particles above 4.75 mm were composed mainly of small particles with a large degree of cluster and poor stability. The coarse particles (>4.75 mm) had a great influence on the variation of 4.75 mm sieve. Quantitative indexes of Percentage Loss rate (PL) and Stability Index (w) were proposed to evaluate the clustering degree and the stability of RAP. It provided a meaningful reference for the comparison of different RAP and the different crushing processes. In addition, the RAP could be divided into three kinds of structures, including weak cluster structure, strong cluster structure and old aggregate. The process of crushing the RAP was divided into three stages, which are weak structure-dominated, strong structure-dominated and the broken old aggregate. The weak structure had the largest degree of cluster and worst stability, resulting in a large variability of RAP, and it should be avoided in the crushing process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discrete Element Analysis of Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test of Asphalt Mixture
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020327 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In order to investigate the damage to microstructure and some other micromechanical responses during a fatigue test on asphalt mixture, Particle Flow Code (PFC) was used to reconstruct a two-dimensional discrete element model of asphalt mixture, based on computed tomography (CT) images and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the damage to microstructure and some other micromechanical responses during a fatigue test on asphalt mixture, Particle Flow Code (PFC) was used to reconstruct a two-dimensional discrete element model of asphalt mixture, based on computed tomography (CT) images and image-processing techniques. The indirect tensile fatigue test of asphalt mixture was simulated with this image-based microstructural model, and verified in the laboratory. It was found that there were four stages during the fatigue failure: no crack, crack initiation, crack developing, and interconnected crack. Cracks mainly developed between the aggregate and asphalt mortar, near the loading axis. The corresponding stages of failure, the developing trend and the distribution characteristics of the cracks matched well with those in the laboratory test. Furthermore, the trends of both the time-load curve and time-displacement curve from the simulation test were also consistent with those from the experimental test. In short, the distribution characteristics of cracks and internal forces of asphalt mixture show that it is feasible to simulate the fatigue performance of the asphalt mixture by a discrete element method (DEM). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Polyacrylate Hollow Microspheres via Facile Spray Drying
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020228 - 10 Jan 2019
Abstract
Polyacrylate microspheres with a hollow structure were prepared by a facile spray drying method. The effects of spray drying process parameters, including inlet temperature, atomizer rotational speed, and feed speed, on the particle size, bulk density, and morphology of the resultant polyacrylate hollow [...] Read more.
Polyacrylate microspheres with a hollow structure were prepared by a facile spray drying method. The effects of spray drying process parameters, including inlet temperature, atomizer rotational speed, and feed speed, on the particle size, bulk density, and morphology of the resultant polyacrylate hollow microspheres were investigated and discussed. The mechanism for the formation of the polyacrylate hollow microspheres was proposed. This facile and scalable method for preparing hollow polymer microspheres is expected to be valuable to prepare various polymer hollow structures for widespread application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Deformation and Damping of Cement Treated and Expanded Polystyrene Mixed Lightweight Subgrade Fill under Cyclic Load
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010167 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
To investigate the deformation and damping characteristics of cement treated and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads mixed lightweight soils, this study conducted a series of triaxial shear tests cyclic loading for different confining pressures, cement contents, and soil categories. Through repeated loading and unloading [...] Read more.
To investigate the deformation and damping characteristics of cement treated and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads mixed lightweight soils, this study conducted a series of triaxial shear tests cyclic loading for different confining pressures, cement contents, and soil categories. Through repeated loading and unloading cycles, axial accumulative strain, resilient modulus, and damping ratio versus axial total strain were analyzed and the mechanical behavior was revealed and interpreted. Results show that the resilient modulus increases with increasing confining pressure and cement content. A decreasing power function can be used to fit the relationship between the resilient modulus and the axial total strain. Although sandy lightweight specimens usually own higher resilient modulus than silty clay lightweight specimens do, the opposite was also found when the axial total strain is larger than 8% with 50 kPa confining pressure and 14% cement content. For damping ratio the EPS beads mixed lightweight soil yields a weak growth trend with increasing axial total strain and a small reduction with higher confining pressure and cement content. For more cementations, the damping ratio of the sandy lightweight soil is always smaller than the silty clay lightweight soil. Nonetheless, the differences of damping ratios that were obtained under all of the test conditions are not significant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Further Investigation on Damage Model of Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber Modified Asphalt Mixture under Freeze-Thaw Cycles
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010060 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The main distresses of asphalt pavements in seasonally frozen regions are due to the effects of water action, freeze-thaw cycles, and so on. Basalt fiber, as an eco-friendly mineral fiber with high mechanical performance, has been adopted to reinforce asphalt mixture in order [...] Read more.
The main distresses of asphalt pavements in seasonally frozen regions are due to the effects of water action, freeze-thaw cycles, and so on. Basalt fiber, as an eco-friendly mineral fiber with high mechanical performance, has been adopted to reinforce asphalt mixture in order to improve its mechanical properties. This study investigated the freeze-thaw damage characteristics of asphalt mixtures reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber by volume and mechanical properties—air voids, splitting tensile strength, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus tests. Test results indicated that asphalt mixtures reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber had better mechanical properties (i.e., splitting tensile strength and indirect tensile stiffness modulus) before and after freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, this study developed logistic damage models of asphalt mixtures in terms of the damage characteristics, and found that adding basalt fiber could significantly reduce the damage degree by about 25%, and slow down the damage grow rate by about 45% compared with control group without basalt fiber. Moreover, multi-variable grey models (GM) (1,N) were established for modelling the damage characteristics of asphalt mixtures under the effect of freeze-thaw cycles. GM (1,3) was proven as an effective prediction model to perform better in prediction accuracy compared to GM (1,2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) in Asphalt Binder: Homogeneous Dispersion and Performance Enhancement
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122651 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Conventional binders cannot meet the current performance requirements of asphaltic pavements due to increase in traffic volumes and loads. Nanomaterials, due to their exceptional mechanical properties, are gaining popularity as bitumen modifiers to enhance the performance properties of the asphaltic concrete. Carbon Nanotubes [...] Read more.
Conventional binders cannot meet the current performance requirements of asphaltic pavements due to increase in traffic volumes and loads. Nanomaterials, due to their exceptional mechanical properties, are gaining popularity as bitumen modifiers to enhance the performance properties of the asphaltic concrete. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials because of their strength properties, light weight, small size, and large surface area. CNT addition results in improved substrate characteristics as compared to other modifiers. Due to high length to diameter ratio, dispersion of CNTs in bitumen is a complex phenomenon. In this study, dispersion of CNTs in bitumen was carried out using both dry and wet mixing techniques, the latter was selected on the basis of homogeneity of the resultant asphalt mixture. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to check the dispersion of CNTs in binder while Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to ensure the removal of solvent used for wet mixing. Conventional bitumen tests (penetration, softening point, and ductility), dynamic shear rheometer tests, rolling bottle tests, and bitumen bond strength tests were employed to check the improvement in the rheological and adhesion properties of bitumen while wheel tracker test was used to check the improvement in resistance against permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures after addition of CNTs. Results show that CNTs improved the higher temperature performance and permanent deformation resistance in both binder and mixtures. Improvement in bitumen–aggregate adhesion properties and moisture resistance was also observed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Characterization of Asphalt Mixes Behaviour from Dynamic Tests and Comparison with Conventional Cyclic Tension–Compression Tests
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112117 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the presented research, conventional cyclic tension–compression tests and dynamic tests were performed on two types of asphalt mixes (AM). For the tension–compression tests, the complex modulus was obtained from the measurements of the axial stress and axial strain. For the dynamic tests, [...] Read more.
In the presented research, conventional cyclic tension–compression tests and dynamic tests were performed on two types of asphalt mixes (AM). For the tension–compression tests, the complex modulus was obtained from the measurements of the axial stress and axial strain. For the dynamic tests, an automated impact hammer equipped with a load cell and an accelerometer were used to obtain the frequency response functions (FRFs) of the specimens at different temperatures. Two methods were proposed to back-calculate the complex modulus from the FRFs at each temperature: one using the 2S2P1D (two springs, two parabolic elements and one dashpot) model and the other considering a constant complex modulus. Then, a 2S2P1D linear viscoelastic model was calibrated to simulate the global linear viscoelastic behaviour back calculated from each of the proposed methods of analysis for the dynamic tests, and obtained from the tension–compression test results. The two methods of analysis of dynamic tests gave similar results. Calibrations from the tension–compression and dynamic tests also show an overall good agreement. However, the dynamic tests back analysis gave a slightly higher value of the norm of the complex modulus and a lower value of the phase angle compared to the tension–compression test data. This result may be explained by the nonlinearity of AM (strain amplitude is at least 100 times smaller for dynamic tests) and/or by ageing of the materials during the period between the tension–compression and the dynamic tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Source Pollution Control Measure Based on Spatial-Temporal Distribution Characteristic of the Runoff Pollutants at Urban Pavement Sites
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101802 - 02 Oct 2018
Abstract
The concentrations of pollutants in urban pavement runoff are normally higher than those in other urban surface runoff, which causes serious problems in protecting the environment of receiving water and soils. The purpose of this study was to propose a source pollution control [...] Read more.
The concentrations of pollutants in urban pavement runoff are normally higher than those in other urban surface runoff, which causes serious problems in protecting the environment of receiving water and soils. The purpose of this study was to propose a source pollution control measure based on the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the runoff pollutants at urban pavement sites. Therefore, samples from pavement runoff were collected and tested for analyzing the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics. Then, infiltration tests were conducted on selected purification materials to evaluate their purification ability to the simulated pavement runoff. Results indicated that heavy metals Zn and Pb were at high concentrations near the intersection, the reason being the frequent braking of vehicles at this site. The level of suspended solids was far higher than the limitation in the standard near the site where massive human activities occurred. Besides, the cumulative amounts of all kinds of pollutants tended to be stable with the extension of rainfall duration. The logarithmic function was found to fit the experimental data well. Finally, the pavement runoff was categorized into different situations. The combinations of purification materials were recommended and integrated into a source control measure for the treatments of different pollution situations, which made the most use of each purification material and ensured the high elimination efficiency of different pollutants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Micromechanism of the Dispersion Behavior of Polymer-Modified Rejuvenators in Aged Asphalt Material
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091591 - 08 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Polymer-modified rejuvenator has a different composition and dispersion behavior to traditional rejuvenators. The objective of this study was to investigate the micromechanism of polymer-modified rejuvenators on the behavior of aged asphalt binder. Firstly, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was conducted to determine the [...] Read more.
Polymer-modified rejuvenator has a different composition and dispersion behavior to traditional rejuvenators. The objective of this study was to investigate the micromechanism of polymer-modified rejuvenators on the behavior of aged asphalt binder. Firstly, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was conducted to determine the dispersion effectiveness. Secondly, the dispersal behavior of polymer-modified rejuvenators was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rheological, toughness-tenacity, and force–ductility analyses of the rejuvenated asphalt binder were additionally performed. The results indicate that the contacted asphaltenic micelles in aged asphalt binder were dispersed by dispersion agent in the polymer-modified rejuvenator, and that the dispersion ability of the polymer-modified rejuvenator was promoted to the commercial rejuvenator level. Additionally, the polymer-modified rejuvenator was found to improve the rejuvenated asphalt binder’s resistance to deformation, through the formation of polymeric network structures in the asphalt binder. The results may be used to improve the performance of rejuvenated asphalt binder in recycled-pavement engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Durability and the Property of an Asphalt Concrete with Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica in Spring-Thawing Season
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091475 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In the spring-thawing season, the high frequency of freeze-soak-scour cycles in the short term is the main cause of pavement damage in the frozen region. One of the methods to improve the durability of asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season is to add suitable [...] Read more.
In the spring-thawing season, the high frequency of freeze-soak-scour cycles in the short term is the main cause of pavement damage in the frozen region. One of the methods to improve the durability of asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season is to add suitable modifiers and additives which improve adhesion between asphalt binder and aggregate. This study evaluates the effect of nano hydrophobic silane silica (NHSS) on the performance damage of asphalt concrete (AC) in spring-thawing season. The effectiveness of nano hydrophobic silane silica was evaluated by conducting mixture tests after different freeze-soak-scour cycles, and the damage model of NHSS modified asphalt concrete was established based on the logistic damage model. The results showed that adding NHSS is an effective technique for mitigating freeze-soak-scour cycle damage of asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season. Moreover, the influence of scour, soak, and freeze—three separate factors on NHSS-modified AC in spring-thawing season—was discussed based the gray rational degree theory. The results illustrated that the freeze factor had a more significant impact on the damage process of NHSS modified asphalt concrete compared with the soak and scour factor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strength Criterion of Asphalt Mixtures in Three-Dimensional Stress States under Freeze-Thaw Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081302 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In order to study the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the multi-axial strength of AC (Asphalt Concrete)-13 and SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt)-13 asphalt mixtures which are widely used in China, triaxial tests were carried out in the laboratory. Two nonlinear failure criterions under [...] Read more.
In order to study the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the multi-axial strength of AC (Asphalt Concrete)-13 and SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt)-13 asphalt mixtures which are widely used in China, triaxial tests were carried out in the laboratory. Two nonlinear failure criterions under three-dimensional stress states in octahedral space were established. A linear model for engineering design and its simplified testing method were then presented. The three-dimensional failure criteria of asphalt mixtures after 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 freeze-thaw cycles were also proposed. The results indicated that the multi-axial strength decayed significantly after 20 freeze-thaw cycles. It is noteworthy that the strength degrades rapidly during the first 5 freeze-thaw cycles. Compared with AC-13 asphalt mixture, the SMA-13 asphalt mixture exhibits better performance on the resistance to freeze-thaw damage, and it is recommended as the upper surface layer material of pavement structure. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rheology of Asphalt Binder Modified with 5W30 Viscosity Grade Waste Engine Oil
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071194 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The pavement structure tends to shrink under low temperature conditions and cracks will appear upon crossing threshold binder stiffness. Decreasing the binder viscosity at such low temperatures, by introducing additional oil fraction (aromatics and saturates) in asphalt colloidal systems, may result in improved [...] Read more.
The pavement structure tends to shrink under low temperature conditions and cracks will appear upon crossing threshold binder stiffness. Decreasing the binder viscosity at such low temperatures, by introducing additional oil fraction (aromatics and saturates) in asphalt colloidal systems, may result in improved resistance to thermal cracking. A single multi-grade engine oil (5W30) was used in this study to analyze the rheological properties imparted to binders. Rotational Viscosity (RV) test revealed that after Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO) aging, fresh oil and waste oil have a similar effect on decreasing the viscosity of binder and construction temperatures, reducing them by 5~8 °C. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) test results showed an abrupt increase of carbonyl concertation when fresh engine oil was used for rejuvenation while waste engine oil was less susceptible to oxidative aging. Dynamic analysis of modified binders proved that engine oil has better thermal cracking resistance but relaxation ability of binders and rutting resistance was impaired. Filtered waste engine oil resulted in a 35% decrement in the stiffness of binder compared to virgin asphalt after short term aging but upper Performance Grade (PG) was compromised by 1~3 °C with 2.5% oil inclusion. Unfiltered waste engine oil proved to have the least overall performance compared to fresh and filtered waste engine oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of Carbon Black Nano-Particle Reinforced Asphalt Mixture
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071114 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Applications of nanotechnology in the pavement industry have increased rapidly during the last decade in order to enhance a pavement’s sustainability and durability. Conventional asphalt binder generally does not provide sufficient resistance against rutting at high temperatures. Carbon black nano-particles (CBNPs, produced by [...] Read more.
Applications of nanotechnology in the pavement industry have increased rapidly during the last decade in order to enhance a pavement’s sustainability and durability. Conventional asphalt binder generally does not provide sufficient resistance against rutting at high temperatures. Carbon black nano-particles (CBNPs, produced by perennial mountain trees’ carbonization) were mixed into the performance grade (PG) 58 asphalt binder in this study. Conventional asphalt binder tests (penetration, ductility and softening point), frequency sweep, performance grading, and bitumen bond strength tests were conducted to study the enhancement in the properties of asphalt binder. Dynamic modulus and wheel tracking tests were also performed to investigate the effect of CBNPs on asphalt mixture properties. Experimental results demonstrated that preferred dosage of CBNPs in asphalt is 10% by weight of the bitumen. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and storage stability tests validated homogenous and stable dispersion of CBNPs in the asphalt binder. Asphalt mixtures became stiffer and resistant to rutting at high temperatures by addition of CBNPs in asphalt binder. Significant improvement in bitumen aggregate bond strength was also observed by incorporating CBNPs. It is concluded that CBNPs can be used to effectively enhance the high-temperature performance and consequently the sustainability of flexible pavements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Titanate Coupling Agent on Engineering Properties of Asphalt Binders and Mixtures Incorporating LLDPE-CaCO3 Pellet
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071029 - 24 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study was initiated to evaluate the performance of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating linear low-density polyethylene- calcium carbonate (LLDPE-CaCO3) pellet, either with or without titanate coupling agent. The detailed manufacturing process of modifier pellets was displayed. The coupling agent was [...] Read more.
This study was initiated to evaluate the performance of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating linear low-density polyethylene- calcium carbonate (LLDPE-CaCO3) pellet, either with or without titanate coupling agent. The detailed manufacturing process of modifier pellets was displayed. The coupling agent was used to enhance the cross-linking between materials by means of winding up covalent bonds or molecule chains, thus improving the performance of composites. In the preparation of modified bitumen, the preheated asphalt binder was mixed with the modifiers using a high shear mixer at 5000 rpm rotational speed for 45 min. Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the performance of asphalt binders in terms of volatile loss, viscosity, rutting potential, and low temperature cracking. Meanwhile, the asphalt mixtures were tested using the flow number test and tensile strength ratio (TSR) test. The addition of LLDPE-CaCO3 modifiers and coupling agent does not significantly affect the volatile loss of modified asphalt binders. The addition of modifiers and coupling agent has significantly improved the resistance to permanent deformation of asphalt binders. Even though, the addition of LLDPE-CaCO3 modifier and coupling agent remarkably increased the mixture stiffness that contributed to lower rutting potential, the resistance to low temperature cracking of asphalt binder was not adversely affected. The combination of 1% coupling agent with 3% PECC is optimum dosage for asphalt binder to have satisfactory performance in resistance to moisture damage and rutting. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rheological Behavior and Sensitivity of Wood-Derived Bio-Oil Modified Asphalt Binders
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060919 - 03 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The demand for bituminous materials is continuously growing; crude oil-based asphalt binders are non-renewable, and are facing rapid depletion. With the increase of petroleum-based asphalt prices, seeking an alternative, renewable material such as bio-asphalt has become a hot research topic. However, shortcomings in [...] Read more.
The demand for bituminous materials is continuously growing; crude oil-based asphalt binders are non-renewable, and are facing rapid depletion. With the increase of petroleum-based asphalt prices, seeking an alternative, renewable material such as bio-asphalt has become a hot research topic. However, shortcomings in this research area have been identified, notably concerning the high-temperature performance of bio-asphalt at present. This research aims to comprehensively apply conventional tests to, and study the rheological behavior of, the high-temperature performances of bio-asphalt binders, i.e., by temperature and frequency sweeps, using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). It will also assess the chemical functional groups of specimens prepared by different aging conditions. Fifty penetration grade base asphalt binder (50#), bio-oil modified asphalt binders with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 30% bio-oil contents by mass, and bio-oil modified asphalt binder with combinations of 5% bio-oil-1% SBS, and 10% bio-oil-1% SBS were used in this study. The conventional performance of bio-asphalt binders was tested using penetration, ductility, and softening point, before and after short-term aging conditioning. The temperature sweep and frequency sweep of bio-asphalt under different bio-oil contents were carried out via DSR. Two-logarithmic equations of rutting factor and temperature were established, and the temperature sensitivity of bio-asphalt was analyzed. The master curves of virgin asphalt and bio-asphalt were constructed at 64 °C. The results indicate that the incorporation of bio-oil reduced the anti-rutting performance of asphalt, and the bio-oil content had a significant effect on the mass loss of the bio-asphalt binder. The performance of bio-oil modified asphalt binders using 5% bio-oil, 5% bio-oil-1% SBS, and 10% bio-oil-1% SBS, could meet the requirements of 50# grade asphalt. The temperature sensitivity of bio-asphalt did not show obvious change before and after short-term aging, whereas the temperature sensitivity of bio-asphalt with 5% bio-oil was relatively small. With an increase in temperature, the phase angle increased gradually. In contrast, the storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex modulus decreased progressively. The complex modulus and rutting factor of bio-asphalt with 5% bio-oil steadily increased with the increase in testing frequency. Otherwise, chemical reactions were detected in the 50# base asphalt modified with the bio-oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Grooved Concrete Pavement Based on the Durability of Its Anti-Skid Performance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060891 - 30 May 2018
Abstract
The objectives of the present study are to investigate the anti-skid performance of concrete pavement and to attempt to enhance its durability by two different methods: using a longitudinally-transversely grooved (LT) form, and using a self-developed composite curing agent containing paraffin and Na [...] Read more.
The objectives of the present study are to investigate the anti-skid performance of concrete pavement and to attempt to enhance its durability by two different methods: using a longitudinally-transversely grooved (LT) form, and using a self-developed composite curing agent containing paraffin and Na2SiO3 as the main ingredients. The friction coefficient (μ) was measured by self-developed equipment to evaluate the anti-skid performance of samples with three different groove forms (LT, longitudinally grooved (L), and transversely grooved (T)). Abrasion tests were then carried out to evaluate the durability of the anti-skid performance. The results indicated that anti-skid performance of LT samples was approximately 46.2% greater than that of T samples, but its durability was not as significant as that of T samples. However, the resistance to abrasion could be improved by using the aforementioned curing agent. Comparisons were carried out between samples sprayed the curing agent and control samples without any curing agent under standard conditions. It was found that the application of the curing agent increased the anti-skid durability of concrete by 35.4%~47.8%, proving it to be a useful and promising technique. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Components Determination and Performance Evaluation of LS Pre-Maintenance Agent
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060889 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Adequate maintenance and taking active preventive measures can effectively prevent the early disease of asphalt pavements before significant damage occurs. By developing a light screening preventive maintenance agent (LS pre-maintenance agent) for strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation areas, based on the asphalt aging and [...] Read more.
Adequate maintenance and taking active preventive measures can effectively prevent the early disease of asphalt pavements before significant damage occurs. By developing a light screening preventive maintenance agent (LS pre-maintenance agent) for strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation areas, based on the asphalt aging and regeneration mechanism, we analyzed the function and basic components and determined the optimum components ratio based on the best proportion of penetrant and solvent oil for solubility. The optimum ratio for quick-drying and long-term storage ability is the mass ratio of rock asphalt, reducing agent, penetrant, and solvent oil, which is 30:20:20:30. The light-shield agent is 5% of the total mass of the rock asphalt, reducing agent, penetrant, and solvent oil, and the dispersant is 0.4%. Digital image technology was used to provide an accurate measurement of the LS pre-maintenance agent penetration depth, evaluate its permeability and reasonable amount. We then used the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) to analyze its effect on aged asphalt and evaluated the restoration performance. Using the strong UV radiation aging test, we analyzed its anti-light aging performance. The results showed that pavement must be closed at least 2 h after the brushing LS pre-maintenance agent has been applied and this can be extended to upwards of 8 h time permitting. A dosage of 0.5 kg/m2 can ensure sufficient penetration depth and curing effect. Furthermore, the agent shows excellent restorative and anti-light aging abilities, which can effectively improve the low-temperature performance of aged asphalt and meet the pre-maintenance requirements for asphalt pavement, especially in strong UV radiation areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Moduli Decay for the Asphalt Mixture under Different Loading Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050840 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
In order to explore the moduli decay patterns of asphalt mixtures under different loading conditions, the nonlinear fatigue damage model was implemented in order to simulate the moduli decay patterns. Then, the direct tensile, indirect tensile, and uniaxial compression fatigue tests were employed [...] Read more.
In order to explore the moduli decay patterns of asphalt mixtures under different loading conditions, the nonlinear fatigue damage model was implemented in order to simulate the moduli decay patterns. Then, the direct tensile, indirect tensile, and uniaxial compression fatigue tests were employed under four kinds of stress levels with four parallel tests. The specimens of AC-13C Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified mixtures were manufactured. Based on the test results, the decay patterns of the moduli during fatigue tests under different stress states were revealed, and the parameters of the damage model under different test conditions were obtained. By changing the values of the model parameters under a certain loading condition, fatigue curves were obtained. Then, the fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures under different stress states could be compared and analyzed directly. The result indicated that the evolution curves of fatigue damage for the direct tensile test, the indirect tensile test, and the uniaxial compression test all experienced three stages, which indicates that the fatigue damage characteristic of asphalt mixtures is non-linear. The decay patterns of the direct tensile moduli and the tensile moduli measured by the indirect tensile test are similar. The decay patterns of the uniaxial compression and the compression moduli measured by indirect tensile test are similar. The decay patterns of tensile and compressive moduli are obviously different. At the same cycle ratio state, the position of the decay curve for the compression moduli is higher than that of the tensile moduli. It indicates that the tensile failure is the main reason of the fatigue damage for asphalt mixture. The new analysis method of fatigue damage was proposed, which provides a possibility to compare the fatigue results that were obtained from different loading conditions and different specimen sizes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Possibility of Waste Vegetable Oil Rejuvenating Aged Asphalt
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050765 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In order to guarantee the service performance of recycling asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), asphalt rejuvenator shall be added. In the last five years, vegetable oil-based rejuvenators have received more and more attention due to their green and regenerative advantages. The [...] Read more.
In order to guarantee the service performance of recycling asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), asphalt rejuvenator shall be added. In the last five years, vegetable oil-based rejuvenators have received more and more attention due to their green and regenerative advantages. The object of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of rejuvenating aged asphalt by a kind of waste vegetable oil (W-oil). The effect of W-oil on the performance of aged asphalt is characterized by a safety property test, aging property test, and pavement performance tests; the pavement performance tests included traditional tests and a rheological test. The results show that both the safety property and aging property of rejuvenated asphalt with W-oil meet the specification requirements. According to the results of traditional performance indexes (i.e., penetration, soften point, and ductility), the pavement performance of rejuvenated asphalt can be recovered to the level of virgin asphalt. According to the results of performance indices obtained from the rheological test, the optimum dosage of W-oil is determined to be 13.4 wt %. Compared with virgin asphalt, the rutting property of rejuvenated asphalt is equivalent to that of virgin asphalt, and the workability is slightly poorer; however, the fatigue property and low temperature property have been significantly enhanced. W-oil cannot only improve the pavement performance of aged asphalt, it can also guarantee good safety property and aging property. Therefore, W-oil is of great potential to serve as an asphalt rejuvenator for rejuvenating aged asphalt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carbon Black Nanoparticles from the Pyrolysis of Discarded Tires on the Performance of Asphalt and its Mixtures
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040624 - 17 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
It is of great benefit to the environment and the economy to use discarded tires pyrolysis carbon black (TPCB) nanoparticles as a modifier for asphalt binders. A base asphalt binder with 60/80 penetration (GF-70) was selected to prepare the TPCB-modified asphalt binder (TPCB/GF-70) [...] Read more.
It is of great benefit to the environment and the economy to use discarded tires pyrolysis carbon black (TPCB) nanoparticles as a modifier for asphalt binders. A base asphalt binder with 60/80 penetration (GF-70) was selected to prepare the TPCB-modified asphalt binder (TPCB/GF-70) with a 15% dosage of TPCB by the melt blending method. The test instruments, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size analyzer, and thermogravimetric analyzer, were used to study the characteristics of TPCB. The physical performance of GF-70 and TPCB/GF-70 were tested and the rheological properties were also tested with a dynamic shear rheometer to investigate TPCB’s effect on the performance of GF-70. In addition, the aromatic hydrocarbon oil (AHO) was used as the softening agent for TPCB/GF-70. The pavement performance of AC-13 and AC-20 was studied to evaluate the comprehensive effect of TPCB and AHO on the pavement performance of asphalt mixtures. Results show that a 15% dosage of TPCB can significantly improve the anti-rutting performance of GF-70, and decrease the low-temperature performance of GF-70 within one PG grade. AHO can obviously improve the low-temperature performance of TPCB/GF-70, but does not significantly decrease the high-temperature performance. With the addition of AHO and a 0.1% higher oil aggregate ratio, TPCB tends to significantly improve the anti-rutting performance and the low-temperature performance of TPCB-modified mixtures; the moisture stability of TPCB and AHO composite modified mixtures satisfies the requirement of water stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interface Shear Performance between Porous Polyurethane Mixture and Asphalt Sublayer
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040623 - 17 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper aims to study interface shear performance between porous polyurethane mixture (PPM) and asphalt mixture with different adhesive materials. Polyurethane, epoxy resin, and SBS (styrene–butadiene–styrene) modified asphalt were selected as adhesive materials to fabricate composite specimens. The interface shear strength and shear [...] Read more.
This paper aims to study interface shear performance between porous polyurethane mixture (PPM) and asphalt mixture with different adhesive materials. Polyurethane, epoxy resin, and SBS (styrene–butadiene–styrene) modified asphalt were selected as adhesive materials to fabricate composite specimens. The interface shear strength and shear fatigue life of composite specimen was measured using inclined shear test. The research results emphasizes that it is necessary to apply adhesive material to the interface between PPM and asphalt mixture, since the untreated interface shear strength is smaller than the ones between two asphalt mixtures. The interface shear strength is affected by the thickness of adhesive layer, temperature, and freezing–thaw condition. In general, the greatest interface shear strength was achieved by using epoxy resin followed by polyurethane and then SBS modified asphalt at 25 °C as the adhesive layer thickness is the same. However, the interface shear strengths of composite specimen with three adhesive materials are similar to each other at high and low temperatures (60 °C and −18 °C) or after freezing–thaw cycles. On the other hand, the composite specimen with epoxy resin as adhesive material has the longest fatigue life; while the SBS modified asphalt has the least fatigue life at 25 °C. The research findings can help select the appropriate adhesive materials and increase the durability and service life of pavement when PPM is used as road surface layer for safety and noise reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Construction of Oblique Prestressed Concrete Pavement: A Case Study in China
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040607 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Prestressed concrete pavement can reduce slab thickness, eliminate transverse joints and enhance durability compared to traditional concrete pavement. Traditional prestressing or precast prestressing in the longitudinal direction requires additional space for anchorage and adds more joints. This study proposed an oblique prestress concrete [...] Read more.
Prestressed concrete pavement can reduce slab thickness, eliminate transverse joints and enhance durability compared to traditional concrete pavement. Traditional prestressing or precast prestressing in the longitudinal direction requires additional space for anchorage and adds more joints. This study proposed an oblique prestress concrete pavement, in which prestressed tendons were distributed with an angle to the road direction so that the prestress can be applied in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. The detailed design of the oblique prestress concrete pavement, including the selection of raw materials, design of cement concrete, anchorage area, size and distribution of prestressed tendons, stress analysis within the concrete slab, sliding layer, side reinforcement, and regular reinforcement at top and bottom are all included in this study. The slab thickness, diameter, distribution angle, and spacing of tendons were obtained based on the stress analysis to meet the requirement of fracture criteria and fatigue criteria. A demonstrative road pavement section, which has performed well after three years of traffic opening, was constructed according to the design. A step-by-step description of the construction was also presented in the study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030469 - 19 Mar 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The topic of this article is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt concrete mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The evaluation was carried out in relation to asphalt concrete mixtures AC22P and high modulus asphalt concrete ACWMS16 with 50% contents of [...] Read more.
The topic of this article is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt concrete mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The evaluation was carried out in relation to asphalt concrete mixtures AC22P and high modulus asphalt concrete ACWMS16 with 50% contents of RAP, greater than currently permitted by technical regulations in Poland. The first stage consisted of the evaluation of laboratory results, which was followed by a mechanistic analysis of the designed life of pavement structures with reclaimed asphalt. The evaluation included the results of laboratory tests (i.e., the air voids content, effective asphalt content, properties of recovered asphalt (penetration, softening point), stiffness, and resistance to fatigue of bituminous mixtures). Calculations of the design life of the structure were made using the criteria according to the 2004 AASHTO specifications for fatigue life and the Asphalt Institute for subgrade deformation. In addition, calculations were carried out using the French method. The analyses allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of the asphalt concrete mixture in the analyzed scope. The evaluation of the fatigue life of AC22P and ACWMS16 mixtures with 50% content of reclaimed asphalt as well as the results of the calculations of design life of the structure indicated positive effects. The tests have been carried out within the framework of the research project dedicated to hot recycling entitled “Reclaimed asphalt pavement: Innovative technology of bituminous mixtures using material from reclaimed asphalt pavement”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of SBS-Modified Bitumen Stabilizer Powder Based on the Vulcanization Mechanism
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030457 - 16 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In order to improve the problem of the bad thermal storage stability of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymer Modified Bitumen (SBS-modified bitumen), the vulcanization reaction was selected as the basic mechanism for the research and development of the stabilizer. Sulfur, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), zinc oxide, [...] Read more.
In order to improve the problem of the bad thermal storage stability of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymer Modified Bitumen (SBS-modified bitumen), the vulcanization reaction was selected as the basic mechanism for the research and development of the stabilizer. Sulfur, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), zinc oxide, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), kaolin (Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O) and carbon-white (SiO2) were used as raw materials, and 32 kinds of components with different contents of raw materials were designed. The 48-h segregation softening point and other modified bitumen technical indicators, such as ductility, penetration, penetration index, viscosity, and so on, were tested and analyzed. The fluorescence microscope test was also conducted to explore the crosslinking situation based on the vulcanization reaction. The results show that the component with good performance of the SBS-modified bitumen stabilizer powder was S:TMTD:ZnO:BHT: Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O = 60:16:4:20:1250 or S:TMTD:ZnO:BHT:SiO2 = 60:16:4:20:625. The optimum content of stabilizer powder was 0.9% (S/modified bitumen). The stabilizer was dry powder and can be directly put into bitumen. It can cross-link SBS and especially has an effect on preventing SBS segregation. The technical performance of SBS-modified bitumen with stabilizer powder, such as hot temperature performance, low temperature performance, anti-aging performance and thermal storage stability, all meet the relevant specifications. Full article
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