# Evaluation of the Durability and the Property of an Asphalt Concrete with Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica in Spring-Thawing Season

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## Abstract

**:**

## Featured Application

**This paper proved that adding Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica is an effective technique for mitigating freeze-thaw cycle damage of asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season. Moreover, it’s found that the freeze factor had a more significant impact on the damage process of asphalt concrete compared with the soak and scour factor, which provides suggestions for pavement construction in seasonal frozen region.**

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

_{2}O

_{3}and Fe

_{2}O

_{3}), two types of aggregates (granite and quartzite), and one base asphalt binder. The results showed that asphalt binder modification with nanomaterials decreases the moisture damage susceptibility [19].

## 2. Materials

#### 2.1. Aggregates

#### 2.2. Asphalt

#### 2.3. Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica

#### 2.4. NHSS-AC Samples Preparation

## 3. Laboratory Tests

#### 3.1. freeze-soak-scour Cycle Test

#### 3.2. Durability and Property Test of the Mixture

_{FTn}) and freeze-soak-scour splitting tensile ratio (TSR

_{n}) are principal mechanical parameters, which are measured in this test. Specimens subjected to n times of freeze-soak-scour cycles (n = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20) were immersed in water bath at 25 °C for 2 h, and the loading with a constant rate of compression of 50 mm/min was applied. R

_{FTn}and TSR

_{n}were calculated as follows.

_{FTn}is the maximum load-bear of specimens subjected to n times of freeze-soak-scour cycles (N, n = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20) and h is the The height of specimen subjected to n times of freeze-soak-scour cycles (mm, n = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20).

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Effect of freeze-soak-scour Cycles on Properties of NHSS-AC

^{2}; (b) Materials cost (including main material and auxiliary material): 97.7 rmb/cm

^{2}; (c) Mechanical cost: 2.5 rmb/cm

^{2}; (d) Other cost (including safe and civilized construction costs, fees, and taxes): 7.4 rmb/cm

^{2}. The total cost of NHSS modified asphalt concrete is 109.7 rmb/cm

^{2}, and the total cost of normal asphalt concrete is 102 rmb/cm

^{2}. The cost of mechanical paving NHSS modified asphalt concrete of 7 cm thick is 7.6% higher than normal asphalt concrete. Considering the ability of NHSS modified asphalt to improve the durability and the property of the asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season, an increase of 7.6% of the cost is still acceptable.

#### Establishment of the freeze-soak-scour Damage Model of NHSS-AC based on the Logistic Judgment Model

^{2}of the regression equation are above 0.95.

_{0.5}from small to big. It is known that under the action of freeze-soak-scour cycles, the damage rate of water stability is the fast, while that of low-temperature mechanical property is the slowest. Thus, the damage degree of water stability of mixtures is the largest and the damage speed is the fastest, so the moisture damage of pavement is most likely to occur in the spring-thawing season. The index X

_{0.5}of AC and NHSS-AC are almost identical, indicating that the incorporation of NHSS does not change the pattern of the damage process of the pavement in spring-thawing season.

_{0}of NHSS-AC is greater than that of AC except water stability.

#### 4.2. Analysis of Three Kinds of Damage Factors of NHSS-AC in Spring-Thawing Season Based on the Gray Rational Degree Theory

#### 4.2.1. Soaking Cycles Test

#### 4.2.2. Freezing Cycles Test

#### 4.2.3. Scouring Cycles Test

#### 4.2.4. Analysis of Results Based on the Gray Rational Degree Theory

## 5. Conclusions

- The durability and property test results of two mixtures after long-term freeze-soak-scour cycles illustrated that adding NHSS is an effective technique for mitigating freeze–thaw cycle damage of asphalt concrete in spring-thawing season.
- The freeze–thaw-scour damage model of two mixtures were built and the damage speed and damage degree of the two mixtures were quantified based on the logistic judgment model. Model parameter ${\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{max}}$ can be used to evaluate the damage degree of the mechanincal properties of asphalt cement, and the parameter ${\mathrm{x}}_{0.5}$ can be used to evaluate the damage speed of the properties of asphalt cement.
- Through the application of the gray rational degree theory, it found that the freeze factor had a more significant impact on the damage process of NHSS-AC compared with the soak and scour factor. The impact of the scour factor on the durability of NHSS-AC was more significant than that of the soak factor, and the effect of the scour factor and soak factor on the low temperature mechanical performance was similar.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**SEM images of nanosilica and nano hydrophobic silane silica (NHSS) at magnifications of ×10000.

**Figure 5.**Pavement material dynamic water scouring tester: (

**1**) water gun; (

**2**) support plate; (

**3**,

**10**) bearing; (

**4**) pulley; (

**5**) disk fixed axis; (

**6**) belt; (

**7**) motor; (

**8**) Marshall samples fixed ring; (

**9**) disk; (

**11**) temperature sensor; (

**12**) U shape heating tube; (

**13**) pump intake pipe; (

**14**) temperature control dial; (

**15**) scouring force control dial; (

**16**) disk speed control dial; (

**17**–

**19**) pump and its attached equipment.

Sieve (mm) | 16 | 13.2 | 9.5 | 4.75 | 2.36 | 1.18 | 0.6 | 0.3 | 0.15 | 0.075 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Apparent density | 2.78 | 2.78 | 2.78 | 2.74 | 2.74 | 2.75 | 2.70 | 2.70 | 2.69 | 2.67 |

Bulk density | 2.77 | 2.76 | 2.75 | 2.68 | 2.64 | 2.59 | 2.60 | 2.59 | 2.57 | 2.55 |

Gradation (%) | 95 | 88 | 73 | 46 | 31 | 21.5 | 15.5 | 11.5 | 5.5 | 6 |

Technical Parameters | Penetration | 25 °C Ductility | Softening Point | Wax Content | Flash Point | Solubility | Density | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

15 °C | 25 °C | 30 °C | |||||||

Units | 0.1 mm | cm | °C | %≤ | °C | %≥ | g·cm^{−3} | ||

Test results | 27.5 | 81.3 | 132.6 | >130 | 44.2 | 18 | 340 | 99.9 | 1.003 |

Technical Parameters | BET (m^{2}/g) | Average Particle Size (nm) | Loss on Drying (105 °C, 2 h, wt%) | Loss on Ignition (1000 °C, 2 h, wt%) | pH Value | Carbon Content (%) | SiO_{2} Content (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Test results | 125 ± 20 | 12 | ≤0.5 | 1.5–2.5 | 5.0–8.0 | 2.0–3.5 | ≥99.8 |

Technical Parameters | Penetration (mm) | Softening Point (°C) | 10 °C Ductility (cm) | 5 °C Ductility (cm) | Penetration Index | 135 °C Apparent Viscosity (mpa·s) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

15 °C | 25 °C | 30 °C | ||||||

base asphalt | 27.5 | 81.3 | 132.6 | 44.2 | 45.7 | 6.3 | −0.87 | 485.3 |

1% NHSS-asphalt | 26.8 | 71.5 | 113.9 | 47 | 20.9 | 6.5 | −0.32 | 721.3 |

3% NHSS-asphalt | 28.4 | 71.2 | 106.9 | 48.6 | 17 | 6.6 | 0.24 | 2219.6 |

5% NHSS-asphalt | 24.0 | 68.4 | 105.9 | 50 | 12.8 | 6.1 | −0.52 | 7455.7 |

Mixture Type | Number of Cycles | 0 | 5 | 10 | 15 | 20 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

AC | Splitting tensile strength (Mpa) | 4.02 | 3.57 | 3.78 | 3.71 | 3.63 |

Destruction tensile strain (με) | 2.06 | 2.00 | 1.97 | 1.88 | 1.85 | |

Destruction stiffness modulus (Mpa) | 3361 | 3330 | 3305 | 3397 | 3383 | |

NHSS-AC | Splitting tensile strength (Mpa) | 4.33 | 4.22 | 4.15 | 4.07 | 3.97 |

Destruction tensile strain (με) | 2.27 | 2.18 | 2.12 | 2.09 | 2.03 | |

Destruction stiffness modulus (Mpa) | 3282 | 3330 | 3365 | 3353 | 3369 |

Mixture | Pavement Property | Logistic Damage Model | SS_{e} | R^{2} | R_{MSE} | ${\mathbf{x}}_{0}$ | ${\mathbf{x}}_{1}$ | ${\mathbf{x}}_{2}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

AC | Durability | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.34}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{7.2}\right)}^{2.044}}+0.34$ | 1.5 × 10^{−4} | 0.9976 | 0.0063 | 4.3 | 0.35 | 7.3 |

High temperature mechanical property | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.19}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{7.4}\right)}^{2.644}}+0.19$ | 6.7 × 10^{−8} | 0.9999 | 0.0011 | 5.5 | 0.51 | 7.9 | |

Water stability | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.33}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{4.8}\right)}^{1.203}}+0.33$ | 1.9 × 10^{−4} | 0.9964 | 0.0069 | 0.7 | 0.03 | 3.4 | |

Low temperature mechanical property | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.13}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{10.9}\right)}^{1.674}}+0.13$ | 1.3 × 10^{−4} | 0.9796 | 0.0057 | 4.8 | 0.21 | 10.1 | |

NHSS-AC | Durability | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.10}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{7.4}\right)}^{1.797}}+0.10$ | 9 × 10^{−6} | 0.9982 | 0.0015 | 3.7 | 0.26 | 7.1 |

High temperature mechanical property | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.15}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{6.8}\right)}^{2.31}}+0.15$ | 8 × 10^{−5} | 0.9941 | 0.0045 | 4.6 | 0.43 | 7.1 | |

Water stability | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.25}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{5.4}\right)}^{1.546}}+0.25$ | 2 × 10^{−4} | 0.9940 | 0.0070 | 2.0 | 0.15 | 4.8 | |

Low temperature mechanical property | $\mathsf{\phi}=-\frac{0.11}{1+{\left(\frac{\mathrm{x}}{11.5}\right)}^{1.354}}+0.11$ | 1.7 × 10^{−4} | 0.9547 | 0.0066 | 2.8 | 0.08 | 9.1 |

^{2}is determination coefficient, and R

_{MSE}is root-mean-square error

Number of Cycle | Voids Content (%) | Weight Loss Ratio (%) | Freeze–thaw Splitting Tensile Ratio (%) | Marshall Stability (kn) | −10 °C Splitting Test | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Splitting Tensile Strength (Mpa) | Destruction Tensile Strain (με) | Destruction Stiffness Modulus (Mpa) | |||||

0 | 4.733 | 0.000 | 100 | 93.5 | 4.32 | 2.27 | 3282 |

5 | 4.776 | 0.025 | 89.7 | 8.93 | 4.30 | 2.15 | 3442 |

10 | 4.814 | 0.025 | 86.7 | 8.83 | 4.28 | 2.15 | 3422 |

15 | 4.861 | 0.034 | 82.6 | 8.78 | 4.24 | 2.12 | 3441 |

20 | 4.849 | 0.042 | 80.5 | 8.63 | 4.20 | 2.06 | 3511 |

Number of Cycle | Voids Content (%) | Weight Loss Ratio (%) | Freeze–thaw Splitting Tensile Ratio (%) | Marshall Stability (kn) | −10 °C Splitting Test | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Splitting Tensile Strength (Mpa) | Destruction Tensile Strain (με) | Destruction Stiffness Modulus (Mpa) | |||||

0 | 4.009 | 0.000 | 100 | 9.35 | 4.32 | 2.27 | 3282 |

5 | 4.207 | 0.025 | 89.4 | 9.02 | 4.28 | 2.18 | 3374 |

10 | 4.331 | 0.034 | 85.7 | 8.76 | 4.21 | 2.21 | 3275 |

15 | 4.378 | 0.042 | 80.5 | 8.44 | 4.14 | 2.18 | 3267 |

20 | 4.425 | 0.050 | 78.8 | 8.21 | 4.04 | 2.15 | 3234 |

Number of Cycle | Voids Content (%) | Weight Loss Ratio (%) | Freeze–thaw Splitting Tensile Ratio (%) | Marshall Stability (kn) | −10 °C Splitting Test | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Splitting Tensile Strength (Mpa) | Destruction Tensile Strain (με) | Destruction Stiffness Modulus (Mpa) | |||||

0 | 4.370 | 0.000 | 100 | 9.35 | 4.32 | 2.27 | 3282 |

5 | 4.474 | 0.008 | 90.6 | 9.32 | 4.31 | 2.24 | 3307 |

10 | 4.548 | 0.025 | 85.1 | 9.01 | 4.27 | 2.21 | 3323 |

15 | 4.594 | 0.033 | 85.0 | 8.65 | 4.25 | 2.21 | 3304 |

20 | 4.678 | 0.042 | 81.5 | 8.58 | 4.22 | 2.18 | 3330 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Guo, W.; Guo, X.; Sun, M.; Dai, W.
Evaluation of the Durability and the Property of an Asphalt Concrete with Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica in Spring-Thawing Season. *Appl. Sci.* **2018**, *8*, 1475.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091475

**AMA Style**

Guo W, Guo X, Sun M, Dai W.
Evaluation of the Durability and the Property of an Asphalt Concrete with Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica in Spring-Thawing Season. *Applied Sciences*. 2018; 8(9):1475.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091475

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Guo, Wei, Xuedong Guo, Mingzhi Sun, and Wenting Dai.
2018. "Evaluation of the Durability and the Property of an Asphalt Concrete with Nano Hydrophobic Silane Silica in Spring-Thawing Season" *Applied Sciences* 8, no. 9: 1475.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091475