Special Issue "Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nikolaos Kourkoumelis
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, Department Medical Physics, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina, Greece
Interests: optical methods for tissue diagnostics; bio-molecular spectroscopy; x-ray diffraction; computational biophysics and drug design; molecular modeling; optimization algorithms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Edgar Guevara
Website
Guest Editor
CONACYT-Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Mexico
Interests: non-invasive medical diagnosis; optical imaging; functional connectivity; spectroscopy; biomedical signal processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of non-ionizing radiation offers great promise as a non-invasive medical diagnosis tool. Despite the limited penetration depth in living tissue, optical methods are steadily bridging the gap between radiology and histopathology, due to their sensitivity to molecular, functional and structural content. This Special Issue attempts to cover novel works in tissue diagnostics using optical techniques. Contributions of both human studies and animal models are encouraged using either experimental approaches or analytical methods. The volume is open for innovative contributions involving aspects of the following topics:

Molecular spectroscopy and microspectroscopy

Absorption, reflectance, emission and fluorescence spectroscopy

Light–tissue interactions

Optical clearing methods

Nonlinear microscopy, including multiphoton excited fluorescence, harmonic generation and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy

2D imaging, e.g. laser, speckle, intrinsic signals, calcium and voltage, molecular, hyperspectral, thermal-infrared imaging

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of the brain and other organs

Tomographic imaging, such as optical coherence tomography, diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography.

Dr. Nikolaos Kourkoumelis
Dr. Edgar Guevara
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hyperspectral Superpixel-Wise Glioblastoma Tumor Detection in Histological Samples
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134448 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
The combination of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and digital pathology may yield more accurate diagnosis. In this work, we propose the use of superpixels in HS images for combining regions of pixels that can be classified according to their spectral information to classify glioblastoma [...] Read more.
The combination of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and digital pathology may yield more accurate diagnosis. In this work, we propose the use of superpixels in HS images for combining regions of pixels that can be classified according to their spectral information to classify glioblastoma (GB) brain tumors in histologic slides. The superpixels are generated by a modified simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method to accommodate HS images. This work employs a dataset of H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin) stained histology slides from 13 patients with GB and over 426,000 superpixels. A linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier was performed on independent training, validation, and testing datasets. The results of this investigation show that the proposed method can detect GB brain tumors from non-tumor samples with average sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 81%, respectively. The overall accuracy of this method is 83%. The study demonstrates that hyperspectral digital pathology can be useful for detecting GB brain tumors by exploiting spectral information alone on a superpixel level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Fiber Optic Sensor for Real-time Monitoring of Freezing–Thawing Cycle in Cryosurgery
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031053 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
Cryosurgery/cryotherapy is a widely used, freezing–thawing technique for the renewal or destruction of pathological tissues by applying localized rapid cooling; however, it still relies on the subjective “expert knowledge” of the physicians without, up to now, real-time monitoring of the treatment. This work [...] Read more.
Cryosurgery/cryotherapy is a widely used, freezing–thawing technique for the renewal or destruction of pathological tissues by applying localized rapid cooling; however, it still relies on the subjective “expert knowledge” of the physicians without, up to now, real-time monitoring of the treatment. This work focused on assessing the depth of freezing using optical transmission and backscattering measurements from frozen/unfrozen porcine ex-vivo skin samples. An optical fiber-array sensor was subsequently developed to determine the depth of freezing and the associated kill zone during freeze–thawing cycles with sub-millimeter accuracy within the skin tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Polarimetric Detection of Chemotherapy-Induced Cancer Cell Death
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142886 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Imaging polarimetry is a focus of increasing interest in diagnostic medicine because of its non-destructive nature and its potential to distinguish normal from tumor tissue. However, handling and understanding polarimetric images is not an easy task, and different intermediate steps have been proposed [...] Read more.
Imaging polarimetry is a focus of increasing interest in diagnostic medicine because of its non-destructive nature and its potential to distinguish normal from tumor tissue. However, handling and understanding polarimetric images is not an easy task, and different intermediate steps have been proposed in order to introduce helpful physical magnitudes. In this research, we look for a sensitive polarimetric parameter that allows us to detect cell death when cancer cells are treated with chemotherapy drugs. Experiments in two different myelomonocytic leukemia cell lines, U937 and THP1, are performed in triplicate, finding a highly-significant positive correlation between total diattenuation of samples in transmission configuration, D T , and chemotherapy-induced cell death. The location of the diattenuation enhancement gives some insight into the cell death process. The proposed method can be an objective complement to conventional methodologies based on pure observational microscopy and can be easily implemented in regular microscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Brain Abnormalities with Schizophrenia Based on a Hybrid Feature Selection Technology
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102148 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Many medical imaging data, especially the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, usually have a small sample size, but a large number of features. How to reduce effectively the data dimension and locate accurately the biomarkers from such kinds of data are quite crucial [...] Read more.
Many medical imaging data, especially the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, usually have a small sample size, but a large number of features. How to reduce effectively the data dimension and locate accurately the biomarkers from such kinds of data are quite crucial for diagnosis and further precision medicine. In this paper, we propose a hybrid feature selection method based on machine learning and traditional statistical approaches and explore the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia by using the functional and structural MRI data. The results show that the abnormal brain regions are mainly distributed in the supramarginal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, frontal gyrus, precuneus and caudate, and the abnormal functional connections are related to the caudate nucleus, insula and rolandic operculum. In addition, some complex network analyses based on graph theory are utilized on the functional connection data, and the results demonstrate that the located abnormal functional connections in brain can distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. The identified abnormalities in brain with schizophrenia by the proposed hybrid feature selection method show that there do exist some abnormal brain regions and abnormal disruption of the network segregation and network integration for schizophrenia, and these changes may lead to inaccurate and inefficient information processing and synthesis in the brain, which provide further evidence for the cognitive dysmetria of schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Morphological Characterization of Rice Leaf Bulliform and Aerenchyma Cellular Regions Using Low Coherence Interferometry
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102104 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
Non-invasive investigation of rice leaf specimens to characterize the morphological formation and particular structural information that is beneficial for agricultural perspective was demonstrated using a low coherence interferometric method called swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The acquired results non-invasively revealed morphological properties [...] Read more.
Non-invasive investigation of rice leaf specimens to characterize the morphological formation and particular structural information that is beneficial for agricultural perspective was demonstrated using a low coherence interferometric method called swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The acquired results non-invasively revealed morphological properties of rice leaf, such as bulliform cells; aerenchyma, parenchyma, and collenchyma layer; and vascular bundle. Beside aforementioned morphologic characteristics, several leaf characteristics associated with cytological mechanisms of leaf rolling (leaf inclination) were examined for the pre-identification of inevitable necrosis and atrophy of leaf tissues by evaluating acute angle information, such as angular characteristics of the external bi-directional angles between the lower epidermis layer and lower mid-vein, and internal angle of lower mid-vein. To further assist the pre-identification, acquired cross-sections were employed to enumerate the small veins of each leaf specimen. Since mutants enlarge leaf angles due to increased cell division in the adaxial epidermis, healthy and abnormal leaf specimens were morphologically and quantitatively compared. Therefore, the results of the method can be used in agriculture, and SS-OCT shows potential as a rigorous investigation method for selecting mutant infected rice leaf specimens rapidly and non-destructively compared to destructive and time consuming gold-standard methods with a lack of precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Emerging Optical Techniques for the Diagnosis of Onychomycosis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072340 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Onychomycosis is the most prevalent nail infection. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, it impacts the quality of life for many patients and often imposes a challenging diagnostic problem. The causative agents are dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophytic moulds. Accurate and early diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Onychomycosis is the most prevalent nail infection. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, it impacts the quality of life for many patients and often imposes a challenging diagnostic problem. The causative agents are dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophytic moulds. Accurate and early diagnosis, including the identification of the causative species, is the key factor for rational therapy. Still, early diagnosis is not optimal as the current gold standard for the differentiation of the infectious agents is culture-based approaches. On the other hand, noninvasive optical technologies may enable differential diagnosis of nail pathologies including onychomycosis. When light penetrates and propagates along the nail tissue, it interacts in different ways with the components of either infected or healthy nail segments, providing a wealth of diagnostic information upon escaping the tissue. This review aims to assess alternative optical techniques for the rapid diagnosis of onychomycosis with a potential to monitor therapeutic response or even identify the fungal agent non-invasively and in real time in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Photoacoustic Imaging for Management of Breast Cancer: A Literature Review and Future Perspectives
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030767 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this review article, a detailed chronological account of the research related to photoacoustic imaging for the management of breast cancer is presented. Performing a detailed analysis of the breast cancer detection related photoacoustic imaging studies undertaken by different research groups, this review [...] Read more.
In this review article, a detailed chronological account of the research related to photoacoustic imaging for the management of breast cancer is presented. Performing a detailed analysis of the breast cancer detection related photoacoustic imaging studies undertaken by different research groups, this review attempts to present the clinical evidence in support of using photoacoustic imaging for breast cancer detection. Based on the experimental evidence obtained from the clinical studies conducted so far, the performance of photoacoustic imaging is compared with that of conventional breast imaging modalities. While we find that there is enough experimental evidence to support the use of photoacoustic imaging for breast cancer detection, additional clinical studies are required to be performed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of photoacoustic imaging for identifying different types of breast cancer. To establish the utility of photoacoustic imaging for breast cancer screening, clinical studies with high-risk asymptomatic patients need to be done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Methods for Tissue Diagnostics)
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