Special Issue "Numerical and Analytical Methods in Electromagnetics"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).
Like all branches of physics and engineering, electromagnetics relies on mathematical methods for modelling, simulation, and design procedures in all of its aspects (radiation, propagation, scattering, imaging, etc.). Originally, rigorous, analytical techniques were the only machinery available to produce any useful results. Basically, the aim was the solution of partial differential equations (such as the Laplace, Poisson, Helmholtz, and wave equations) since the electric and magnetic fields are the unkown quantities in such expressions, although exact, analytical methods (e.g., the Wiener–Hopf technique) were limited to canonical geometries, which are unfortunetely rare in nature. Hence, in the 60s and 70s, emphasis was placed on asympotic techniques, which produced approximations of the fields for very high frequencies when closed form solutions were not feasible. Typical examples of such techniques were the Geometrical and Physical Optics (GO and PO, respectively), improved by the Geometrical, Physical, and Uniform Theories of Diffraction (GTD, PTD and UTD respectively). Later, when computers demonstrated explosive progress, numerical techniques were utilized to develop approximate results of controllable accuracy for arbitrary geometries. Either differential or integral equations were discretized, leading to standard techniques, such as the Method of Moments (MoM), finite element method (FEM), finite difference time domain method (FDTD), finite integration technique (FIT), and Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). Researchers soon realized that several practical problems required extremely high computational resources, in terms of memory and CPU time, to handle, typically, millions of unknowns. Therefore, “fast” variants of the latter techniques were developed to suppress the computational cost, such as the adaptive integral method (AIM); the fast multipole method (FMM); its parallel version, called the multi-level fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA); and its time domain counterpart, i.e., the plane wave time domain (PWTD) method. The lists above are by no means exhaustive; there is a plethora of additional algorithms, having evolved particularly over the last few years, designed to reduce the complexity and simultaneously improve the accuracy of calculations. In this Special Issue, the most recent advances thereof will be presented, to illustrate the state of the art in mathematical techniques in electromagnetics.
Prof. Dr. Hristos Anastassiu
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