Special Issue "Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dimitrios-Nikolaos Pagonis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of West Attica, 122 43 Athens, Greece
Interests: measurement systems for marine engineering; sensor interfacing; micromechanical systems (MEMS); new microsystems technologies; microsystems modeling and simulation; silicon micromachining; porous silicon technology; microsensors; sensors/actuators on PCB substrate

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The proper operation of any modern vessel relies heavily on the information provided by the onboard measuring devices that quantify critical performance parameters. Consequently, the role of sensor devices and measurement systems in general is undoubtedly of great importance in the vast majority of marine engineering applications.

During the past three decades, the immensely expanding field of “microsensors”—a discipline originating from integrated circuit (IC) technology—has led to a new generation of sensing devices with remarkable capabilities and performances exceeding those of their macroscale counterparts. Accordingly, sensors employed on vessels followed the same trend, taking their role one step further by incorporating semiconductor-based technology into standard marine equipment and measurement systems.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences aims to target this challenging and emerging field where advanced measuring devices (microsensors) and novel measurement systems meet marine technology. Researchers from both academia and industry are invited to submit unpublished research work related to the design and development of novel sensors/microsensors (e.g., gyroscopes, flow/pressure meters, and magnetic pick-ups) with the ability to be employed on a modern vessel, together with novel measurement systems and methods that advance the state-of-the-art technology of marine engineering.

Original research or review articles addressing areas that are complementary but closely related to the above, such as vessel automation systems employing novel sensing devices/methods or detection systems for safety and security, are also welcomed for publication.

Dr. Dimitrios-Nikolaos Pagonis
Associate Professor,
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physical sensors
  • Chemical sensors
  • MEMs
  • Sensor technology and application
  • Sensor interface
  • Sensor networks
  • Novel measurement systems and methods
  • Automation systems employing novel sensing devices and techniques
  • Measurement of critical parameters in processes such as propulsion systems, navigation systems, and maritime communications
  • Condition monitoring
  • Detection systems for safety and security

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Novel Principal Component Analysis Integrating Long Short-Term Memory Network and Its Application in Productivity Prediction of Cutter Suction Dredgers
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8159; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178159 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Dredging is a basic construction for waterway improvement, harbor basin maintenance, land reclamation, environmental protection dredging, and deep-sea mining. The dredging process of cutter suction dredgers is so complex that the operational data show strong characteristics of dynamic, nonlinearity, and time delay, which [...] Read more.
Dredging is a basic construction for waterway improvement, harbor basin maintenance, land reclamation, environmental protection dredging, and deep-sea mining. The dredging process of cutter suction dredgers is so complex that the operational data show strong characteristics of dynamic, nonlinearity, and time delay, which make it difficult to predict the productivity accurately via basic principles models. In this paper, we propose a novel integrating PCA-LSTM model to improve the productivity prediction of cutter suction dredger. Firstly, multiple variables are reduced in dimension and selected by PCA method based on the working mechanism of cutter suction dredger. Then the productivity is predicted via mud concentration in long short-term memory network with relevant operational time-series data. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to an actual case study in China. Also, it performs well in the cross-validation and comparative study for several important characteristics: (i) it involves the operational parameters based on the mechanism analysis; and (ii) it is a deep-learning-based approach that can deal with operation series data with a special memory mechanism. This study provides a heuristic idea for integrating the data-driven method and supervision of human knowledge for application in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications)
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Article
Measuring Ocean Surface Current in the Kuroshio Region Using Gaofen-3 SAR Data
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7656; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167656 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 287
Abstract
The Kuroshio is the strongest warm current in the western North Pacific, which plays a crucial role in climate and human activities. In terms of this, the accurate acquisition of ocean surface current velocity and direction in the Kuroshio region is of great [...] Read more.
The Kuroshio is the strongest warm current in the western North Pacific, which plays a crucial role in climate and human activities. In terms of this, the accurate acquisition of ocean surface current velocity and direction in the Kuroshio region is of great research value. Gaofen-3 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides data support for the study of ocean surface current measurements in the Kuroshio region, but no relevant experimental result has been published yet. In this paper, four available stripmap mode SARs’ data acquired by Gaofen-3 in the Kuroshio region are used for measuring the ocean surface current field. In general, the Doppler centroid anomaly (DCA) estimation is a common method to infer ocean surface currents from single-antenna stripmap data, but only the radial velocity component can be retrieved. In order to measure current vectors, a novel method combining the sub-aperture processing and the least squares (LS) technology is suggested and demonstrated by applying to the Gaofen-3 SAR data processing. The experiment’s results agree well with model-derived ocean current data, indicating that the Gaofen-3 SAR has the capability to accurately retrieve the ocean surface current field in the Kuroshio region and motivate further research by providing more data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications)
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Article
Engine Malfunctioning Conditions Identification through Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque Measurement Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3522; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083522 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
In this study a coupled thermodynamics and crankshaft dynamics model of a large two-stroke diesel engine was utilised, to map the relationship of the engine Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque (ICT) with the following frequently occurring malfunctioning conditions: (a) change in Start of [...] Read more.
In this study a coupled thermodynamics and crankshaft dynamics model of a large two-stroke diesel engine was utilised, to map the relationship of the engine Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque (ICT) with the following frequently occurring malfunctioning conditions: (a) change in Start of Injection (SOI), (b) change in Rate of Heat Release (RHR), (c) change in scavenge air pressure, and (d) blowby. This was performed using frequency analysis on the engine ICT, which was obtained through a series of parametric runs of the coupled engine model, under the various malfunctioning and healthy operating conditions. This process demonstrated that engine ICT can be successfully utilised to identify the distinct effects of malfunctions (c) or (d), as they occur individually in any cylinder. Furthermore by using the same process, malfunctions (a) and (b) can be identified as they occur individually for any cylinder, however there is no distinct effect on the engine ICT among these malfunctions, since their effect on the in-cylinder pressure is similar. As a result, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the engine ICT as a non-intrusive diagnostic measurement, as well as the benefits of malfunctioning conditions mapping, which allows for quick and less resource intensive identification of engine malfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications)
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Article
A Novel Methodology for Hydrocarbon Depth Prediction in Seabed Logging: Gaussian Process-Based Inverse Modeling of Electromagnetic Data
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041492 - 07 Feb 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Seabed logging (SBL) is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves for detecting potential marine hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs reliant on a source–receiver system. One of the concerns in modeling and inversion of the EM data is associated with the need for realistic representation of complex [...] Read more.
Seabed logging (SBL) is an application of electromagnetic (EM) waves for detecting potential marine hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs reliant on a source–receiver system. One of the concerns in modeling and inversion of the EM data is associated with the need for realistic representation of complex geo-electrical models. Concurrently, the corresponding algorithms of forward modeling should be robustly efficient with low computational effort for repeated use of the inversion. This work proposes a new inversion methodology which consists of two frameworks, namely Gaussian process (GP), which allows a greater flexibility in modeling a variety of EM responses, and gradient descent (GD) for finding the best minimizer (i.e., hydrocarbon depth). Computer simulation technology (CST), which uses finite element (FE), was exploited to generate prior EM responses for the GP to evaluate EM profiles at “untried” depths. Then, GD was used to minimize the mean squared error (MSE) where GP acts as its forward model. Acquiring EM responses using mesh-based algorithms is a time-consuming task. Thus, this work compared the time taken by the CST and GP in evaluating the EM profiles. For the accuracy and performance, the GP model was compared with EM responses modeled by the FE, and percentage error between the estimate and “untried” computer input was calculated. The results indicate that GP-based inverse modeling can efficiently predict the hydrocarbon depth in the SBL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications)
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Review

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Review
Advanced Development of Sensors’ Roles in Maritime-Based Industry and Research: From Field Monitoring to High-Risk Phenomenon Measurement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3954; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093954 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 486
Abstract
The development of human civilization over the last decade has reached a landmark as Industry 4.0 has been widely introduced. Several aspects of industry and manufacturing activities are changing due to the Internet of Things (IoT), location detection technologies, and advanced human–machine interfaces. [...] Read more.
The development of human civilization over the last decade has reached a landmark as Industry 4.0 has been widely introduced. Several aspects of industry and manufacturing activities are changing due to the Internet of Things (IoT), location detection technologies, and advanced human–machine interfaces. To enact industrial affairs under those specifications, a sensor is required to transform physical events into numerical information. The use of sensors in marine applications also appears in research and studies, in which the sensor is used for both monitoring the phenomena of a designated subject and data acquisition. Achievements in quantifying complex phenomena in critical maritime designs are fascinating subjects to discuss regarding their development and current states, which may be reliable references for further research on developing sensors and related measurement analysis tools in marine, shipbuilding, and shipping fields. This comprehensive review covers several discussion topics, including the origins and development of sensor technology, applied sensor engineering in logistic and shipping activities, the hydrodynamic characterization of designed hulls, the monitoring of advanced machinery performance, Arctic-based field observations, the detection of vibration-based damage to offshore structures, corrosion control and monitoring, and the measurement of explosions on critical maritime infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Measurement Systems for Marine Engineering Applications)
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