applsci-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

New Trends in Environmental Engineering, Agriculture, Food Production, and Analysis

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 95106

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Warszawska 117, 10-950 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: wastewater treatment using reactors with attached biomass; wastewater treatment from agriculture and the agri-food industry; the use of an external carbon source in the processes of dephosphatization and denitrification in reactors with suspended and fixed biomass; the impact of projects on the environment; environmental management systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Warszawska 117 10-950 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: electrochemical and electrobiological wastewater treatment in reactors with biofilm and suspended biomass; biofilm contactors and biofilter application for phosphorus and nitrogen removal from specific wastewater; treatment of wastewater from soilless plant cultivation and de-icing airports pavements
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Cieszyński 1, 10-719 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland
Interests: food proteins; bioinformatic analysis; bioactive and functional peptides; bioactive peptide sequences; cheminformatic approach
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern agriculture and aquaculture as well as related food processing are associated with a significant use of environmental resources and a growing impact on the natural environment. This can be reduced using modern technologies for plant cultivation breeding animals, sustainable management of water, energy, wastewater and waste during food production and processing, and the use of new technologies for wastewater treatment and waste disposal. This must be accompanied by intensive monitoring of the state of the natural environment to protect it and for sustainable development.

This Special Issue will present the latest advances in agriculture, aquaculture, food technology and environmental engineering, discussing, among others, the following issues: new technologies in water and wastewater treatment; new sludge and waste management systems; the role of technological processes to improve food quality and safety; new trends in the analysis of food and food components including in vitro, in vivo, and in silico analyses; and functional and structural aspects of bioactivities of food molecules.

Prof. Wojciech Janczukowicz
Prof. Joanna Rodziewicz
Prof. Anna Iwaniak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • agriculture and aquaculture
  • food quality and safety
  • food analysis
  • food research trends
  • irrigation and fertilization
  • water and wastewater management
  • waste and energy management
  • environment protection
  • environmental impact

Published Papers (22 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

2 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
New Trends in Environmental Engineering, Agriculture, Food Production, and Analysis
by Anna Iwaniak, Wojciech Janczukowicz and Joanna Rodziewicz
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062745 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Modern agriculture and aquaculture, as well as related food processing, are associated with a significant use of environmental resources and a growing impact on the natural environment [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
Efficiency and Technological Reliability of Contaminant Removal in Household WWTPs with Activated Sludge
by Agnieszka Micek, Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski, Michał Marzec, Agnieszka Listosz and Tadeusz Grabowski
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041889 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The results of research on the efficiency and technological reliability of domestic wastewater purification in two household wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with activated sludge are presented in this paper. The studied facilities were located in the territory of the Roztocze National Park (Poland). [...] Read more.
The results of research on the efficiency and technological reliability of domestic wastewater purification in two household wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with activated sludge are presented in this paper. The studied facilities were located in the territory of the Roztocze National Park (Poland). The mean wastewater flow rate in the WWTPs was 1.0 and 1.6 m3/day. In 2017–2019, 20 series of analyses were done, and 40 wastewater samples were taken. On the basis of the received results, the efficiency of basic pollutant removal was determined. The technological reliability of the tested facilities was specified using the Weibull method. The average removal efficiencies for the biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 66–83% and 62–65%, respectively. Much lower effects were obtained for total suspended solids (TSS) and amounted to 17–48%, while the efficiency of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal did not exceed 34%. The analyzed systems were characterized by the reliability of TSS, BOD5, and COD removal at the level of 76–96%. However, the reliability of TN and TP elimination was less than 5%. Thus, in the case of biogenic compounds, the analyzed systems did not guarantee that the quality of treated wastewater would meet the requirements of the Polish law during any period of operation. This disqualifies the discussed technological solution in terms of its wide application in protected areas and near lakes, where the requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal are high. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2352 KiB  
Article
The Kinetics of Pollutant Removal through Biofiltration from Stormwater Containing Airport De-Icing Agents
by Artur Mielcarek, Joanna Rodziewicz, Wojciech Janczukowicz and Kamila Ostrowska
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041724 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the kinetics of pollutant removal in biofilters with LECA filling (used as a buffer to prevent de-icing agents from being released into the environment with stormwater runoff). It demonstrated a significant effect of temperature and a C/N [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the kinetics of pollutant removal in biofilters with LECA filling (used as a buffer to prevent de-icing agents from being released into the environment with stormwater runoff). It demonstrated a significant effect of temperature and a C/N ratio on the rate of nitrification, denitrification, and organic compound removal. The nitrification rate was the highest (0.32 mg N/L·h) at 25 °C and C/N = 0.5, whereas the lowest (0.18 mg N/L·h) at 0 °C and C/N = 2.5 and 5.0. Though denitrification rate is mainly affected by the available quantity of organic substrate, it actually decreased as the C/N increased and was positively correlated with the temperature levels. Its value was found to be the highest (0.31 mg N/L·h) at 25 °C and C/N = 0.5, and the lowest (0.18 mg N/L·h) at 0 °C and C/N = 5.0. As the C/N increased, so did the content of organic compounds in the treated effluent. The lowest organic removal rates were noted for C/N = 0.5, ranging between 11.20 and 18.42 mg COD/L·h at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. The highest rates, ranging between 27.83 and 59.43 mg COD/L·h, were recorded for C/N = 0.5 at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Effects of Crop Protection Unmanned Aerial System Flight Speed, Height on Effective Spraying Width, Droplet Deposition and Penetration Rate, and Control Effect Analysis on Wheat Aphids, Powdery Mildew, and Head Blight
by Songchao Zhang, Baijing Qiu, Xinyu Xue, Tao Sun, Wei Gu, Fuliang Zhou and Xiangdong Sun
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020712 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
As a new type of crop protection machinery, the Crop Protection Unmanned Aerial System (CPUAS) has developed rapidly and been widely used in China; currently, how to use the CPUAS scientifically has become a top priority. However, the relationships between the operating parameters [...] Read more.
As a new type of crop protection machinery, the Crop Protection Unmanned Aerial System (CPUAS) has developed rapidly and been widely used in China; currently, how to use the CPUAS scientifically has become a top priority. However, the relationships between the operating parameters of the CPUAS and the effective spraying width (ESW), droplet distribution characteristics, and control effects of insect pests and diseases are not clear yet. Therefore, three levels of flight speed (FS) as 3, 4, and 5 m/s, three levels of flight height (FH) as 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 m, and spraying volume 2.0 L/min experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of FS and FH on the ESW, droplet deposition uniformity (DDU), and droplet penetration rate (DPR) by using an electric single-rotor CPUAS CE20. Based on the obtained results, combined with the insect pests and diseases occurrence agronomic laws, the optimal operation parameters of the CPUAS were selected to control the wheat aphids, powdery mildew, and head blight. The results showed that the ESW of CE20 was not consistent, the maximum value was 5.78 m, and the minimum one was 2.51 m. The FS had a highly significant impact on ESW (p = 0.0033 < 0.01), while the FH and the interaction between FS and FH had no significant impact on ESW. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the droplet deposition were between 23.3% and 34.4%, which meant good deposition uniformity. The FH (p = 0.0019) and the interaction between FS and FH (p = 0.02) had significant impacts on the DDU. The control effects on aphids were 78.71% (1 day), 84.88% (3 days), and 90.42% (7 days), the control effects on powdery mildew were 77.17% (7 days) and 82.83% (14 days), and the control effect on head blight was 88.32% (20 days). This study proved that by the optimization of parameters and the combination of agronomy, good control effects for insect pests and diseases could be achieved by the CPUAS. The research results would provide some technical supports for CPUAS application. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
Amaranth Meal and Environmental Carnobacterium maltaromaticum Probiotic Bacteria as Novel Stabilizers of the Microbiological Quality of Compound Fish Feeds for Aquaculture
by Iwona Gołaś, Jacek Potorski, Małgorzata Woźniak, Piotr Niewiadomski, Ma Guadelupe Aguilera-Arreola, Araceli Contreras-Rodríguez and Anna Gotkowska-Płachta
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155114 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Fish feed should be characterized by microbiological stability to guarantee the optimal health of farmed fish. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of amaranth meal (Amaranthus cruentus) and a highly active environmental strain of probiotic bacteria, Carnobacterium [...] Read more.
Fish feed should be characterized by microbiological stability to guarantee the optimal health of farmed fish. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of amaranth meal (Amaranthus cruentus) and a highly active environmental strain of probiotic bacteria, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, as novel supplements that stabilize the quantitative and qualitative composition of microbiota in compound fish feeds for aquaculture, regardless of storage temperature. The total viable counts of mesophilic bacteria at 28 °C (TVC 28 °C), hemolytic mesophilic bacteria (Hem 37 °C), Staphylococcus sp. bacteria, aerobic spore-forming bacteria (ASFB), sulfite-reducing anaerobic spore-forming Clostridium sp. bacteria, yeasts, and molds were analyzed in control feed (CF), in feed supplemented with amaranth meal (AF), and in feed supplemented with amaranth meal and C. maltaromaticum (ACF), stored at a temperature of 4 °C and 20 °C for 98 days. Amaranthus cruentus and C. maltaromaticum significantly reduced bacterial counts in fish feeds, regardless of the temperature and duration of storage. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of the tested additives were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The studied novel supplements contribute to the microbiological safety of compound fish feeds. The tested additives could be recognized as the key ingredients of organic, environmentally friendly fish feeds, which guarantee the high quality of fish intended for human consumption. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 3979 KiB  
Article
A Maturity Estimation of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by Artificial Vision System for Quality Control
by Marcos-Jesús Villaseñor-Aguilar, Micael-Gerardo Bravo-Sánchez, José-Alfredo Padilla-Medina, Jorge Luis Vázquez-Vera, Ramón-Gerardo Guevara-González, Francisco-Javier García-Rodríguez and Alejandro-Israel Barranco-Gutiérrez
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155097 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 10130
Abstract
Sweet bell peppers are a Solanaceous fruit belonging to the Capsicum annuum L. species whose consumption is popular in world gastronomy due to its wide variety of colors (ranging green, yellow, orange, red, and purple), shapes, and sizes and the absence of spicy [...] Read more.
Sweet bell peppers are a Solanaceous fruit belonging to the Capsicum annuum L. species whose consumption is popular in world gastronomy due to its wide variety of colors (ranging green, yellow, orange, red, and purple), shapes, and sizes and the absence of spicy flavor. In addition, these fruits have a characteristic flavor and nutritional attributes that include ascorbic acid, polyphenols, and carotenoids. A quality criterion for the harvest of this fruit is maturity; this attribute is visually determined by the consumer when verifying the color of the fruit’s pericarp. The present work proposes an artificial vision system that automatically describes ripeness levels of the bell pepper and compares the Fuzzy logic (FL) and Neuronal Networks for the classification stage. In this investigation, maturity stages of bell peppers were referenced by measuring total soluble solids (TSS), ° Brix, using refractometry. The proposed method was integrated in four stages. The first one consists in the image acquisition of five views using the Raspberry Pi 5 Megapixel camera. The second one is the segmentation of acquired image samples, where background and noise are removed from each image. The third phase is the segmentation of the regions of interest (green, yellow, orange and red) using the connect components algorithm to select areas. The last phase is the classification, which outputs the maturity stage. The classificatory was designed using Matlab’s Fuzzy Logic Toolbox and Deep Learning Toolbox. Its implementation was carried out onto Raspberry Pi platform. It tested the maturity classifier models using neural networks (RBF-ANN) and fuzzy logic models (ANFIS) with an accuracy of 100% and 88%, respectively. Finally, it was constructed with a content of ° Brix prediction model with small improvements regarding the state of art. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
Application of Sterilization Process for Inactivation of Bacillus Stearothermophilus in Biomedical Waste and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions
by Cevat Yaman
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5056; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155056 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4146
Abstract
This study investigated the biomedical waste collection, transportation, and treatment activities in the city of Kocaeli, Turkey. As an alternative to incineration technology, a steam autoclave was used to sterilize the biomedical waste. Information regarding the collection, transportation, treatment and associated greenhouse gas [...] Read more.
This study investigated the biomedical waste collection, transportation, and treatment activities in the city of Kocaeli, Turkey. As an alternative to incineration technology, a steam autoclave was used to sterilize the biomedical waste. Information regarding the collection, transportation, treatment and associated greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were also investigated. Prior to sterilization, biological indicator vials containing Bacillus stearothermophilus were placed in the center of the load to ensure that the pathogens were destroyed. GHG emissions were calculated based on the fuel consumed by the biomedical waste collection vehicles and the electricity/natural gas used at the sterilization plant. Results of this work revealed that the total biomedical waste generated per year increased from 1362 tons in 2009 to 2375 tons in 2019. The amount of biomedical waste generated per hospital bed was determined as 1.19 kg.bed−1.day−1. Results show that for efficient sterilization of biomedical wastes, the steam treatment system process should be operated at a contact time of 45 min, a temperature of 150 °C, and at a steam pressure of 5 bar. Biological indicator tests showed that the number of living Bacillus stearothermophilus decreased significantly, with removal rates greater than 6log10. Finally, it was determined that the biomedical waste management activities generated a total of GHG emissions of 5573 ton CO2 equivalency (tCO2-e) from 2009 to 2019. Furthermore, the average global warming factor (GWF) was calculated to be 0.269 tCO2-e per ton of biomedical waste generated. This study showed that the sterilization process is very effective in destroying the pathogens and the management of biomedical waste generates considerable amounts of GHG emissions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
The Microbiota of Edam Cheeses Determined by Cultivation and High-Throughput Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Amplicon
by Beata Nalepa, Sławomir Ciesielski and Marek Aljewicz
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124063 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiome of industrially produced ripened Edam cheeses by next-generation sequencing. The samples for analyses were collected in spring and autumn. Spring samples were characterized by significantly higher Lactococcus and Bacillus counts and lower counts [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiome of industrially produced ripened Edam cheeses by next-generation sequencing. The samples for analyses were collected in spring and autumn. Spring samples were characterized by significantly higher Lactococcus and Bacillus counts and lower counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and yeasts than autumn samples. The predominant microorganisms identified by the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology belonged to four phyla: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The dominant species were starter culture bacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium had the highest share of microbial cheese communities. The number of γ-Proteobacteria reads was higher in autumn cheese samples. A high number of reads was also noted in the genus Clostridium. The counts of spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus were higher in cheeses produced in spring. The study revealed highly similar relationships between the analyzed production periods. The present results contribute to the existing knowledge of cheese microbiota, and they can be used to improve and modify production processes based on the composition of microbial communities, as well as to improve the quality of the final product. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3016 KiB  
Article
Is It Possible to Restore a Heavily Polluted, Shallow, Urban Lake?
by Jolanta Grochowska, Renata Augustyniak, Michał Łopata and Renata Tandyrak
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113698 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
The research was carried out on Karczemne Lake, a water reservoir located in Kartuzy (northern Poland, Pomeranian Lake District). Monitoring of the water and bottom sediment of Karczemne Lake showed a very high level of contamination of the reservoir by a long-term inflow [...] Read more.
The research was carried out on Karczemne Lake, a water reservoir located in Kartuzy (northern Poland, Pomeranian Lake District). Monitoring of the water and bottom sediment of Karczemne Lake showed a very high level of contamination of the reservoir by a long-term inflow of untreated municipal sewage. The trophic status index of total phosphorus (TP) was unusually high at 101, and the TP content in the bottom sediments—31 mg g−1 (dry weight)—was the highest value recorded worldwide in a lake. Based on the monitoring results, to achieve constant improvement of the water quality, we recommend a completely new, safe and economically justified method of bottom sediment removal and management. A very important aspect of this method is the prevention of uncontrolled sewage discharge back into the lake basin. Removed sediment with interstitial water will be pumped through a pipeline and transported to a sewage treatment plant. In the sediment mining field in which the sludge will be removed, the first phase of phosphorus inactivation will be carried out to chemically precipitate pollutants distributed in the water column as a result of sediment resuspension. After the deepening of the entire lake basin, the method of phosphorus inactivation will be carried out on the entire surface of the lake as the next stage of restoration. A supporting activity will be biomanipulation. Before the restoration is started, the municipal sewerage system will be modernized. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2102 KiB  
Article
Soybean (Glycine max) Protein Hydrolysates as Sources of Peptide Bitter-Tasting Indicators: An Analysis Based on Hybrid and Fragmentomic Approaches
by Anna Iwaniak, Monika Hrynkiewicz, Piotr Minkiewicz, Justyna Bucholska and Małgorzata Darewicz
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072514 - 6 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3795
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze soybean proteins as sources of peptides likely to be bitter using fragmentomic and hybrid approaches involving in silico and in vitro studies. The bitterness of peptides (called parent peptides) was theoretically estimated based on the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze soybean proteins as sources of peptides likely to be bitter using fragmentomic and hybrid approaches involving in silico and in vitro studies. The bitterness of peptides (called parent peptides) was theoretically estimated based on the presence of bitter-tasting motifs, particularly those defined as bitter-tasting indicators. They were selected based on previously published multilinear stepwise regression results. Bioinformatic-assisted analyses covered the hydrolysis of five major soybean-originating protein sequences using bromelain, ficin, papain, and proteinase K. Verification of the results in experimental conditions included soy protein concentrate (SPC) hydrolysis, RP-HPLC (for monitoring the proteolysis), and identification of peptides using RP-HPLC-MS/MS. Discrepancies between in silico and in vitro results were observed when identifying parent peptide SPC hydrolysate samples. However, both analyses revealed that conglycinins were the most abundant sources of parent peptides likely to taste bitter. The compatibility percentage of the in silico and in vitro results was 3%. Nine parent peptides with the following sequences were identified in SPC hydrolysates: LSVISPK, DVLVIPLG, LIVILNG, NPFLFG, ISSTIV, PQMIIV, PFPSIL, DDFFL, and FFEITPEK (indicators are in bold). The fragmentomic idea of research might provide a supportive method for predicting the bitterness of hydrolysates. However, this statement needs to be confirmed experimentally. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
Effect of Salinity on the Gut Microbiome of Pike Fry (Esox lucius)
by Tomasz Dulski, Roman Kujawa, Martyna Godzieba and Slawomir Ciesielski
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072506 - 5 Apr 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3462
Abstract
The increasing popularity of pike in angling and fish farming has created a need to increase pike production. However, intensive pike farming is subject to limitations due to diseases and pathogens. Sodium chloride (NaCl) could be a good alternative to chemotherapeutics, especially for [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of pike in angling and fish farming has created a need to increase pike production. However, intensive pike farming is subject to limitations due to diseases and pathogens. Sodium chloride (NaCl) could be a good alternative to chemotherapeutics, especially for protecting the fish against pathogens and parasites at early life stages. However, the impact of high salinity on the symbiotic bacteria inhabiting freshwater fish is still unclear. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the gut microbiome to find possible changes caused by salinity. In this study, the influence of 3‰ and 7‰ salinity on pike fry was investigated. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to profile the gut microbiome of the fish. It was found that salinity had a statistically significant influence on pike fry mortality. Mortality was highest in the 7‰ salinity group and lowest in the 3‰ group. Microbiological analysis indicated that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria predominated in the pike gut microbiome in all examined groups, followed by lower percentages of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. There were no statistically significant differences in the percent abundance of bacterial taxa between the control group and groups with a higher salinity. Our results suggest that salinity influences the gut microbiome structure in pike fry, and that 3‰ salinity may be a good solution for culturing pike at this stage in their development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1830 KiB  
Article
Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction Separated during Mechanical Heat Treatment of Municipal Waste
by Slawomir Kasinski
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072412 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of process temperature on semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction separated during autoclaving of municipal waste. Tests were carried out in reactors with full mixing. Biogas production was higher in thermophilic conditions [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of process temperature on semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction separated during autoclaving of municipal waste. Tests were carried out in reactors with full mixing. Biogas production was higher in thermophilic conditions than in mesophilic conditions (0.92 L/g volatile solids at 55 °C vs. 0.42 L/g volatile solids at 37 °C, respectively). The resulting methane yields were 0.25-0.32 L CH4/g VS and 0.56–0.70 L CH4/g VS in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. In both variants, the methane share was over 70% v/v. This work also discusses the potential impact of Maillard compounds on the efficiency of the fermentation process, which were probably produced during the process of autoclaving of municipal waste. These results indicate that, after autoclaving, the organic fraction of municipal waste can be an effective substrate for anaerobic digestion in thermophilic conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2115 KiB  
Article
Agricultural Entrepreneurship in the European Union: Contributions for a Sustainable Development
by Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062080 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
Entrepreneurship is sometimes seen as a glimmer of hope which may bring about some contribution towards improving economic dynamics and performance, specifically in the creation of employment by young people, in general, with further educational training, greater flexibility and who are better prepared [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship is sometimes seen as a glimmer of hope which may bring about some contribution towards improving economic dynamics and performance, specifically in the creation of employment by young people, in general, with further educational training, greater flexibility and who are better prepared for working with new technologies. However, entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector is, in certain circumstances, viewed as being something incompatible or, at least, difficult to implement. More scientific studies in these fields could provide interesting contributions on the road to highlighting new ideas inside the farming sector. In this framework, the objective of this study is to explore the entrepreneurship dimensions within the European Union agriculture towards a more sustainable sector. In fact, without an economic dimension in farm management, its sustainability in the medium and long run may be compromised, increasing the abandonment of farming, namely in more disadvantaged regions. For this, the literature which is available on the platform Web of Science relating to the following three topics was initially analysed: entrepreneurship, agriculture, and the European Union. This literature was clustered through the VOSviewer software, an interesting tool for performing bibliometric analysis. Secondly, statistical information related to European Union agricultural entrepreneurship considering empirical approaches was also explored. The analysis carried out shows that the realities across European Union countries are, in fact, different, where the instruments from the common agricultural policies, for example, may play a crucial role in promoting more farming entrepreneurship in a more sustainable way. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Biofilter Media During Biological Bed Maturation Using Common Carp as a Biogen Donor
by Mateusz Sikora, Joanna Nowosad and Dariusz Kucharczyk
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020626 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5294
Abstract
This experiment analysed the operation of submerged and dripping biological filters with three types of filling: commercial fitting HXF12KLL (CF), two innovative polypropylene aggregates (PPA) and polyethylene screw caps for PET bottles (PSC). The experiment determined the time needed to reach full filter [...] Read more.
This experiment analysed the operation of submerged and dripping biological filters with three types of filling: commercial fitting HXF12KLL (CF), two innovative polypropylene aggregates (PPA) and polyethylene screw caps for PET bottles (PSC). The experiment determined the time needed to reach full filter functionality at the maturation stage, the time needed to start successive stages of the nitrification process and the maximum concentration of each nitrogen compound in water in the recirculation systems. The filter operation characteristics after the maturation stage were also examined. These issues are crucial during the preparation and launch of new aquaculture facilities. A literature analysis indicated that the ability of biological filters to oxidise nitrogen compounds is affected by a number of factors. Studies conducted at various centres have covered selected aspects and factors affecting the effectiveness of biological filters. During this study, the model fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used. The current experiment involved examination of biological filter maturation and operation during the carp fry rearing stage, which allowed the biofilter operation characteristics to be determined. At the third day of the experiment, the ammonium concentration reached approximately 3 mg NH4-N/dm3. It remained at this level for 10 days and later decreased below 0.25 mg NH4-N/dm3. The maximum nitrite concentration ranged from 11.7 mg/dm3 to 20.9 mg NO2-N/dm3 within 9 to 20 days and later decreased with time. Nitrate concentrations were seen to increase during the experiment. The all applied biofilter media showed possibility to be used in commercial aquaculture systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Non-Conventional Biological and Molecular Parameters as Potential Indicators of Quality and Functionality of Urban Biosolids Used as Organic Amendments of Agricultural Soils
by Miriam del Rocío Medina-Herrera, María de la Luz Xochilt Negrete-Rodríguez, José Luis Álvarez-Trejo, Midory Samaniego-Hernández, Leopoldo González-Cruz, Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor and Eloy Conde-Barajas
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020517 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Biosolids are waste from wastewater treatment and have a high content of organic matter and nutrients. In this study, not conventional physicochemical and biological properties of biosolids produced during different seasons of the year were evaluated. These properties are not considered in environmental [...] Read more.
Biosolids are waste from wastewater treatment and have a high content of organic matter and nutrients. In this study, not conventional physicochemical and biological properties of biosolids produced during different seasons of the year were evaluated. These properties are not considered in environmental regulations; however, they are of agronomic interest as indicators of quality and functionality in soils. Also, molecular analysis by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) was conducted, enzymatic analysis using the APIZYM® system was performed and two indices of functional and microbial diversity were established. The results showed that the biosolids had a high content of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, P, and K. FTIR analyses showed that chemical composition of biosolids was similar during all year. The C and N of microbial biomass demonstrated presence of active microorganisms, as well as a uniformity in its richness and abundance of species that could present a positive synergy with soil microorganisms. The enzymatic activities showed that the biosolids contained an enzymatic machinery available to promote the mineralisation of the organic matter of biosolids and could even transcend into the soil. Finally, biological properties can be used as indicators of quality and functionality of biosolids before being used as an organic amendment, especially in agricultural soils. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2372 KiB  
Article
Study on Water Saving Potential and Net Profit of Zea mays L.: The Role of Surface Mulching with Micro-Spray Irrigation
by Zhaoquan He, Xue Shang and Tonghui Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010402 - 5 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China. To explore the effects of various surface mulching patterns with micro-spray irrigation on the yield, water consumption (ETc), and water-saving potential of maize (Zea mays L.), we used three [...] Read more.
Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China. To explore the effects of various surface mulching patterns with micro-spray irrigation on the yield, water consumption (ETc), and water-saving potential of maize (Zea mays L.), we used three treatments: straw mulching (JG), organic fertilizer mulching (NF), and no mulching (WG; control). In each treatment, plants were supplied with 500 mm of total water (irrigation plus precipitation) during the entire growing season and were irrigated with the amount of total water supply minus precipitation. Yield and water use efficiency (WUE) showed a significant negative correlation with water saving potential per unit yield (Py) and water saving potential per unit area (Sp), which were also consistent with their relationships in the function model. Meanwhile, a remarkably positive correlation occurred between yield, WUE, and net economic profit, respectively. The JG treatment, which was mainly affected by light and temperature production potential (Yc), grain yield, and ETc, showed the lowest Py (0.16 m3 kg−1) and Sp (2572.31 m3 hm−2), and the maximum increase in yield, WUE, and net economic profit, extending to 16,178.40 kg hm−2, 3.25 kg m−3, 17,610.09 yuan hm−2, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in NF and WG, (p <0.05). Thus, straw mulching with micro-spray irrigation was the best treatment for maximizing yield and WUE. Organic manure mulching and no mulching need further investigation, as these showed high Py and Sp, which were together responsible for lower WUE. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2095 KiB  
Communication
Effects of Colored Light on Growth and Nutritional Composition of Tilapia, and Biofloc as a Food Source
by Daniela Lopez-Betancur, Ivan Moreno, Carlos Guerrero-Mendez, Domingo Gómez-Meléndez, Manuel de J. Macias P. and Carlos Olvera-Olvera
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010362 - 3 Jan 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4443
Abstract
Light stimulation and biofloc technology can be combined to improve the efficiency and sustainability of tilapia production. A 73-day pilot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of colored light on growth rates and nutritional composition of the Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis [...] Read more.
Light stimulation and biofloc technology can be combined to improve the efficiency and sustainability of tilapia production. A 73-day pilot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of colored light on growth rates and nutritional composition of the Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) in biofloc systems. The effect of colored light on the nutritional composition of bioflocs as a food source for fish was measured. Three groups were illuminated in addition to natural sunlight with colored light using RGB light emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak wavelengths (λ) of 627.27 nm for red (R), 513.33 nm for green (G), and 451.67 nm for blue (B) light. LED light intensity was constant (0.832 mW / cm 2 ), and had an 18-h photoperiod of light per day throughout the study. The control group was illuminated only with natural sunlight (natural). Tilapia had an average initial weight of 0.242 g. There was a significant effect of colored light on tilapia growth and composition. The R group showed the best growth rate, highest survival, and highest lipid content. The B group showed homogeneous growth with the lowest growth rate and lipid content, but the highest protein level. On the other hand, the biofloc composition was influenced by the green light in the highest content of lipids, protein, and nitrogen-free extract. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

16 pages, 886 KiB  
Review
Developments in the Use of Lipase Transesterification for Biodiesel Production from Animal Fat Waste
by Fidel Toldrá-Reig, Leticia Mora and Fidel Toldrá
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5085; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155085 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5801
Abstract
Biodiesel constitutes an attractive source of energy because it is renewable, biodegradable, and non-polluting. Up to 20% biodiesel can be blended with fossil diesel and is being produced and used in many countries. Animal fat waste represents nearly 6% of total feedstock used [...] Read more.
Biodiesel constitutes an attractive source of energy because it is renewable, biodegradable, and non-polluting. Up to 20% biodiesel can be blended with fossil diesel and is being produced and used in many countries. Animal fat waste represents nearly 6% of total feedstock used to produce biodiesel through alkaline catalysis transesterification after its pretreatment. Lipase transesterification has some advantages such as the need of mild conditions, absence of pretreatment, no soap formation, simple downstream purification process and generation of high quality biodiesel. A few companies are using liquid lipase formulations and, in some cases, immobilized lipases for industrial biodiesel production, but the efficiency of the process can be further improved. Recent developments on immobilization support materials such as nanoparticles and magnetic nanomaterials have demonstrated high efficiency and potential for industrial applications. This manuscript reviews the latest advances on lipase transesterification and key operational variables for an efficient biodiesel production from animal fat waste. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 1525 KiB  
Review
Cryobiotechnology of Plants: A Hot Topic Not Only for Gene Banks
by Petra Jiroutová and Jiří Sedlák
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134677 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
Agriculture has always been an important part of human evolution. Traditionally, farming is changing and developing with regard to challenges it faces. The major challenges of modern agriculture are food and nutrition safety for the growing world population. Promoting species and genetic diversity [...] Read more.
Agriculture has always been an important part of human evolution. Traditionally, farming is changing and developing with regard to challenges it faces. The major challenges of modern agriculture are food and nutrition safety for the growing world population. Promoting species and genetic diversity in agriculture appears to be an important approach to dealing with those challenges. Gene banks all around the world play a crucial role in preserving plant genetic resources for future crop improvements. The plant germplasm can be preserved in different ways, depending on the species or form of stored plant tissue. This review focuses on a special preservation method—cryopreservation. Cryopreservation is an effective technique for storing living systems at ultra-low temperatures, usually in liquid nitrogen or its vapor phase. This conservation method is crucial for plants that do not produce seeds or that produce non germinating seeds, as well as for plants that propagate vegetatively. Moreover, based on the cryopreservation method, a novel plant biotechnology tool for pathogen eradication called cryotherapy has been developed. The use of liquid nitrogen eliminates plant pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasmas, and bacteria. Our article reviews recent advances in cryo-biotechnologies such as cryopreservation and cryotherapy, with special focus on studies concerning fruit plants. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 877 KiB  
Review
Emerging Trends in Research on Food Compounds and Women’s Fertility: A Systematic Review
by Aleksandra Bykowska-Derda, Ezgi Kolay, Malgorzata Kaluzna and Magdalena Czlapka-Matyasik
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4518; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134518 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
Pro-healthy behaviours, including the diet, are significant factors in maintaining women’s fertility health. However, to improve the patient’s nutrition management, it is important to seek food-derived bioactive compounds to support fertility treatment. This review analysed recent studies of food compounds related to fertility, [...] Read more.
Pro-healthy behaviours, including the diet, are significant factors in maintaining women’s fertility health. However, to improve the patient’s nutrition management, it is important to seek food-derived bioactive compounds to support fertility treatment. This review analysed recent studies of food compounds related to fertility, using databases including PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct as well as PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews) to ensure complete and transparent reporting of systematic reviews. This review lists foods associated with a higher birth rate, using original papers from the last five years (2015). The analysis included the impact of food compounds such as caffeine, fatty acids, folates and vitamin D, as well as the intake of fish, whole grains, dairy and soya. In addition, dietary patterns and total diet composition supporting women’s fertility were also analysed. The results will encourage further research on the relationship between food components and fertility. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 499 KiB  
Review
Trends in Biodiesel Production from Animal Fat Waste
by Fidel Toldrá-Reig, Leticia Mora and Fidel Toldrá
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3644; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103644 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 107 | Viewed by 13574
Abstract
The agro-food industry generates large amounts of waste that contribute to environmental contamination. Animal fat waste constitutes some of the most relevant waste and the treatment of such waste is quite costly because environmental regulations are quite strict. Part of such costs might [...] Read more.
The agro-food industry generates large amounts of waste that contribute to environmental contamination. Animal fat waste constitutes some of the most relevant waste and the treatment of such waste is quite costly because environmental regulations are quite strict. Part of such costs might be reduced through the generation of bioenergy. Biodiesel constitutes a valid renewable source of energy because it is biodegradable, non-toxic and has a good combustion emission profile and can be blended up to 20% with fossil diesel for its use in many countries. Furthermore, up to 70% of the total cost of biodiesel majorly depends on the cost of the raw materials used, which can be reduced using animal fat waste because they are cheaper than vegetable oil waste. In fact, 6% of total feedstock corresponded to animal fat in 2019. Transesterification with alkaline catalysis is still preferred at industrial plants producing biodiesel. Recent developments in heterogeneous catalysts that can be easily recovered, regenerated and reused, as well as immobilized lipases with increased stability and resistance to alcohol denaturation, are promising for future industrial use. This manuscript reviews the available processes and recent advances for biodiesel generation from animal fat waste. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

36 pages, 1856 KiB  
Review
Metabolic Syndrome-Preventive Peptides Derived from Milk Proteins and Their Presence in Cheeses: A Review
by Anna Iwaniak and Damir Mogut
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082772 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5414
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the occurrence of diet-related diseases such as abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia (insulin resistance) and hypertension. Milk-derived peptides are well-known agents acting against high blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipoprotein disproportion. The aim of this [...] Read more.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the occurrence of diet-related diseases such as abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia (insulin resistance) and hypertension. Milk-derived peptides are well-known agents acting against high blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipoprotein disproportion. The aim of this review are metabolic syndrome-preventive peptides derived from milk proteins which were identified in cheeses. Special attention was paid to the sequences acting as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DDP4), and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as well as antioxidative, hypocholesterolemic, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some results of meta-analyses concerning the consumption of cheese and the risk of MetS diseases were also presented. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop