Novel Approaches and Technologies for Conservation of Heritage Buildings

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2021) | Viewed by 12071

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira, 4, 50121 Firenze FI, Italy
Interests: building stone and stone building: materials, quarrying, in opera analysis, conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geo Research Institute, 2-1-2 Otemae, Chuo-ku, Kokumin-kaikan, 6th fl, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
Interests: soils and foundation; authenticity of foundation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heritage buildings are the tangible heredity of our culture, history, and roots, and now it is our charge to leave them to posterity.

The conservation of heritage buildings has strong constraints when devising remedial measures and intervention techniques because the “integrity” and “authenticity” of the building must be preserved and the “vulnerability” must be reduced. In particular, when considering the vulnerability of a heritage building, it is important to distinguish between the “intrinsic vulnerability” and the “induced vulnerability”.

For that, a proper conservation process requires the knowledge of the original construction materials (stone, earth, wood) and building techniques. This knowledge can be obtained by methods such as foundation assessment.

The common lack of design or documents regarding heritage buildings necessitates defining the masonry apparatus and structure through nondestructive investigation techniques (NDT) of indirect type (photogrammetry, laser scan, thermography, georadar, sonic/ultrasonic tomography, seismic survey) or weakly destructive direct inspections (DAC testing, endoscopies, de-scaling of plasters, small trenches).

This scientific, technical, and historical knowledge is fundamental in order to recover traditional and original craft knowledge and operative techniques; today, numerical informative contents in 2D and 3D (GIS, HBIM) are available for obtaining and handing down this knowledge.

Prof. Massimo Coli
Dr. Yoshi Iwasaki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heritage building
  • building materials
  • stone
  • earth
  • timber
  • integrity
  • authenticity
  • vulnerability
  • conservation
  • NDT

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

6 pages, 832 KiB  
Editorial
Novel Approaches and Technologies for Heritage Buildings Conservation: Editorial
by Massimo Coli and Yoshi Iwasaki
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10597; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210597 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Conservation of heritage buildings deserves special attention, because these buildings are not only a distinctive feature of the wisdom and creativity of the ancients, conveying abundant historic and technical information, but often they are also the symbol of a culture and represent the [...] Read more.
Conservation of heritage buildings deserves special attention, because these buildings are not only a distinctive feature of the wisdom and creativity of the ancients, conveying abundant historic and technical information, but often they are also the symbol of a culture and represent the local community as a whole [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 2660 KiB  
Article
Application of Anti-Moisture Technologies in Historical Constructions from the Perspective of Sustainability
by Patrik Šťastný, Jozef Gašparík, Oto Makýš, Barbara Chamulová and Sylvia Szalayová
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9659; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209659 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Restoration of landmarks hit by rising moisture is in conjunction with the concept of sustainability by a very current theme. This problem needs to be addressed from a global point of view. The article discusses individual remediation technologies (invasive and non-invasive), which were [...] Read more.
Restoration of landmarks hit by rising moisture is in conjunction with the concept of sustainability by a very current theme. This problem needs to be addressed from a global point of view. The article discusses individual remediation technologies (invasive and non-invasive), which were applied and long-term investigated on several historical buildings within Slovakia. It describes the costs of their implementation, efficiency rate and importance from the perspective of the preservation of the nation’s cultural heritage and from the perspective of sustainability and the possibility of using these objects. From the perspective of sustainability, it is also shown that some interventions helped with remediation of the moist structure. This step results in a positive impact on the surroundings and protection of persons located in the vicinity of these buildings. It also helps to sustainability in terms of an environmental point of view because the demolition of renewed buildings is not necessary. The Article conclusion notes the level of efficiency of individual technologies. It also provides recommendations that could also be applied to many other historic buildings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 25250 KiB  
Article
Advances in the Restoration of Buildings with LIDAR Technology and 3D Reconstruction: Forged and Vaults of the Refectory of Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th Century)
by Pascual Saura-Gómez, Yolanda Spairani-Berrio, Jose Antonio Huesca-Tortosa, Silvia Spairani-Berrio and Carlos Rizo-Maestre
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8541; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188541 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
This research presents a new intervention methodology on arches and vaults of a Renaissance factory in the Colegio Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th century) using 3D software LIDAR technology that verifies the execution process of the works studying the different charges states and [...] Read more.
This research presents a new intervention methodology on arches and vaults of a Renaissance factory in the Colegio Santo Domingo de Orihuela (16th century) using 3D software LIDAR technology that verifies the execution process of the works studying the different charges states and structure behavior. This document aims to explain a working methodology in the monitoring of structural repair interventions in the architectural heritage, in the specific case of the replacement of traditional one-way timber joist frame slabs on structures of former, splay and groin arches between vaults. This involves the compilation and processing of two types of data: on the one hand, the analysis of the different load states to which the intervention is exposed in its different phases: initial, dismantling of the different layers of traditional construction and replacement by the new structural system; and, on the other hand, the graphic information provided by the photogrammetry techniques used to dimension and define the spatial position of the structural elements that have historically resolved the covering of the architectural space in this type of Renaissance solution. The different layers and demolished materials have been verified by analysing their constructive disposition, thicknesses, and dimensions of the elements that formed part of the initial construction system and their own weights. In addition, the new construction systems used in the restoration project generate a state of loads similar to the existing one. The LIDAR technology used in the research process provides graphic data of the spatial position of the arches and vaults studied in the different states of the construction intervention. The point clouds obtained are analysed by taking as reference fixed points (considered unalterable and infinitely rigid) of the refectory and the coordinates of the initial and final states are compared. The results show minimal variations between the two positions, which justifies the goodness of the construction methods used and the structural safety obtained in the complex. This methodology applied to arches and vaults in heritage architecture guarantees the control and recording of the movements produced in the process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 16627 KiB  
Article
Generation of an HBIM Library regarding a Palace of the 19th Century in Lisbon
by Alcínia Zita Sampaio, António Mendes Pinto, Augusto Martins Gomes and Alberto Sanchez-Lite
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7020; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157020 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The growing interest within the construction industry in the preservation, rehabilitation, and conversion of heritage-value buildings has led to the implementation of Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) across all sectors. The rigorously accurate representation of old construction solutions for roofs, floors, and walls, [...] Read more.
The growing interest within the construction industry in the preservation, rehabilitation, and conversion of heritage-value buildings has led to the implementation of Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) across all sectors. The rigorously accurate representation of old construction solutions for roofs, floors, and walls, and of the decorative details and finishes, commonly used in historic buildings of patrimonial value, requires specific geometric modelling processes in order to generate relevant libraries of parametric objects. This study addresses the generation of parametric families of representative architectural geometry in the context of the conversion of a building of patrimonial value. A collection of historical information and a detailed inspection in situ, recorded by means of digital images and sketches with annotative dimensions of the architectural forms, were first carried out to support the accurate representation of the building. Several families of objects were generated, namely, guillotine windows, glazed doors, ornamental stonework, staircases, and handrails, thus creating a reference library for use in further similar building projects. The study improves the potential of the BIM process for its application to buildings with distinctive architecture in the context of the preservation or conversion of heritage buildings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7478 KiB  
Article
Saint John Baptistery in Florence (Italy): Studies for Conservation of the External Marble Cladding
by Massimo Coli, Anna Livia Ciuffreda, Tessa Donigaglia, Attilio Bencaster, Samuele Caciagli, Beatrice Agostini and Niccolò Iandelli
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6329; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146329 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Saint John’s Baptistery in Florence (Italy), dating back to the XI century, represents one of the most outstanding historical buildings in the city, and has been under the UNESCO patronage as Cultural Heritage since 1982. In recent years, in the frame of a [...] Read more.
Saint John’s Baptistery in Florence (Italy), dating back to the XI century, represents one of the most outstanding historical buildings in the city, and has been under the UNESCO patronage as Cultural Heritage since 1982. In recent years, in the frame of a conservation project, detailed studies and mapping of all the tiles covering the Baptistery have been developed. Based on a laser-scan survey, a detailed wireframe model of all the external sides, reporting all the tiles and decor, has been developed. This model was implemented into a 2D-GIS, georeferenced in real scale and spatial position. An in situ survey of all the tiles, ashlars, inlays and columns, made in contradiction by experts in historical ornamental stones, allowed the recognition of several types of marble in place. All these marbles have been analyzed and characterized as geometric, geological and historical data, and the information implemented into a GIS for obtaining a spatial geodatabase representing a “box” to store all information achieved. All these data are manageable by web through smartphone, tablet and PC for querying or updating, thus representing an effective management tool for further conservation of such important historical cultural buildings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 12053 KiB  
Article
Multi-Criteria Parametric Verifications for Stability Diagnosis of Rammed-Earth Historic Urban Ramparts Working as Retaining Walls
by Álvaro R. Serrano-Chacón, Emilio J. Mascort-Albea, Jacinto Canivell, Rocío Romero-Hernández and Antonio Jaramillo-Morilla
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062744 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Institutions such as ICOFORT (International committee on fortifications and military heritage) encourages the development of diagnosis strategies for the conservation and maintenance of historic earthen walls as highly necessary. Thus, it is important to be aware of the conditions in urban contexts, where [...] Read more.
Institutions such as ICOFORT (International committee on fortifications and military heritage) encourages the development of diagnosis strategies for the conservation and maintenance of historic earthen walls as highly necessary. Thus, it is important to be aware of the conditions in urban contexts, where the deterioration can be more aggressive and the risk of damage increases. Despite this, there are many strategies of constructive diagnosis for these kinds of monuments, but not many of them are concerned with the structural assessment of situations in which the ramparts work as a retaining wall in an unforeseen way. The medieval ramparts of Seville (Spain) are shown as a completely representative case study of the above-mentioned situation. In the research sector, the monument resists the lateral earth pressure developed by the new difference in height at both sides of the wall. Based on the limited states principle and on different international codes formulation, a tool was programmed to carry out automatic calculations to verify the case study’s overall stability conditions using standard sections. The obtained results were based on the overturning, bearing, and sliding overdesign factors (ODF) and determined a stable situation that could be at risk because of changes in the surrounding such as, excavations or the movements of the ground water table, or seismic events. Thus, the need and usefulness of strategies and control instruments that should be integrated into heritage intervention projects have been proved. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop