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Sustainable Technologies in Intensive Energy Industrial Consumers: The New Path to Carbon Neutrality

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 13817

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. PROMETHEUS - Unidade de Investigação em Materiais, Energia e Ambiente para a Sustentabilidade, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua da Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Alvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
2. GOVCOPP - Unidade de Investigação em Governança, Competitividade e Políticas Públicas, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3. DEGEIT - Departamento de Economia, Gestão, Engenharia Industrial e Turismo, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: biomass; biomass energy; biomass supply chains; biomass conversion technologies; sustainability and circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, there is an intense demand for technologies and processes that allow for the replacement of energy sources of fossil origin by others, resulting in industrial processes becoming more sustainable as part of an approach toward achieving carbon neutrality. In addition to this search for carbon neutrality in energy production and conversion processes, there are also a number of industrial processes that are liquid emitters of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which include the cement, lime, iron, and steel industries. This Special Issue aims to gather the latest technical and scientific information on the developments that are being carried out such that both energy production and other industrial processes can approach carbon neutrality through the use of new and more sustainable processes while applying the principles of circular economy and environmental protection.

Prof. Dr. Leonel Nunes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon neutrality
  • circular economy
  • sustainability
  • industrial processes
  • renewable energy

Published Papers (2 papers)

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23 pages, 1311 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Potential of Agricultural Waste Recovery: Energy Densification as a Factor for Residual Biomass Logistics Optimization
by Leonel J. R. Nunes, João C. O. Matias, Liliana M. E. F. Loureiro, Letícia C. R. Sá, Hugo F. C. Silva, Abel M. Rodrigues, Thomas P. Causer, David B. DeVallance and Daniel E. Ciolkosz
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010020 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5221
Abstract
The use of residual forms of biomass, resulting from processes of transformation of the agri-food and/or forest industries, presents itself as an alternative with high potential for energy recovery, given the existing availability, both from the perspective of quantities, but also from the [...] Read more.
The use of residual forms of biomass, resulting from processes of transformation of the agri-food and/or forest industries, presents itself as an alternative with high potential for energy recovery, given the existing availability, both from the perspective of quantities, but also from the perspective of geographic distribution. In this work, samples of four by-products originating from the agri-food industry were collected, namely coconut shells, sugarcane bagasse, cashew nutshells, and palm kernel shells, which were characterized in the laboratory by determining their Thermogravimetric and Elemental analysis, subsequently calculating the High Heating Value, Low Heating Value, Hardgrove Grindability Index, Mass Yield, Energy Yield, and Energy Densification Ratio. The values obtained show the potential to optimize logistical operations related to transportation, demonstrating that energy densification operations, especially if associated with physical densification processes, enable the use of these residual forms of biomass in the replacement of fossil fuels, such as coal. Full article
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30 pages, 4920 KiB  
Review
The Power System and Microgrid Protection—A Review
by Jalal Sahebkar Farkhani, Mohammad Zareein, Arsalan Najafi, Rui Melicio and Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8271; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228271 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 8012
Abstract
In recent years, power grid infrastructures have been changing from a centralized power generation model to a paradigm where the generation capability is spread over an increasing number of small power stations relying on renewable energy sources. A microgrid is a local network [...] Read more.
In recent years, power grid infrastructures have been changing from a centralized power generation model to a paradigm where the generation capability is spread over an increasing number of small power stations relying on renewable energy sources. A microgrid is a local network including renewable and non-renewable energy sources as well as distributed loads. Microgrids can be operated in both grid-connected and islanded modes to fill the gap between the significant increase in demand and storage of electricity and transmission issues. Power electronics play an important role in microgrids due to the penetration of renewable energy sources. While microgrids have many benefits for power systems, they cause many challenges, especially in protection systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of protection systems with the penetration of microgrids in the distribution network. The expansion of a microgrid affects the coordination and protection by a change in the current direction in the distribution network. Various solutions have been suggested in the literature to resolve the microgrid protection issues. The conventional coordination of the protection system is based on the time delays between relays as the primary and backup protection. The system protection scheme has to be changed in the presence of a microgrid, so several protection schemes have been proposed to improve the protection system. Microgrids are classified into different types based on the DC/AC system, communication infrastructure, rotating synchronous machine or inverter-based distributed generation (DG), etc. Finally, we discuss the trend of future protection schemes and compare the conventional power systems. Full article
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