Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II

A special issue of Recycling (ISSN 2313-4321).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2022) | Viewed by 31884

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Research Unit on Materials, Energy and Environment for Sustainability, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
Interests: biomass energy; biomass supply chain management; biomass product logistics; biomass combustion; forestry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing demand for new forms of energy has led to a significant increase in the use of biomass as a primary source of energy. Although in many situations, the use of biomass is clearly well studied, in other cases, it is a new world, where knowledge is absent regarding how to best value and recycle these forms of biomass, many of which are classified as waste as a result of production processes. Thermochemical conversion technologies could provide an alternative for the processing of these materials, allowing for a reuse value through the transformation of their properties. The purpose of this Special Issue is to contribute to the increase in knowledge in this area when new forms of biomass appear that are cheaper and more available but are also potentially more problematic, namely in terms of the effects that can be associated with the use of these new products.

After the success of the previous Special Issue on “Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials”, we are pleased to invite researchers to contribute to this second Special Issue. The aim of the second Special Issue is similar to that of the first, i.e., to compile the latest advances in the recycling and recovery of biomass materials. Several innovative and alternative concepts can be presented, and the topics of energy recovery, circular economy, life cycle assessment, and supply chain could play a major role. Models on various temporal and geographical scales to understand the conditions of technical as well as organizational change are welcome, as are new methods of modeling that can fulfil technical and physical boundary conditions and consider economic environmental and social aspects.

Prof. Dr. Leonel Jorge Ribeiro Nunes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Recycling is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomass waste recycling
  • Biomass waste recovery
  • Agroindustry byproducts
  • Thermochemical conversion technologies
  • Circular economy

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Costs of Gasification Technologies for Energy and Fuel Production: Overview, Analysis, and Numerical Estimation
by Gonçalo Lourinho, Octávio Alves, Bruno Garcia, Bruna Rijo, Paulo Brito and Catarina Nobre
Recycling 2023, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling8030049 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7864
Abstract
During recent years, gasification technology has gained a high potential and attractiveness to convert biomass and other solid wastes into a valuable syngas for energy production or synthesis of new biofuels. The implementation of real gasification facilities implies a good insight of all [...] Read more.
During recent years, gasification technology has gained a high potential and attractiveness to convert biomass and other solid wastes into a valuable syngas for energy production or synthesis of new biofuels. The implementation of real gasification facilities implies a good insight of all expenses that are involved, namely investments required in equipment during the project and construction phases (capital expenditures, CapEx) and costs linked to the operation of the plant, or periodic maintenance interventions (operational expenditures, OpEx) or costs related to operations required for an efficient and sustainable performance of a gasification plant (e.g., feedstock pre-treatment and management of by-products). Knowledge of these economic parameters and their corresponding trends over time may help decision-makers to make adequate choices regarding the eligible technologies and to perform comparisons with other conventional scenarios. The present work aims to provide an overview on CapEx associated with gasification technologies devoted to convert biomass or solid waste sources, with a view of reducing the carbon footprint during energy generation or production of new energy carriers. In addition, an analysis of technology cost trends over time using regression methods is also presented, as well as an evaluation of specific capital investments according to the amount of output products generated for different gasification facilities. The novelty of this work is focused on an analysis of CapEx of existing gasification technologies to obtain distinct products (energy and fuels), and to determine mathematical correlations relating technology costs with time and product output. For these purposes, a survey of data and categorization of gasification plants based on the final products was made, and mathematical regression methods were used to obtain the correlations, with a statistical analysis (coefficient of determination) for validation. Specific investments on liquid biofuel production plants exhibited the highest decreasing trend over time, while electricity production became the least attractive solution. Linear correlations of specific investment versus time fitted better for electricity production plants (R2 = 0.67), while those relating the product output were better for liquid biofuel plants through exponential regressions (R2 = 0.65). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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12 pages, 2866 KiB  
Article
Environmental Analysis of the Incorporation of Sugarcane Bagasse in Medium Density Particleboard Panels through Life Cycle Assessment
by Nara Cangussu, Maria Luiza C. Vieira and Lino Maia
Recycling 2023, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling8020044 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
The growth of civil construction and agroindustry, resulting from population growth, caused an increase in the demand for non-renewable resources and for the exploitation of natural resources. Consequently, it caused a greater generation of waste, causing the current scenario to require alternatives for [...] Read more.
The growth of civil construction and agroindustry, resulting from population growth, caused an increase in the demand for non-renewable resources and for the exploitation of natural resources. Consequently, it caused a greater generation of waste, causing the current scenario to require alternatives for the reuse of these materials. Particleboard panels, for example, used in civil construction, can add value to waste or materials of low acceptance, such as thinning wood, mechanical wood processing waste or agro-industrial waste. Thus, this study proposed to analyse the life cycle of the sugarcane bagasse, considering the stages of extraction of materials and energy resources until their final disposal. This study aimed to compare impacts generated by the production of particleboards panels produced with wood from plantations (pine) and with the sugarcane bagasse. As a result, a better environmental performance was obtained from the panel composed of sugarcane bagasse, as it generated lower environmental impacts in all impact categories studied. The benefits range from the reduction in waste disposed of in landfills, which increase its useful life, the lower demand for reforestation, with steps that generate atmospheric emissions and degrade the soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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28 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling of Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass and Tires as Fuels for Cement Clinker Production
by Baby-Jean Robert Mungyeko Bisulandu and Frédéric Marias
Recycling 2023, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling8020041 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
This article presents the numerical modeling of the thermochemical conversion of biomass and tires as alternative fuels in kilns dedicated to the production of cement. The study seeks to understand and control the phenomena that occur when heavy fuel oil (traditional fuel) is [...] Read more.
This article presents the numerical modeling of the thermochemical conversion of biomass and tires as alternative fuels in kilns dedicated to the production of cement. The study seeks to understand and control the phenomena that occur when heavy fuel oil (traditional fuel) is partially replaced by biomass and tires. These are thoroughly mixed with meal at the entrance to the rotary kiln and form the bed of solids. The mathematical model developed takes into account both chemical reactions of meal and alternative fuels. At the entrance, the meal is made up of species such as CaCO3, MgCO3, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, C2S, C3A, C4AF and C3S, some of which form along the kiln. The article focuses specifically on the influence of alternative fuels on the clinker or cement obtained. The properties (moisture, organic matter, composition, energy value, etc.) of the biomass and the tires, which are associated with the operating parameters of the kiln, greatly influence the production of clinker. In order to understand and control the behavior of each material and the operating parameters in the clinker (cement) production process, the mathematical model follows the evolution of each species and parameters step-by-step, until the clinker is obtained. The effect of alternative fuels on clinker production was found for the kiln’s operational parameters, the dynamic angle of the bed (30°), the angle of inclination of the kiln (2°), rotation (2 rpm), the length and the inside diameter, respectively (80 m) and (4 m); the chemical and physical properties (humidity, organic, inorganic matter, C, H, O, N, S, Cl); the lower calorific value, raw material); and the numerical parameters (spatial discretization 30 and 120). Despite the high energy content of tire fuels, the results of the use of biomass give better characteristics of clinker/cement (52.36% C3S and 3.83% CaO).The results found show that biomass pyrolysis is endothermic, with the heat of reaction found to be rHpyro=184.9 kJ/kg, whereas for tires, a heat of reaction of rHpyro=1296.3 kJ/kg was found, showing that the pyrolysis of this material is exothermic. Char production is higher in the case of tires than in the case of biomass, with rates of 0.261 kg/kgOrg.Mat. and 0.196 kg/kgOrg.Mat., respectively. In both cases, waste conversion was complete (100%). The cement obtained in the different cases meets the requirements of Portland cements (73.06% silicates and 18.76% aluminates), the conversion of alternative fuels is complete (100%), and the specific energy consumption is almost consistent with values from the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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12 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Valorized Sisal Decorticated Waste in Rearing of Black Soldier Fly
by Aziza Athumani Konyo, Revocatus Machunda, Liliane Pasape and Anthony Mshandete
Recycling 2023, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling8010001 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2457
Abstract
The use of sisal decorticated waste (SDW) for various applications is limited due to its high acidic content. This is the first study of its kind regarding the use of SDW as a substrate for the growth of the black soldier fly (BSF). [...] Read more.
The use of sisal decorticated waste (SDW) for various applications is limited due to its high acidic content. This is the first study of its kind regarding the use of SDW as a substrate for the growth of the black soldier fly (BSF). Pre-treatment was a necessary and challenging step performed on the waste to meet the minimum requirements for the rearing of BSF. The SDW was sun dried, sieved, and decomposited and neutralized to form the final products that were used for the rearing of BSF. The resultant waste had fourteen (14) elements; the essential elemental form results were Ca, P, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn at varying levels, which are all essential for animal growth. The SDW contained 10 ± 0.01 percent of crude protein, 11 ± 0.02 moisture and energy (1615 kcal/g of sisal decorticated waste). The sun dried BSF larvae were reared on SDW that contained 53 ± 0.005 percent of crude protein, 4 ± 0.01 percent of crude fat, a moisture content of (10 ± 0.1)%, carbohydrate percent of (43 ± 0.01)%, and ash percent of (37 ± 0.08). When rearing was finished, 3000 g of dried pre-treated waste yielded more wet BSF larvae, (336 ± 41.3) g, compared to 3000 g of fruit waste, which yielded (244 ± 4.16) g of wet BSF larvae. Therefore, based on this study, SDW is a promising potential feed for rearing BSF because it had a better reduction of the waste by 52%. Furthermore, the harvested BSF larvae contained sufficient nutritional value to feed poultry and fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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16 pages, 4219 KiB  
Article
Methods of Commercialization and Usage of Sosnovsky hogweed Processing
by Daria Y. Mironova, Vijayakumar Varadarajan, Ivan V. Timakhovich, Nadezhda V. Barakova, Asemgul A. Tokbaeva, Olga N. Rumiantceva, Elizaveta E. Pomazkova, Igor V. Baranov and Liudmila I. Tishchenko
Recycling 2022, 7(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling7050077 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3091
Abstract
Sosnovsky’s hogweed is an invasive species that suppresses natural meadow biocenoses, but at the same time it can be a source of various biological substances (raw materials). Hogweed can be processed to produce cellulose. The obvious advantage of cellulose from Sosnovsky’s hogweed is [...] Read more.
Sosnovsky’s hogweed is an invasive species that suppresses natural meadow biocenoses, but at the same time it can be a source of various biological substances (raw materials). Hogweed can be processed to produce cellulose. The obvious advantage of cellulose from Sosnovsky’s hogweed is the unsuitability of the raw material for other uses, i.e., while valuable resources that are now being used to produce cellulose can be saved, the stems of Sosnovsky’s hogweed are waste products obtained because of getting rid of the plant. Despite this, there is an actual problem of including hogweed in the production chain. To solve this problem, business models can be built that are aimed at using the biproducts of processing hogweed. It is important that business models not only reflect the process of producing added value but also can solve the main problem of processing weed plants: the finiteness of the specified resource. Specifically, entrepreneurs starting such a business should not get into a situation where they destroy their only resource. This article is focused on a comparison of business models according to the following criteria: feasibility, profitability, and environmental impact. Business models that involve constructing a processing plant, using mobile laboratories, and industrial symbiosis models are presented. The overall result of this work is a business model that meets the specified criteria. Similar business models can be used for other plants with the possibility of obtaining valuable raw materials. Research shows how Sosnovsky hogweed can be processed into bioethanol or cellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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17 pages, 3959 KiB  
Article
Design of a Fixed-Bed Column with Vegetal Biomass and Its Recycling for Cr (VI) Treatment
by Uriel Fernando Carreño Sayago, Yineth Piñeros Castro and Laura Rosa Conde Rivera
Recycling 2022, 7(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling7050071 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The aim of this work is to design a fixed-bed column with vegetal biomass of Eichhornia crassipes and the process of recycling it for treatment via the adsorption of water loaded with chromium (VI). In the first stage, the relationship between the fixed-bed [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to design a fixed-bed column with vegetal biomass of Eichhornia crassipes and the process of recycling it for treatment via the adsorption of water loaded with chromium (VI). In the first stage, the relationship between the fixed-bed density and the microparticle density is calculated, giving a model for the design of the fixed bed. Using this model, two systems for the treatment of Cr (VI)-contaminated water were designed and built. The vegetable biomass at three particle diameters of 0.212 mm, 0.30 mm and 0.45 mm was evaluated in the removal of Cr (VI) from water using the designed fixed-bed systems, giving the best removal of Cr (VI) with the lowest size particles and allowing the validation of the proposed model with the Thomas model. The incorporation of iron into the biomass allowed for the treatment of near 2.0 L of polluted solution, removing around 90% of Cr (VI), while it was only possible to treat nearly 1.5 L when using raw biomass, removing around 80% of Cr (VI). The recycling of the biomass was achieved via the elution of Cr (VI) with EDTA, permitting the reuse of the material for more than five treatment cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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10 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Feasibility of Using Grey Sedge Residue to Facilitate Zero Waste Production
by Kamonwan Chucheep, Nathaporn Suwanpayak and Naree Phanchindawan
Recycling 2022, 7(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling7030034 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 2255
Abstract
There is approximately 30% of grey sedge (Lepironia articulata) residue remaining from weaving production that could add value to support zero waste management. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the feasibility of using a residue of grey sedge [...] Read more.
There is approximately 30% of grey sedge (Lepironia articulata) residue remaining from weaving production that could add value to support zero waste management. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the feasibility of using a residue of grey sedge or Krajood strips from weaving production to form a value-added product. To obtain preliminary data, Krajood strip residue was examined for its biological and physical properties. In addition, the biological and physical properties of Krajood strip residue in combination with loam soil (KSRL) were examined and compared with the properties of loam soil (LS) itself. The results showed that the total microbe and moisture content of the Krajood strip residue was significantly higher than that of the products made from Krajood strips (KS). The stress value of Krajood strips was higher than the stress values of other samples except for that of a bag made of paper. Identification of bacteria and mold by MALDI Biotyper and DNA sequencing compared with BLAST revealed the presence of the types of soil microbes that benefit plants. KSRL was enriched with larger amounts of the primary elements important for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and the three second tier elements. The pH of KS, LS, and KSRL were 6.40 ± 0.14, 5.87 ± 0.04, and 5.26 ± 0.02, respectively. These results could support the use of this beneficial residue for bioresource sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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9 pages, 20699 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Vermicompost Produced by Using Post-Consumer Cotton Textile as Carbon Source
by Vijaypal Singh, Jordan Wyatt, Ali Zoungrana and Qiuyan Yuan
Recycling 2022, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling7010010 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3962
Abstract
A large amount of textile waste is generated every year around the globe. The textile product made from natural fibers might be vermicomposted and used as fertilizer. The present study aimed to research an integrated system of pre-composting (pathogen kill) and vermicomposting with [...] Read more.
A large amount of textile waste is generated every year around the globe. The textile product made from natural fibers might be vermicomposted and used as fertilizer. The present study aimed to research an integrated system of pre-composting (pathogen kill) and vermicomposting with various levels of post-consumer cotton waste to determine if this addition has any effects on the composting process. A vermicompost bin was constructed and filled with feedstocks mixed with post-consumer cotton textile waste at a 25:1 C:N ratio, and operated for three months at approximately 70% moisture content, with four composting trials with 0 g (control), 100 g, 200 g, and 300 g of textile waste. The pre-composting stage reached a temperature ranging from 40 °C to 50 °C, able to neutralize the pathogens. All four trials resulted in final compost with C: N ratios around 14, proving that post-consumer cotton textile waste did not affect the vermicomposting process, and was successfully used as a carbon source by worms to produce a healthy and mature compost. This indicates a sustainable option for the recovery of textile waste that is being decomposed in landfills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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10 pages, 2838 KiB  
Article
Variation of Used Vegetable Oils’ Composition upon Treatment with Algerian Clays
by Abdelhak Serouri, Zoubida Taleb, Alberto Mannu, Sebastiano Garroni, Nina Senes, Safia Taleb, Sara Brini and Sabrine Kawther Abdoun
Recycling 2021, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6040068 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3462
Abstract
The treatment of used vegetable oils (UVOs) with clays represents a pivotal step in their industrial recycling process as well as one of the most challenging topics for researchers. In particular, cheap, effective, and sustainable powders need to be explored in order to [...] Read more.
The treatment of used vegetable oils (UVOs) with clays represents a pivotal step in their industrial recycling process as well as one of the most challenging topics for researchers. In particular, cheap, effective, and sustainable powders need to be explored in order to develop new processes which produce beneficial results in relation to economic and environmental aspects. In this context, five samples within commercial and waste vegetable oils were treated with two sodium- and calcium-based bentonites employing a low oil/bentonite ratio (0.15 wt%). The outcomes of the processes were monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy and compared with the data relative to the parent commercial edible oil. In particular, treatment of FT-IR data by multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to determine a chemical fingerprint characteristic of each sample. Important relationships between the overall chemical composition and the specific clay employed and the treatment time (2 or 4 h) were highlighted. Finally, N2 physisorption, TEM microscopy, and FT-IR analyses of the more efficient Na bentonite allowed us to characterize the material and thus to furnish all the information needed to set-up a general protocol for the partial regeneration of waste vegetable oil destined for further processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials II)
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