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Open AccessReview

The Power System and Microgrid Protection—A Review

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175, Iran
Department of Engineering, University of Ferdowsi, Mashhad 91779, Iran
Faculty of Engineering, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan 73611, Iran
IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
ICT, Department Física, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Largo dos Colegiais 2, 7004-516 Évora, Portugal
Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Estrada do Cercal 449, Santiago de Riba-Ul, 3720-509 Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8271;
Received: 11 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 21 November 2020
In recent years, power grid infrastructures have been changing from a centralized power generation model to a paradigm where the generation capability is spread over an increasing number of small power stations relying on renewable energy sources. A microgrid is a local network including renewable and non-renewable energy sources as well as distributed loads. Microgrids can be operated in both grid-connected and islanded modes to fill the gap between the significant increase in demand and storage of electricity and transmission issues. Power electronics play an important role in microgrids due to the penetration of renewable energy sources. While microgrids have many benefits for power systems, they cause many challenges, especially in protection systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of protection systems with the penetration of microgrids in the distribution network. The expansion of a microgrid affects the coordination and protection by a change in the current direction in the distribution network. Various solutions have been suggested in the literature to resolve the microgrid protection issues. The conventional coordination of the protection system is based on the time delays between relays as the primary and backup protection. The system protection scheme has to be changed in the presence of a microgrid, so several protection schemes have been proposed to improve the protection system. Microgrids are classified into different types based on the DC/AC system, communication infrastructure, rotating synchronous machine or inverter-based distributed generation (DG), etc. Finally, we discuss the trend of future protection schemes and compare the conventional power systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: protection system challenges; microgrid; protection schemes; wide area protection; intelligent algorithms protection system challenges; microgrid; protection schemes; wide area protection; intelligent algorithms
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Sahebkar Farkhani, J.; Zareein, M.; Najafi, A.; Melicio, R.; Rodrigues, E.M.G. The Power System and Microgrid Protection—A Review. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8271.

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