Special Issue "Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials"

A special issue of Recycling (ISSN 2313-4321).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Leonel Nunes
Website
Guest Editor
proMetheus – Unidade de Investigação em Materiais, Energia e Ambiente para a Sustentabilidade, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua da Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Alvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
GOVCOPP – Unidade de Investigação em Governança, Competitividade e Políticas Públicas, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
DEGEIT – Departamento de Economia, Gestão, Engenharia Industrial e Turismo, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: biomass; biomass energy; biomass supply chains; biomass conversion technologies; sustainability; circular economy; biomass waste recycling and recovering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing demand for new forms of energy has led to a significant increase in the use of biomass as a primary source of energy. Although in many situations, the use of biomass is clearly well studied, in other cases, it is a new world, where knowledge is absent about how to best value and recycle these forms of biomass, many of which are classified as waste as a result of production processes. Thermochemical conversion technologies could provide an alternative for the processing of these materials, allowing for a reuse value through the transformation of their properties. The purpose of this Special Issue is to contribute to the increase in knowledge in this area when new forms of biomass appear that are cheaper and more available, but also are potentially more problematic, namely in terms of the effects that can be associated with the use of these new products.

This Special Issue will focus on the recycling and recovery of biomass materials. Several innovative and alternative concepts can be presented, and the topics of energy recovery, circular economy, life cycle assessment, and supply chain could play a major role. Models on various temporal and geographical scales to understand the conditions of technical as well as organizational change are welcome, as are new methods of modeling that can fulfil technical and physical boundary conditions and consider economic environmental and social aspects.

Dr. Leonel Nunes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Recycling is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomass waste recycling
  • Biomass waste recovery
  • Agroindustry byproducts
  • Thermochemical conversion technologies
  • Circular economy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Organic Material for Clean Production in the Batik Industry: A Case Study of Natural Batik Semarang, Indonesia
Recycling 2020, 5(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5040028 - 19 Oct 2020
Abstract
Batik has become more desirable in the current fashion mode within the global market, but the environmental damage induced by this fabric’s synthetic dye practices is a matter of concern. This study aimed to discuss the application of organic materials as natural dyes [...] Read more.
Batik has become more desirable in the current fashion mode within the global market, but the environmental damage induced by this fabric’s synthetic dye practices is a matter of concern. This study aimed to discuss the application of organic materials as natural dyes in the clean production of textiles to maintain the environment. The research was a case study from the community services program in Kampung Malon, Gunungpati, Semarang City, Indonesia, focused on the batik home industry of the Zie Batik fabric. Furthermore, natural pigments from various plant organs (stem, leaves, wood, bark, and fruit) of diverse species, including Caesalpinia sappan, Ceriops candolleana, Maclura cochinchinensis, Indigofera tinctorial, I. arrecta, Rhizopora spp., Strobilantes cusia, and Terminalia bellirica were used for this type of material. These pigments are more biodegradable, relatively safe, and easily obtained with zero liquid waste compared to the synthetic variants. The leftover wastewater from the coloring stages was further utilized for other processes. Subsequently, the remaining organic waste from the whole procedure was employed as compost and/or timber for batik production, although a large amount of the wastewater containing sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O), and fixatives (Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4) were discharged into the environment during the process of mordanting and fixating, with the requirement of additional treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials)
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Open AccessCommunication
On the Production of Potassium Carbonate from Cocoa Pod Husks
Recycling 2020, 5(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5030023 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
Cocoa beans are found inside an outer husk; 60% of the cocoa fruit is the outer husk, which is a waste biomass. The husk cannot be used directly as a soil amendment as it promotes the fungal black pod disease, which reduces crop [...] Read more.
Cocoa beans are found inside an outer husk; 60% of the cocoa fruit is the outer husk, which is a waste biomass. The husk cannot be used directly as a soil amendment as it promotes the fungal black pod disease, which reduces crop yield. The pods are segregated from the trees, and their plant nutrient value is wasted. This is particularly true for the small acreage farmers in West Africa. Cocoa pod husk is well suited to be used as a biomass source for electricity production. The waste ash is rich in potassium, which can be converted in various chemical products, most notably, high-purity potassium carbonate. This study reviews the information known about cocoa and cocoa pod husk, and considers the socio-economic implications of creating a local economy based on collecting the cocoa pod husk for electricity production, coupled with the processing of the waste ash into various products. The study demonstrates that the concept is feasible, and also identifies the local conditions required to create this sustainable economic process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Biogas and Biofertilizer Production from Abattoir Wastes in Nigeria Using a Multi-Criteria Assessment Approach
Recycling 2020, 5(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5030018 - 19 Aug 2020
Abstract
Management of waste streams from abattoirs is a major challenge in developing countries. Harnessing these wastes as resources for the production of biogas and biofertilizer could contribute to curbing the environmental menace and to addressing the problems of energy and food deficits in [...] Read more.
Management of waste streams from abattoirs is a major challenge in developing countries. Harnessing these wastes as resources for the production of biogas and biofertilizer could contribute to curbing the environmental menace and to addressing the problems of energy and food deficits in Nigeria. However, large scale uptake of the technology is faced with techno-socio-economic and the lack of data required for effective investment decisions. In this study, the potential use of waste generated in the north central region of Nigerian abattoirs, representing approximately 12% of the land and 6% of the population, were evaluated for suitability for biogas and biofertilizer production. Data acquired from the study sites were used for computational estimation and integrated into strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to give a detailed overview of the prospects and the limiting factors. The study revealed that high investment costs and public subsidies for fossil fuels are the key limiting factors while the prospects of tapping into the unexploited carbon markets and multiple socio-economic and environmental benefits favors investment. Public supports in the form of national policy reforms leading to intervention programs are required for progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Waste Cooking Oil via Recycling as Biofuel for Diesel Engines
Recycling 2020, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5020013 - 08 Jun 2020
Abstract
In this study, waste cooking oil (WCO) was used to successfully manufacture catalyst cracking biodiesel in the laboratory. This study aims to evaluate and compare the influence of waste cooking oil synthetic diesel (WCOSD) with that of commercial diesel (CD) fuel on an [...] Read more.
In this study, waste cooking oil (WCO) was used to successfully manufacture catalyst cracking biodiesel in the laboratory. This study aims to evaluate and compare the influence of waste cooking oil synthetic diesel (WCOSD) with that of commercial diesel (CD) fuel on an engine’s operating characteristics. The second goal of this study is to compare the engine performance and temperature characteristics of cooling water and lubricant oil under various engine operating conditions of a test engine fueled by waste cooking oil and CD. The results indicated that the engine torque of the engine running with WCOSD dropped from 1.9 Nm to 5.4 Nm at all speeds, and its brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) dropped at almost every speed. Thus, the thermal brake efficiency (BTE) of the engine fueled by WCOSD was higher at all engine speeds. Also, the engine torque of the WCOSD-fueled engine was lower than the engine torque of the CD-fueled engine at all engine speeds. The engine’s power dropped sequentially through 0.3 kW, 0.4 kW, 0.6 kW, 0.9 kW, 0.8 kW, 0.9 kW, 1.0 kW and 1.9 kW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermochemical Conversion of Olive Oil Industry Waste: Circular Economy through Energy Recovery
Recycling 2020, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5020012 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The demand for new sources of energy is one of the main quests for humans. At the same time, there is a growing need to eliminate or recover a set of industrial or agroforestry waste sources. In this context, several options may be [...] Read more.
The demand for new sources of energy is one of the main quests for humans. At the same time, there is a growing need to eliminate or recover a set of industrial or agroforestry waste sources. In this context, several options may be of interest, especially given the amounts produced and environmental impacts caused. Olive pomace can be considered one of these options. Portugal, as one of the most prominent producers of olive oil, therefore, also faces the problem of dealing with the waste of the olive oil industry. Olive pomace energy recovery is a subject referenced in many different studies and reports since long ago. However, traditional forms of recovery, such as direct combustion, did not prove to be the best solution, mainly due to its fuel properties and other characteristics, which cause difficulties in its storage and transportation as well. Torrefaction and pyrolysis can contribute to a volume reduction, optimizing storage and transportation. In this preliminary study, were carried out torrefaction and pyrolysis tests on olive pomace samples, processed at 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C, followed by laboratory characterization of the materials. It was verified an improvement in the energy content of the materials, demonstrating that there is potential for the use of these thermochemical conversion technologies for the energy recovery of olive pomace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling and Recovery of Biomass Materials)
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