Special Issue "Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Chiara Bedon
Website
Guest Editor
University of Trieste, Department of Engineering and Architecture, Italy
Interests: structural engineering; materials; design; numerical analysis; experimental testing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Flavio Stochino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
Interests: Concrete; Fire; Blast; Impact; Structures; Recycled Concrete; Masonry; Structural Dynamics; Computational Mechanics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Daniel Honfi
Website
Guest Editor
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden
Interests: structural engineering; structural safety; robustness; resilience; serviceability of structures
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exceptional design loads on buildings and structures may have different causes, including high-strain natural hazards, man-made attacks, and accidents, as well as extreme operational conditions (severe temperature variations, humidity, etc.). All of these aspects can be critical for specific structural typologies and/or materials that are particularly sensitive to external conditions. In this regard, dedicated and refined methods are required for their design, analysis, and maintenance under the expected life-time. Major challenges are related to the structural typology and material properties, with respect to the key features of the imposed design load. Further issues can be derived from the need for the mitigation or retrofit of existing structures, as well as from the optimal and safe design of innovative materials/systems. Finally, in some cases, no appropriate design recommendations are available, and thus experimental investigations can have a key role within the overall process.
In this Special Issue, we invite the publication of original research studies, review papers, and experimental and/or numerical investigations on the structural performance of buildings and structures (including the analysis at the material, component, or assembly level) under exceptional loads. Both new design projects or the retrofit and mitigation of existing structures will be of interest for the Special Issue.

Dr. Chiara Bedon
Dr. Flavio Stochino
Dr. Daniel Honfi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • structural analysis;
  • extreme design loads;
  • experiments;
  • numerical modelling;
  • safety;
  • monitoring;
  • mitigation

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Responses of Steel Frame Structures with Different Types of Haunch Connection Under Blast Load
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051815 - 06 Mar 2020
Abstract
This research is aimed at investigating the dynamic behaviour of, and to analyse the dynamic response and dynamic performance of steel frames strengthened with welded haunches subjected to a typical hydrocarbon blast loading. The structural dynamic analysis was carried out incorporating the selected [...] Read more.
This research is aimed at investigating the dynamic behaviour of, and to analyse the dynamic response and dynamic performance of steel frames strengthened with welded haunches subjected to a typical hydrocarbon blast loading. The structural dynamic analysis was carried out incorporating the selected blast load, the validated 3D model of the structures with different welded haunch configurations, steel dynamic material properties, and non-linear dynamic analysis of multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) structural systems. The dynamic responses and effectiveness of the reinforced connections were examined using ABAQUS finite element software. Results showed that the presence of the welded haunch reinforcement decreased the maximum frame ductility ratio. Based on the evaluation of the results, the haunch reinforcements strengthened the selected steel frame and improved the dynamic performance compared to the frame with unreinforced connections under blast loading, and the biggest haunch configuration is the “best” type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Horizontal Axis Deviation of a Small Radius TBM Tunnel Based on Winkler Foundation Model
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030784 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
During the construction stage of the small radius TBM (tunnel boring machine) interval, the improper control of the boring parameters and the boring posture can cause the horizontal axis deviation of the shield tunnel. In order to address this issue, the TBM segments [...] Read more.
During the construction stage of the small radius TBM (tunnel boring machine) interval, the improper control of the boring parameters and the boring posture can cause the horizontal axis deviation of the shield tunnel. In order to address this issue, the TBM segments lining structure of the small radius interval is simplified as the continuous circular curved beam based on the longitudinal equivalent continuous model and Winkler elastic foundation beam theory. The theoretical model is solved through the transfer matrix method, and its applicability is verified by comparing it with the field monitoring data. It is found that the horizontal axis deviation of the completed tunnel increases with the total jack thrust, and the lateral displacement tends to be stable when the distance between the ring and the tail is far. The horizontal axis deviation has a negative relationship with the thrust difference or path difference when the jack thrust in the outside of the shield curve is larger than that of inside the shield curve. The horizontal axis deviation has a positive relationship with the thrust difference or path difference when the jack thrust in the outside of the shield curve is smaller than that of inside the shield curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wind Characteristics over Mountainous Valley Bridge Site Considering Improved Boundary Transition Sections
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030751 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
To study wind characteristics over mountainous terrain, the Xiangjiang Bridge site was employed in this paper. The improved boundary transition sections (BTS) were adopted to reduce the influence of “artificial cliffs” of the terrain model on the wind characteristics at the bridge site [...] Read more.
To study wind characteristics over mountainous terrain, the Xiangjiang Bridge site was employed in this paper. The improved boundary transition sections (BTS) were adopted to reduce the influence of “artificial cliffs” of the terrain model on the wind characteristics at the bridge site over the mountainous terrain. Numerical simulation and experimental investigations on wind characteristics over mountainous terrain with/without BTS were conducted for different cases, respectively. The research results show that the cross-bridge wind speed ratios and wind attack angles at the main deck level vary greatly along the bridge axis, which can be roughly divided into three parts, namely the mountain (I, III) and central canyon areas (II). The cross-bridge wind speed ratios at the main deck level with BTS is generally larger than that without BTS in the central canyon area (II) for most cases, while the opposite trend can be found in wind attack angles. The longitudinal wind speed ratios of the terrain model with BTS at L/4, L/2, and 3L/4 of the bridge length are larger than that of the terrain model without BTS for most cases. In general, the maximum relative error between numerical results and experimental results is about 30% for most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
The Seepage and Soil Plug Formation in Suction Caissons in Sand Using Visual Tests
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020566 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
The rapid development of offshore wind energy in China is becoming increasingly relevant for movement toward green development. This paper presents the results of visual tests of a suction caisson used as foundation for offshore wind turbines. The distribution of hydraulic gradients of [...] Read more.
The rapid development of offshore wind energy in China is becoming increasingly relevant for movement toward green development. This paper presents the results of visual tests of a suction caisson used as foundation for offshore wind turbines. The distribution of hydraulic gradients of sand at the mudline in the caisson was obtained to find out the relationship with the heights of soil plugs. The relationship equation was proposed and obtained by using quadratic regression, guiding project designs, and construction. It was found that there was no soil plug in the caisson when small suction was applied during the suction penetration. The relationship between the heights of the soil plugs and the hydraulic gradient of the soil was proposed and obtained by using quadratic regression to predict (roughly) the height of soil plugs in suction caissons in sand during suction penetration. The influence of settlement outside caissons on the soil plug was found to decrease as the buried depth rose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Fragility Curves for RC Structure under Blast Load Considering the Influence of Seismic Demand
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020445 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The complex characteristics of explosion load as well as its increasingly high frequency in the civil environment highlight the need to develop models representing the behavior of structures under blast load. This work presents a probabilistic study of the performance of framed reinforced [...] Read more.
The complex characteristics of explosion load as well as its increasingly high frequency in the civil environment highlight the need to develop models representing the behavior of structures under blast load. This work presents a probabilistic study of the performance of framed reinforced concrete buildings designed according to the current Italian NTC18 and European EC8 technical standards. First, a simplified single degree of freedom model representing the structural system under blast load has been developed. Then, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulation analysis highlighted the influence of seismic demand on the behavior of Reinforced Concrete RC buildings subjected to blast load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Friction Resistance for Slurry Pipe Jacking
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010207 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Friction resistance usually constitutes one of the two main components for the calculation of required jacking force. This paper provides a new approach to predict the friction resistance of slurry pipe jacking. First, the existing prediction equations and their establishment methods and essential [...] Read more.
Friction resistance usually constitutes one of the two main components for the calculation of required jacking force. This paper provides a new approach to predict the friction resistance of slurry pipe jacking. First, the existing prediction equations and their establishment methods and essential hypotheses used were carefully summarized and compared, providing good foundations for the establishment of the new model. It was found that the friction resistance can be uniformly calculated by multiplying an effective friction coefficient and the normal force acting on the external surface of the pipe. This effective friction coefficient is introduced to reflect the effect of contact state of pipe-soil-slurry, highly affected by the effect of lubrication and the interaction of pipe-soil-slurry. The critical quantity of pipe-soil contact angle (or width) involved may be calculated by Persson’s contact model. Then, the equation of normal force was rederived and determined, in which the vertical soil stress should be calculated by Terzaghi’s silo model with parameters proposed by the UK Pipe Jacking Association. Different from the existing prediction models, this new approach has taken into full consideration the effect of lubrication, soil properties (such as internal friction angle, cohesion, and void ratio), and design parameters (such as buried depth, overcut, and pipe diameter). In addition, four field cases and a numerical simulation case with various soils and design parameters were carefully selected to check out the capability of the new model. There was greater satisfaction with the measured data as compared to the existing models and the numerical simulation approach, indicating that the new approach not only has higher accuracy but is also more flexible and has a wider applicability. Finally, the influence of buried depth, overcut, and pipe diameter on the friction resistance and lubrication efficiency were analyzed, and the results can be helpful for the future design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Full-Scale Train Derailment Testing and Analysis of Post-Derailment Behavior of Casting Bogie
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010059 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, a full-scale train bogie derailment test was conducted. For this, test methodologies to describe the wheel-climbing derailment of the train bogie and to obtain accurate test data were proposed. The derailment test was performed with the casting bogie for a [...] Read more.
In this study, a full-scale train bogie derailment test was conducted. For this, test methodologies to describe the wheel-climbing derailment of the train bogie and to obtain accurate test data were proposed. The derailment test was performed with the casting bogie for a freight train and a Rheda 2000 concrete track. Two different derailment velocities (28.08 km/h and 55.05 km/h) were considered. From the test, it was found that humps in the concrete track affected the post-derailment behavior of the bogie when the derailment velocity was 28.08 km/h. For a higher derailment velocity (55.05 km/h), significant lateral movement of the derailed bogie was observed. This lateral movement was first controlled by wheel–rail contact, followed by contact with the containment wall. Finally, the train was returned to the track center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analytical Framework for the Investigation of Tropical Cyclone Wind Characteristics over Different Measurement Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5385; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245385 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Wind characteristics (e.g., mean wind speed, gust factor, turbulence intensity and integral scale, etc.) are quite scattered in different measurement conditions, especially during typhoon and/or hurricane processes, which results in the structural engineer ambiguously determining the wind parameters in wind-resistant design of buildings [...] Read more.
Wind characteristics (e.g., mean wind speed, gust factor, turbulence intensity and integral scale, etc.) are quite scattered in different measurement conditions, especially during typhoon and/or hurricane processes, which results in the structural engineer ambiguously determining the wind parameters in wind-resistant design of buildings and structures in cyclone-prone regions. In tropical cyclones (including typhoons and hurricanes), the inconsistent wind characteristics may be in part ascribed to the complex flow structure with the coexistence of both mechanical and convective turbulence in the boundary layer of tropical cyclones. Another significant contribution to the scattered wind characteristics is due to various measurement conditions (e.g., terrain exposure and height) and data processing schemes (e.g., averaging time). The removal of the inconsistency in the field-measurement system may offer a more rational comparison of measured wind data from various observation platforms, and hence facilitates a better identification scheme of the wind characteristics to guide the urban planning design and wind-resistant design of buildings and structures. In this study, an analytical framework was firstly proposed to eliminate the potential observation-related effects in wind characteristics and then the wind characteristics of seven field measured tropical cyclones (four typhoons and three hurricanes) were comparatively investigated. Specifically, field measurements of wind characteristics were converted to a standard reference station with a roughness length of 0.03 m, observation duration of 10 min for mean wind and averaging time of 3 s for gusty wind at a 10 m height. The differences of the measured wind characteristics between the typhoons and hurricanes were highlighted. The standardized turbulent wind characteristics under the analytical framework for typhoons and hurricanes were compared with the corresponding recommendations in standard of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE 7-10) and Architectural Institute of Japan Recommendations for Loads on Buildings (AIJ-RLB-2004). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Assessment of the Effect of Vertical Earthquake Motion on Underground Metro Station
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5182; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235182 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents experimental assessment of the effect of the ratio of vertical to horizontal peak ground acceleration (RVH) on underground metro station. An atrium-style metro station embedded in artificial soil subjected to earthquake loading is examined through shaking table tests. The experimental [...] Read more.
This paper presents experimental assessment of the effect of the ratio of vertical to horizontal peak ground acceleration (RVH) on underground metro station. An atrium-style metro station embedded in artificial soil subjected to earthquake loading is examined through shaking table tests. The experimental results for three different RVH, including soil acceleration, soil-structure acceleration difference, dynamic soil normal stress (DSNS), and structural dynamic strain, are presented and the results are compared with the case of horizontal-only excitation. It is found that for an atrium-style metro station, the differences in horizontal acceleration amplitude between the structure and the adjacent soil rise with increasing RVH, which are different at different depths. The most significant differences occur at the depth of the ceiling slab. It is also observed that both the amplitude and distribution of peak DSNS have obvious differences between the left and right side walls at all levels. It is therefore concluded that the RVH has a significant influence on dynamic soil-structure interaction. It is believed that under extreme earthquake loading, such as near fault zones, RVH is a parameter of paramount importance and should be accounted for in the seismic analyses and seismic performance assessments of underground structures, especially for those with zero or near-zero buried depth, such as atrium-style metro stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature Distribution Characteristics of Concrete during Fire Occurrence in a Tunnel
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4740; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224740 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fire in a tunnel or an underground structure is characterized by a rise in temperature above 1000 °C in 5–10 min, which is due to the characteristics of the closed space. The Permanent International Association of Road Congresses has reported that serious damage [...] Read more.
Fire in a tunnel or an underground structure is characterized by a rise in temperature above 1000 °C in 5–10 min, which is due to the characteristics of the closed space. The Permanent International Association of Road Congresses has reported that serious damage can occur in an underground structure as a consequence of high temperatures of up to 1400 °C when a fire accident involving a tank lorry occurs in an underground space. In these circumstances, it is difficult to approach the scene and extinguish the fire, and the result is often casualties and damage to facilities. When a concrete structure is exposed to a high temperature, spalling or dehydration occurs. As a result, the cross section of the structure is lost, and the structural stability declines to a great extent. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal properties of concrete are degraded by the temperature hysteresis that occurs at high temperatures. Consequently, interest in the fire safety of underground structures, including tunnels, has steadily increased. This study conducted a fire simulation to analyze the effects of a fire caused by dangerous-goods vehicles on the tunnel structure. In addition, a fire exposure test of reinforced-concrete members was conducted using the Richtlinien für die Ausstattung und den Betrieb von Straßentunneln (RABT) fire curve, which is used to simulate a tunnel fire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Snow Load Characteristics on a Complex Long-Span Roof Based on Snow–Wind Tunnel Tests
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204369 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
A considerable number of studies have been carried out for predicting snowdrifts on roofs over the years. However, few studies have focused on snowdrifts on complex long-span roofs, as the complex shape and fine structure pose significant challenges. In this study, to simplify [...] Read more.
A considerable number of studies have been carried out for predicting snowdrifts on roofs over the years. However, few studies have focused on snowdrifts on complex long-span roofs, as the complex shape and fine structure pose significant challenges. In this study, to simplify the calculation requirements of snow load on such roofs, work was conducted to decompose the snowdrift on a complex roof into snowdrifts on several simple roofs. First, the snow–wind tunnel test similarity criteria were investigated based on a combined air–snow–wind experimental system. Thereafter, with reference to the validated experimental similarity criteria, a series of snow–wind tunnel tests were performed for snowdrifts on a complex long-span structure under the conditions of different inflow directions. Finally, based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the snowdrifts on the complex roof were decomposed into basic characteristic distribution modes, including snowdrifts caused by the local and overall roof forms. The snow distribution under a specific inflow direction could be derived from the weighted combination of the basic characteristic modes, based on the wind direction coefficients. Therefore, it is possible for the snow load on a complex roof to be estimated preliminarily based on the snow distributions on several simple roofs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution Mechanism of Wind Vibration Coefficient and Stability Performance during the Whole Construction Process for Super Large Cooling Towers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4202; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204202 - 09 Oct 2019
Abstract
Wind-induced damage during the construction process and the evolution of damage over time are important reasons for the wind-induced destruction of large cooling towers. In fact, wind vibration coefficient and stability performance will evolve with the construction height and material properties over time. [...] Read more.
Wind-induced damage during the construction process and the evolution of damage over time are important reasons for the wind-induced destruction of large cooling towers. In fact, wind vibration coefficient and stability performance will evolve with the construction height and material properties over time. However, the existing studies generally ignore the impact of wind load and structural performance during the construction period. In this study, we built the 3D physical model separately for all eight construction stages a super large cooling tower which is being currently constructed and stands 210 m. The dynamic characteristics of the cooling tower were analyzed in each stage. First, the flow field information and 3D time history of aerodynamic forces were obtained for the whole construction process using large eddy simulation (LES). Full transient dynamic finite element analysis was used to calculate the dynamic responses of the tower under the real-time changes of wind loads during the whole construction process. Five calculation methods were used to trace the evolution of wind vibration coefficient during the whole construction process of the super large cooling tower. Then the formula for wind vibration coefficient changing with the construction height was fitted. The differential values of wind vibration coefficient during the whole construction process of the cooling tower were discussed by taking the meridional axial force as the objective function. On this basis, the influence and working mechanism of wind vibration coefficient, concrete age, construction load, geometric nonlinearity, internal suction force on buckling stability, and ultimate bearing capacity of the cooling towers were investigated. This research provides an enhanced understanding on the evolution of wind-induced stability performance in super large cooling towers and a methodology to prevent wind-induced damage during the construction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Issues on the Vibration Analysis of In-Service Laminated Glass Structures: Analytical, Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Delaminated Beams
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183928 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Load-bearing laminated glass (LG) elements take the form of simple members in buildings (i.e., columns, beams, and plates) or realize stand-alone assemblies, where glass and other traditional constructional materials can interact. Among several relevant aspects, the dynamic response of LG structures requires dedicated [...] Read more.
Load-bearing laminated glass (LG) elements take the form of simple members in buildings (i.e., columns, beams, and plates) or realize stand-alone assemblies, where glass and other traditional constructional materials can interact. Among several relevant aspects, the dynamic response of LG structures requires dedicated methods of analysis, towards the fulfilment of safe design purposes. A combination of multiple aspects must be taken into account for dynamic calculations of even simple LG elements when compared to static conditions, first of all the sensitivity of common interlayers to the imposed vibration frequency. The challenge is even more complex for the vibration serviceability assessment of in-service LG structures, where the degradation of materials and possible delamination effects could manifest, hence resulting in structural performances that can markedly differ from early-design conditions. Major uncertainties can be associated to the actual mechanical characterization of materials in use (especially the viscoelastic interlayers), as well as the contribution of restraints (as compared to ideal boundaries) and the possible degradation of the bonding layers (i.e., delaminations). All of these aspects are examined in the paper, with the support of extended analytical calculations, on-site experimental measurements, and parametric Finite Element (FE) numerical analyses. When compared to literature efforts accounting for ideal boundaries only, an analytical formulation is proposed to include the effects of flexible restraints in the dynamic performance of general (double) LG beams. Special care is also spent for the presence of possible delaminations, including size and position effects. In the latter case, existing formulations for composite laminates are preliminarily adapted to LG beams. Their reliability and accuracy is assessed with the support of test predictions and parametric FE simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis and Dynamic Response of Optimized Composite Cross Elliptical Pressure Hull Subject to Non-Contact Underwater Blast Loading
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173489 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Among the most important problems confronted by designers of submarines is to minimize the weight, increase the payload, and enhance the strength of pressure hull in order to sustain the hydrostatic pressure and underwater explosions (UNDEX). In this study, a Multiple Intersecting Cross [...] Read more.
Among the most important problems confronted by designers of submarines is to minimize the weight, increase the payload, and enhance the strength of pressure hull in order to sustain the hydrostatic pressure and underwater explosions (UNDEX). In this study, a Multiple Intersecting Cross Elliptical Pressure Hull (MICEPH) subjected to hydrostatic pressure was first optimized to increase the payload according to the design requirements. Thereafter, according to the optimum design results, a numerical analysis for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) phenomena and UNDEX were implemented using nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. The propagation of shock waves through the MICEPH was analyzed and the response modes (breathing, accordion and whipping) were discussed. Furthermore, the acceleration, displacement and failure index time histories at different locations were presented. The results showed that the greatest acceleration occurred in the athwart direction, followed by the vertical and longitudinal directions. Additionally, the first bubble pulse has a major effect on athwart acceleration. Moreover, the analysis can be effectively used to predict and calculate the failure indices of pressure hull. Additionally, it provides an efficient method that reasonably captures the dynamic response of a pressure hull subjected to UNDEX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of the Snowdrift in Cold Regions: Introduction and Evaluation of a New Approach
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3393; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163393 - 17 Aug 2019
Abstract
Unbalanced, or non-uniform, snow loads caused by snow drifting or sliding in cold regions with heavy snowfalls, can be a serious problem for the building industry. However, the methods for predicting snow distribution still need to be improved. Field observation is the most [...] Read more.
Unbalanced, or non-uniform, snow loads caused by snow drifting or sliding in cold regions with heavy snowfalls, can be a serious problem for the building industry. However, the methods for predicting snow distribution still need to be improved. Field observation is the most direct and reliable method to study snow distribution, but because the natural environment is uncontrollable and varies dramatically, sometimes conclusions may be confused under the influence of the many variables in the investigation. This paper proposes a snowing experiment approach using an outdoor snow–wind combined experiment facility for the study of snow distribution. The facility can produce a stable and controllable wind field and snowfall environment. Experiments which focused on snowdrift around a building were conducted during the winter to make an evaluation of the repeatability and reliability of the new approach. Finally, from the analysis of results, it was demonstrated that the experimental facility was stable and that the similarity criterion adopted for the snowing pattern was reliable. Especially, the minimum value of the friction speed ratio was suggested to ensure the test accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Young Elasticity Modulus in Bored Piles Through the Global Strain Extensometer Sensors and Real-Time Monitoring Data
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9153060 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
For friction piles depending on the friction resistance, accurate prediction of unit skin friction around the pile shaft is the dominant resistance to measure the final bearing capacity of a bored-pile. The present study measures the stress–strain transferring in two instrumented bored-piles (BP [...] Read more.
For friction piles depending on the friction resistance, accurate prediction of unit skin friction around the pile shaft is the dominant resistance to measure the final bearing capacity of a bored-pile. The present study measures the stress–strain transferring in two instrumented bored-piles (BP #1 & BP# 2) embedded within the soil layer in Kuala Lumpur by real-time monitoring global strain extensometer (GSE) sensors. Two bored-piles (i.e., having 1.80 m and 1.0 m diameters, as well as 36 m and 32 m lengths) have been loaded with two times to their design working loads. Extensive data are analyzed to measure the changes in stress–strain in the bored-pile. The effect of loading and unloading stages on the pile’s head and base settlement has been monitored, indicating that Young modulus of elasticity in concrete bored-pile ( E c ), average strain, and unit skin friction changed along the bored-pile based on the ground site conditions and stress registered. One example of two case studies with great real-time monitoring data has been provided to further design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study of High-Strength Concrete-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142820 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Shear walls are effective lateral load resisting elements in high-rise buildings. This paper presents an experimental study of the seismic performance of a composite shear wall system that consists of high-strength concrete walls with the embedded steel plate. Two sets of wall specimens [...] Read more.
Shear walls are effective lateral load resisting elements in high-rise buildings. This paper presents an experimental study of the seismic performance of a composite shear wall system that consists of high-strength concrete walls with the embedded steel plate. Two sets of wall specimens with different aspect ratios (height/width, 1.5 and 2.7) were constructed and tested under quasi-static reversed cyclic loading, including five reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSW) and six reinforced concrete-steel plate shear walls (RCSPSW). The progression of damage, failure modes, and load-displacement responses of test specimens were studied and compared based on experimental observations. The test results indicated that high-strength (HS) RCSPSW system showed superior lateral load strength and acceptable deformation capability. The axial compressive load was found to have an indispensable effect on the ductility of both RCSW and RCSPSW, and an upper limit of axial compression ratio (0.5) is recommended for the application of HS RCSPSW in engineering practices. In addition, the design strength models were suggested for predicting the shear and flexure peak strength values of RCSPSW systems, and their applicability and reliability were verified by comparing with test results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Responses of Liquid Storage Tanks Caused by Wind and Earthquake in Special Environment
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112376 - 11 Jun 2019
Abstract
Based on potential flow theory and arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method, shell–liquid and shell–wind interactions are solved respectively. Considering the nonlinearity of tank material and liquid sloshing, a refined 3-D wind–shell–liquid interaction calculation model for liquid storage tanks is established. A comparative study of dynamic [...] Read more.
Based on potential flow theory and arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method, shell–liquid and shell–wind interactions are solved respectively. Considering the nonlinearity of tank material and liquid sloshing, a refined 3-D wind–shell–liquid interaction calculation model for liquid storage tanks is established. A comparative study of dynamic responses of liquid storage tanks under wind, earthquake, and wind and earthquake is carried out, and the influences of wind speed and wind interference effect on dynamic responses of liquid storage tank are discussed. The results show that when the wind is strong, the dynamic responses of the liquid storage tank under wind load alone are likely to be larger than that under earthquake, and the dynamic responses under wind–earthquake interaction are obviously larger than that under wind and earthquake alone. The maximum responses of the tank wall under wind and earthquake are located in the unfilled area at the upper part of the tank and the filled area at the lower part of the tank respectively, while the location of maximum responses of the tank wall under wind–earthquake interaction is related to the relative magnitude of the wind and earthquake. Wind speed has a great influence on the responses of liquid storage tanks, when the wind speed increases to a certain extent, the storage tank is prone to damage. Wind interference effect has a significant effect on liquid storage tanks and wind fields. For liquid storage tanks in special environments, wind and earthquake effects should be considered reasonably, and wind interference effects cannot be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Design of Steel Moment-Resisting Frames with Damping Systems in Accordance with KBC 2016
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112317 - 05 Jun 2019
Abstract
An efficient design procedure for building structures with damping systems is proposed using nonlinear response history analysis permitted in the revised Korean building code, KBC 2016. The goal of the proposed procedure is to design structures with damping systems complying with design requirements [...] Read more.
An efficient design procedure for building structures with damping systems is proposed using nonlinear response history analysis permitted in the revised Korean building code, KBC 2016. The goal of the proposed procedure is to design structures with damping systems complying with design requirements of KBC 2016 that do not specify a detailed design method. The proposed design procedure utilizes response reduction factor obtained by a limited number of nonlinear response history analyses of the seismic-force-resisting system with incremental damping ratio substituting damping devices. Design parameters of damping device are determined taking into account structural period change due to stiffness added by damping devices. Two design examples for three-story and six-story steel moment frames with metallic yielding dampers and viscoelastic dampers, respectively, shows that the proposed design procedure can produce design results complying with KBC 2016 without time-consuming iterative computation, predict seismic response accurately, and save structural material effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Methods for the Assessment of Critical Properties in Existing Masonry Structures under Seismic Loads—The ARES Project
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051576 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Masonry structures are notoriously vulnerable to horizontal actions caused by earthquakes. Given the high seismicity of the European region, and that the European building stock comprises a lot of masonry buildings, knowledge about their structural response to seismic excitation is particularly important, but [...] Read more.
Masonry structures are notoriously vulnerable to horizontal actions caused by earthquakes. Given the high seismicity of the European region, and that the European building stock comprises a lot of masonry buildings, knowledge about their structural response to seismic excitation is particularly important, but at the same time difficult to determine, due to the heterogenous nature of materials and/or constructional techniques in use. An additional issue is represented by the current methods for mechanical properties assessment, that do not provide a reliable framework for accurate structural estimations of existing buildings characterized by different typological properties. Every structure, in other words, should be separately inspected in regard to its mechanical behaviour, based on dedicated approaches able to capture potential critical issues. In this review paper, an insight on the Croatian ARES project is presented (Assessment and Rehabilitation of Existing Structures), including a state-of-the-art of the actual building stock and giving evidence of major difficulties concerning the assessment of existing structures. The most commonly used techniques and tools are compared, with a focus on their basic features and field of application. A brief overview of prevailing structural behaviours and Finite Element numerical modelling issues are also mentioned. As shown, the general tendency is to ensure “sustainable” and energy-efficient building systems. The latter, however, seem in disagreement with basic principles of structural maintenance and renovation. The aim of the ongoing ARES project, in this context, is to improve the current knowledge regarding the assessment and strengthening of structures, with a focus on a more reliable design and maintenance process for existing masonry buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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Open AccessReview
Seismic Design of Timber Buildings: Highlighted Challenges and Future Trends
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041380 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Use of timber as a construction material has entered a period of renaissance since the development of high-performance engineered wood products, enabling larger and taller buildings to be built. In addition, due to substantial contribution of the building sector to global energy use, [...] Read more.
Use of timber as a construction material has entered a period of renaissance since the development of high-performance engineered wood products, enabling larger and taller buildings to be built. In addition, due to substantial contribution of the building sector to global energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production, sustainable solutions are needed, for which timber has shown a great potential as a sustainable, resilient and renewable building alternative, not only for single family homes but also for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Both recent technological developments in timber engineering and exponentially increased use of engineered wood products and wood composites reflect in deficiency of current timber codes and standards. This paper presents an overview of some of the current challenges and emerging trends in the field of seismic design of timber buildings. Currently existing building codes and the development of new generation of European building codes are presented. Ongoing studies on a variety topics within seismic timber engineering are presented, including tall timber and hybrid buildings, composites with timber and seismic retrofitting with timber. Crucial challenges, key research needs and opportunities are addressed and critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings and Structures under Extreme Loads)
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