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Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2023) | Viewed by 10049
Related Special Issue: Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
VICARTE Research Unit, Department of Conservation and Restoration, NOVA School of Science and Technology (FCT NOVA), 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: preventive conservation; cultural heritage; biocides; biodiversity; biodeterioration
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Guest Editor
1. Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Fitolab, Laboratory for Phytopathology, Instituto Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: mycology; biodeterioration; cultural heritage; genetics; phytopathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II” aims to cover all the latest outstanding developments of biological and biochemical methods that have been developed and applied to cultural heritage.

Cultural heritage biodiversity has received a great deal of research attention in recent years. This Special Issue intends to continue providing a comprehensive examination of the science of biology and its practical application for the preservation of cultural heritage. In this new Issue, research papers or reviews on all aspects of biological causes, modes of action, biocidal treatment, and the protection and prevention of cultural heritage are welcome, as well as those addressing the biodeterioration of cultural heritage studies. Papers on the analysis and testing of macro- and microorganisms affecting the preservation of cultural heritage are also welcome.

The knowledge that has arisen from studies of biology applied to cultural heritage may be translated into new conservation and restoration treatments.

This Issue addresses researchers from both academia and industry, working in microbiology and biotechnology.

This Special Issue does not include theoretical bioinformatics, medical microbiology, or phytopathological microbiology.

Prof. Dr. Maria Filomena Macedo
Prof. Dr. António Manuel Santos Carriço Portugal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cultural heritage
  • biology
  • biochemistry
  • conservation and restoration
  • preservation
  • treatment
  • biocides
  • biodiversity
  • biodeterioration

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
Antifungal, Antibacterial, and Interference Effects of Plant-Extracted Essential Oils Used for Mural Conservation at Buyeo Royal Tomb No. 1
by Hyun-Ju Lee and Yong-Jae Chung
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3645; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063645 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Although subterranean tombs are largely protected from the external environment, the colonization of microorganisms threatens their conservation. Conventional biocides have negative effects on the environment, human health, and the sensitive materials in ancient tombs, especially painted murals. Therefore, we tested the biocidal effects [...] Read more.
Although subterranean tombs are largely protected from the external environment, the colonization of microorganisms threatens their conservation. Conventional biocides have negative effects on the environment, human health, and the sensitive materials in ancient tombs, especially painted murals. Therefore, we tested the biocidal effects of 11 plant-extracted essential oils (EOs) against two fungal strains and four bacterial strains isolated from Buyeo Royal Tomb No. 1, a World Heritage Site in South Korea. Oregano, clove bud, thyme, and cinnamon cassia EOs showed the highest antifungal and antibacterial activities. At concentrations suitable for practical application (3–10%), oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs exhibited the highest antifungal and antibacterial activities against the tested microbial strains. No variation in the surface properties and mineral composition was detected for the lithotype specimens (granite and gneiss) treated with the EOs at 1–10%. Low-concentration thyme and oregano EOs led to minimal color change in the painting layer specimens, whereas clove bud and cinnamon cassia EOs caused yellowing of the oyster shell white pigment at a concentration of 3–10%. Our results suggest that 3% oregano EO is a candidate biocide that could minimize the biological damage to and promote the conservation of ancient tomb murals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II)
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24 pages, 26790 KiB  
Article
From Biodeterioration to Creativity: Bioreceptivity of Spruce Pine 87 Glass Batch by Fungi
by Alexandra Rodrigues, Margarida Alves, Sara Gutierrez-Patricio, Ana Z. Miller and Maria Filomena Macedo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157672 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
The bioreceptivity, and the consequent biodeterioration of contemporary glass, used by artists worldwide, was studied. The two main objectives were: first, to verify if fungi with some culture media would produce more damages than the same fungi without a nutritional source, and to [...] Read more.
The bioreceptivity, and the consequent biodeterioration of contemporary glass, used by artists worldwide, was studied. The two main objectives were: first, to verify if fungi with some culture media would produce more damages than the same fungi without a nutritional source, and to verify if the two genera of fungi produce the same damage on the same glass. Colourless glass samples with Spruce Pine 87 Batch (SPB-87) composition were inoculated with two distinct fungal species, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger, separately: (i) half with fungal spores (simulating primary bioreceptivity), and (ii) half with fungi in a small portion of culture media (simulating organic matter that can be deposited on exposed glassworks, i.e., secondary bioreceptivity). The alteration of glass surfaces were analysed by Optical Microscopy, SEM-EDS and µ-Raman. The mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum generated a higher amount of fingerprints, stains and iridescence, whereas Aspergillus niger produced more biopitting and crystals on the glass surface. However, both species damaged the glass to different degrees in 4 and 6 months after the inoculation, producing physico-chemical damage (e.g., iridescence, biopitting), and chemical alterations (e.g., depletion and deposition of elements and crystals). The primary bioreceptivity experiment of glass samples inoculated with Aspergillus niger results in less damage than in the case of secondary bioreceptivity, being almost similar for Penicillium chrysogenum. The new and in-depth understanding of the bioreceptivity and deterioration of post-modern glass art and cultural heritage provided here is of paramount importance for the scientific, conservation and artistic communities—to protect glass cultural materials, or seen by artists as innovative and inspirational ways of creating glass art in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II)
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10 pages, 10186 KiB  
Communication
Potential Use of Carrageenans against the Limestone Proliferation of the Cyanobacterium Parakomarekiella sesnandensis
by Fabiana Soares, João Trovão, Francisco Gil, Lídia Catarino, Igor Tiago, António Portugal and Susana M. Cardoso
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10589; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210589 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Stone biodeterioration by cyanobacteria is a common issue in the field of cultural heritage. As they are considered the first stone colonizers, the need to control their growth has increased. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of kappa/iota carrageenans from the red [...] Read more.
Stone biodeterioration by cyanobacteria is a common issue in the field of cultural heritage. As they are considered the first stone colonizers, the need to control their growth has increased. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of kappa/iota carrageenans from the red seaweed Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus against the limestone proliferation of the cyanobacterium Parakomarekiella sesnandensis, under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, 200 μL of kappa/iota carrageenans (0.01 g mL−1) were applied into the surface of the limestone replicas prior to their inoculation with P. sesnandensis. Results were evaluated after 4 months of incubation through visual inspection, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric analyses. The gathered data demonstrated that these types of carrageenans have the potential to reduce the colonization of P. sesnandensis. With one sole application, the aesthetical alterations caused by the proliferation of P. sesnandensis were drastically reduced. This study highlights the need to explore marine-based products, particularly those derived from seaweeds with antimicrobial properties, as alternative methods for biocleaning cultural heritage assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II)
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Review

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26 pages, 4233 KiB  
Review
Complementary Strategies for Deciphering the Information Contained in Ancient Parchment Documentary Materials
by Guadalupe Piñar, Federica Cappa, Wilfried Vetter, Manfred Schreiner, Heinz Miklas and Katja Sterflinger
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10479; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010479 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
This article reviews the complementary strategies that are used to decipher the valuable information that is contained in ancient parchment documentary materials. A new trend is molecular analysis, which has given rise to the emerging field of biocodicology, comprising protein and DNA analysis [...] Read more.
This article reviews the complementary strategies that are used to decipher the valuable information that is contained in ancient parchment documentary materials. A new trend is molecular analysis, which has given rise to the emerging field of biocodicology, comprising protein and DNA analysis for the identification of the biological origin of the skins that are used for their manufacture. In addition, DNA analysis can identify the microbiome that is present in the object under investigation, which adds value by providing information on its history and state of preservation. In any case, it is important to complement the biomolecular investigations with microscopical and physicochemical analyses. Some of the complementary analytical techniques that are reviewed here, such as elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) with compound-specific analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy are advantageous as they can be applied in a non-invasive way and without inducing any changes in the objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II)
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23 pages, 7893 KiB  
Review
Color Stains on Paper: Fungal Pigments, Synthetic Dyes and Their Hypothetical Removal by Enzymatic Approaches
by Jelena Pavlović, Zuzana Farkas, Lucia Kraková and Domenico Pangallo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199991 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
Fungi are the main contaminants of books and archival documents. In addition to their degrading power, offered by various types of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, they can also hue the surface of the paper through the production of pigments. The fungi on paper [...] Read more.
Fungi are the main contaminants of books and archival documents. In addition to their degrading power, offered by various types of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, they can also hue the surface of the paper through the production of pigments. The fungi on paper release various types of pigments belonging mostly to two chemical groups (polyketides and carotenoids), which cause unpleasant anaesthetic stains. The paper surface can also be hued with several synthetic colors, which are part, for example, of stamps and inks. These synthetic colors could be degraded by lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) and also by dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs). Therefore, the mechanism of action of LEMs and DyPs is illustrated. Moreover, we have examined the potentiality of LEMs and DyPs to remove the synthetic stains and also their hypothetical application in order to clean the fungal hues from the paper surface. Our review article, using the enzymatic removal parallelism between fungal and synthetic pigments, would like to show prospective solutions to this arduous problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biology to Cultural Heritage II)
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