Special Issue "BIM and HBIM: Principles, Applications, and Standardization/Interoperability Issues"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonia Spano'
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Politecnico di Torino
Interests: Image- and range-based survey methods (close range photogrammetry, LiDAR, Mobile mapping systems mainly applied to built and cultural heritage); 3d models; spatial data standards; GIS tools and analysis; 3D mapping and 3D GIS; semantics; ontologies; BIM and HBIM
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Margarita Kokla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens
Interests: semantic representation of geospatial knowledge; geospatial ontologies; semantic information extraction and integration; semantic interoperability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, 3D models of cities and their buildings, including geometric and semantic contents, have been largely acknowledged as a powerful tool for many research fields and applications (building and infrastructure design, conservation and restoration support, urban design and planning, assets management, and so on). BIM (building information models) and HBIM (historical BIM/heritage BIM) are also of relevance, particularly, when historical urban areas and architectural assets are involved.

The great development (in number and functionalities) of BIM systems and tools leads to relevant questions about how to actually enhance their flexibility in order to make their exchange, maintenance, and reusability effective within both the urban and the building scale.

The use of open standards is, obviously, a good choice, but many issues surrounding open standards remain unresolved. Industry foundation classes (IFC) by buildingSMART are the affirmed open standard for managing BIMs. However, many other standards exist for the same objects, concerning buildings and their urban context (OGC CityGML, gbXML, the INSPIRE data model, and national standards are some examples). Their effective integration has been the topic of many studies, using different approaches (manual mapping approaches, ontologies, and others), but there has been no definitive solution.

Furthermore, the definition of rules and best practices about how to model BIMs and HBIMs properly, envisaging their reuse and exchange, is an open issue in the field. This is particularly true when dealing with HBIMs and, in general, as-built BIMs.

Moreover, other 3D models and spatial products are based on mapping standards and derive from survey and modeling methods of a different nature (image and range-based acquisitions, remote sensing, lidar, different modeling techniques, scan to BIM processes, the use of NURBS). Therefore, their interoperability with BIM has become an important issue.

It is necessary to solve the problems of interoperability and standardization in order to build efficient and useful BIMs and HBIMs that can effectively take advantage of the many available technologies for their management.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences, titled “BIM and HBIM: Principles, Applications, and Standardization/Interoperability Issues” will outline how the proposed solutions for interoperability and the use of standards can bring advantages for BIM and HBIM applications (including design and construction projects, use of BIM in urban space planning, historical built heritage documentation, conservation projects, and asset management, together with projects that address the emerging demands of our era: lower energy consumption, smart networking, logistics, conservation strategies, enhanced resilience, and so on.

Prof. Dr. Antonia Spano'
Dr. Francesca Noardo
Dr. Margarita Kokla
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
An Inspection of IFC Models from Practice
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052232 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is a complete, wide and complex open standard data model to represent Building Information Models. Big efforts are being made by the standardization organization buildingSMART, to develop and maintain this standard in collaboration with researchers, companies and institutions. However, [...] Read more.
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is a complete, wide and complex open standard data model to represent Building Information Models. Big efforts are being made by the standardization organization buildingSMART, to develop and maintain this standard in collaboration with researchers, companies and institutions. However, when trying to use IFC models from practice for automatic analysis, some issues emerge, as a consequence of a misalignment between what is prescribed by, or available in, the standard with the data sets that are produced in practice. In this study, a sample of models produced by practitioners for aims different from their explicit use within automatic processing tools is inspected and analyzed. The aim is to find common patterns in data set from practice and their possible discrepancies with the standard, in order to find ways to address such discrepancies in a next step. In particular, it is noticeable that the overall quality of the models requires specific additional care by the modellers before relying on them for automatic analysis, and a high level of variability is present concerning the storage of some relevant information (such as georeferencing). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
IFC Classification for FOSS HBIM: Open Issues and a Schema Proposal for Cultural Heritage Assets
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8320; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238320 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 439
Abstract
The IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) open format has been developed by BuildingSMART and regularized through ISO standards. It has been implemented into a BIM (Building Information Modeling) informative system for the AEC industry (Architecture Engineering and Construction). The IFC format has changed interoperability [...] Read more.
The IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) open format has been developed by BuildingSMART and regularized through ISO standards. It has been implemented into a BIM (Building Information Modeling) informative system for the AEC industry (Architecture Engineering and Construction). The IFC format has changed interoperability processes concerning architectural and technical entities in a semantic way. However, because this standard open format was specifically designed for the modern AEC industry, it may not cater to the demands of cultural heritage assets. Since IFC classification is fundamental for informative systems, it should become a standard also concerning heritage assets, even if nowadays there is no regularized IFC classification for historical existing buildings. Specific cultural heritage peculiarities therefore need semantic classification based on historical asset families. For this reason, this work is based on a proposal and experimental IFC classification implemented inside an HBIM open source software (FreeCAD), whereby limitations of IFC standards can be overcome thanks to the freedom of access to libraries and codes. Moreover, this work is based on IFC objects management outside the platform for interoperability purposes. Full article
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