Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Applied Sciences: Invited Papers in Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering Section"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applied Sciences is going to reach a remarkable milestone by publishing its 10th volume. To celebrate this milestone, the Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering section launches this Special Issue.

This Special Issue is intended to gather moderate-sized review papers featuring important and recent developments or achievements around the section relevant topics, with a special emphasis on emerging techniques or applications. The authors are well-known experts in their domain who are invited to submit their contribution at any moment from now to the end of October 2020. The papers can cover either experimental or theoretical aspects or both. Electrical engineering (electric machines and drives, fault detection and diagnosis, fault-tolerant control, power quality, smart grids, microgrids, nanogrids, renewable energies harvesting), electronics engineering (antennas and radio propagation, electromagnetic compatibility, microwaves, radars and sonar navigation), and communication engineering (connected vehicles, IoT, networking technologies, wireless networks) are among the main topics.

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Benbouzid
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Adaptive Observer-Based Grid-Synchronization and Sequence Extraction Techniques for Renewable Energy Systems: A Comparative Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020653 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593
Abstract
Various faults and disturbances often make the grid unbalanced and distorted. To make the grid-connected converters resilient to unbalanced and distorted grid, real-time estimation of grid voltage sequences are essential. Adaptive-observer based grid-synchronization techniques are very suitable for this purpose. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Various faults and disturbances often make the grid unbalanced and distorted. To make the grid-connected converters resilient to unbalanced and distorted grid, real-time estimation of grid voltage sequences are essential. Adaptive-observer based grid-synchronization techniques are very suitable for this purpose. In this paper, a comparative analysis of three recently proposed adaptive observer-based grid-synchronization technique are presented for frequency estimation and sequence extraction. The considered techniques are: global adaptive observer, gain normalized adaptive observer, and second-order generalized integrator type adaptive observer. Following a fair and systematic gain tuning process, the performances are verified through extensive numerical simulation and experiments. Experimental results demonstrate the merits and demerits of the individual techniques. Academic researchers and industrial practitioners will find the results useful for the selection of adaptive observer-based grid-synchronization and sequence extraction techniques. Full article
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Article
Analytical Models for Fast and Accurate Calculation of Electromagnetic Performances of Segmented Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Large Angular Gaps
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010459 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
In this paper original analytical models to determine the electromagnetic performances of segmented permanent magnet synchronous machines (with removed active parts in the stator or the rotor) are presented. These models are adapted to PMSM with large air gap width, large diameter, a [...] Read more.
In this paper original analytical models to determine the electromagnetic performances of segmented permanent magnet synchronous machines (with removed active parts in the stator or the rotor) are presented. These models are adapted to PMSM with large air gap width, large diameter, a high number of poles and large angular gaps. This method based on analytical approach is validated by comparizon with a 2D Finite Element calculation (Altair FluxTM 2D) for the specifications of a large diameter, low speed tidal high power current turbine generator. The presented method allows fast and accurate evaluation of the performances of this kind of particular machine and can be used in a systematic design process. Full article
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Article
Stability Assessment of Current Controller with Harmonic Compensator for LCL-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Weak Grid
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010212 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 432
Abstract
An assessment of the stability and performance of current controllers with harmonic compensators is presented for an inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-filtered grid-connected inverter under distorted weak grid conditions. By using two typical current control schemes which are the direct current controller with the capacitor current-based [...] Read more.
An assessment of the stability and performance of current controllers with harmonic compensators is presented for an inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-filtered grid-connected inverter under distorted weak grid conditions. By using two typical current control schemes which are the direct current controller with the capacitor current-based active damping and integral-resonant state feedback current controller, the closed-loop system stability and current control performance are investigated in the presence of both uncertain grid impedance and distorted grid. Even though the controller stability has been investigated under weak grid in several studies, the stability assessment of the entire current control scheme, including the harmonic resonant controllers, still needs a further comprehensive investigation. The system stability is analyzed by obtaining the movement of the closed-loop poles in the discrete-time domain when the grid impedance varies. To fully study the impact of distorted weak grid condition on the LCL filters, three LCL filter parameter sets giving the resonance frequency in different frequency bands are chosen for the purpose of evaluating the system robustness and grid-injected current quality. In order to support the presented theoretical analyses, comprehensive simulation and experimental results based on 32-bit DSP TMS320F28335 to control 2 kVA grid-connected inverter are presented in terms of grid current quality and control stability in the environment of both uncertain grid impedance and distorted grid. Full article
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Article
Highly Directive Biconic Antennas Embedded in a Dielectric
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8828; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248828 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Designing antennas suitable for generating highly directive electromagnetic signals has become a fundamental task. This is particularly relevant for the development of efficient and sustainable point-to-point communication channels, and for energy transfer. Indeed, these are nowadays expanding areas of research. In order to [...] Read more.
Designing antennas suitable for generating highly directive electromagnetic signals has become a fundamental task. This is particularly relevant for the development of efficient and sustainable point-to-point communication channels, and for energy transfer. Indeed, these are nowadays expanding areas of research. In order to deal with said particular wave phenomena, an extension of the electrodynamics equations is taken into account, where exact solitonic type solutions are admitted. These waves may have compact support and travel along a straight line, without dissipation, at the speed of light. The result suggests the design of biconic type antennas having specific properties that are numerically examined in this paper. The cones, supplied with an oscillating source, are embedded in a dielectric material of suitable shape, with the purpose of driving the signal in the proper direction. The computations based on the extended model are aimed toward simulating the possibility of generating peculiar wave behaviors, in view of practical implementations in the framework of point-to-point communications or wireless power transmission. Full article
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Article
Evolutionary Design Optimization of an Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cell for Hydrogen Production
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8425; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238425 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Hydrogen is an excellent energy source for long-term storage and free of greenhouse gases. However, its high production cost remains an obstacle to its advancement. The two main parameters contributing to the high cost include the cost of electricity and the cost of [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is an excellent energy source for long-term storage and free of greenhouse gases. However, its high production cost remains an obstacle to its advancement. The two main parameters contributing to the high cost include the cost of electricity and the cost of initial financial investment. It is possible to reduce the latter by the optimization of system design and operation conditions, allowing the reduction of the cell voltage. Because the CAPEX (initial cost divided by total hydrogen production of the electrolyzer) decreases according to current density but the OPEX (operating cost depending on the cell voltage) increases depending on the current density, there exists an optimal current density. In this paper, a genetic algorithm has been developed to find the optimal evolution parameters and to determine an optimum electrolyzer design. The optimal current density has been increased by 10% and the hydrogen cost has been decreased by 1%. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Comparison of Macro Fiber Composites and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Discs for an Energy Harvesting Floor
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5951; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175951 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
The main drawback in many electronic devices is the duration of their batteries. Energy harvesting provides a solution for these low-consumption devices. Piezoelectric energy harvesting use is growing because it collects small amounts of clean energy and transforms it to electricity. Synthetic piezoelectric [...] Read more.
The main drawback in many electronic devices is the duration of their batteries. Energy harvesting provides a solution for these low-consumption devices. Piezoelectric energy harvesting use is growing because it collects small amounts of clean energy and transforms it to electricity. Synthetic piezoelectric materials are a feasible alternative to generate energy for low consumption systems. In addition to the energy generation, each pressure cycle in the piezoelectric material can provide information for the device, for example, counting the passage of people. The main contribution of this work is to study, build, and test a low-cost energy harvesting floor using piezoelectric transducers to estimate the amount of energy that could be produced for a connected device. Several piezoelectric transducers have been employed and analyzed, providing accurate results. Full article
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Article
Robust-Extended Kalman Filter and Long Short-Term Memory Combination to Enhance the Quality of Single Point Positioning
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124335 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
In the recent years, multi-constellation and multi-frequency have improved the positioning precision in GNSS applications and significantly expanded the range of applications to new areas and services. However, the use of multiple signals presents advantages as well as disadvantages, since they may contain [...] Read more.
In the recent years, multi-constellation and multi-frequency have improved the positioning precision in GNSS applications and significantly expanded the range of applications to new areas and services. However, the use of multiple signals presents advantages as well as disadvantages, since they may contain poor quality signals that negatively impact the position precision. The objective of this study is to improve the Single Point Positioning (SPP) accuracy using multi-GNSS data fusion. We propose the use of robust-Extended Kalman Filter (referred to as robust-EKF hereafter) to eliminate outliers. The robust-EKF used in the present work combines the Extended Kalman Filter with the Iterative ReWeighted Least Squares (IRWLS) and the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM). The weight matrix in IRWLS is defined by the MM Estimation method which is a robust statistics approach for more efficient statistical data analysis with high breaking point. The RAIM algorithm is used to check the accuracy of the protection zone of the user. We apply the robust-EKF method along with the robust combination of GPS, Galileo and GLONASS data from ABMF base station, which significantly improves the position accuracy by about 84% compared to the non-robust data combination. ABMF station is a GNSS reception station managed by Météo-France in Guadeloupe. Thereafter, ABMF will refer to the acronym used to designate this station. Although robust-EKF demonstrates improvement in the position accuracy, its outputs might contain errors that are difficult to estimate. Therefore, an algorithm that can predetermine the error produced by robust-EKF is needed. For this purpose, the long short-term memory (LSTM) method is proposed as an adapted Deep Learning-Based approach. In this paper, LSTM is considered as a de-noising filter and the new method is proposed as a hybrid combination of robust-EKF and LSTM which is denoted rEKF-LSTM. The position precision greatly improves by about 95% compared to the non-robust combination of data from ABMF base station. In order to assess the rEKF-LSTM method, data from other base stations are tested. The position precision is enhanced by about 87%, 77% and 93% using the rEKF-LSTM compared to the non-robust combination of data from three other base stations AJAC, GRAC and LMMF in France, respectively. Full article
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Article
A Novel Sensorless Approach for Speed and Displacement Control of Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4070; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124070 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 633
Abstract
The bearingless concept is a plausible alternative to the magnetic bearing drives. It provides numerous advantages like minimal maintenance, low cost, compactness and no requirement of high-performance power amplifiers. Controlling the rotor position and its displacements under parameter variations during acceleration and deceleration [...] Read more.
The bearingless concept is a plausible alternative to the magnetic bearing drives. It provides numerous advantages like minimal maintenance, low cost, compactness and no requirement of high-performance power amplifiers. Controlling the rotor position and its displacements under parameter variations during acceleration and deceleration phases was not effective with the use of conventional controllers like proportional–integral–derivative (PID) and fuzzy-type controllers. Hence, to get the robust and stable operation of a bearingless switched reluctance motor (BSRM), a new robust dynamic sliding mode controller has been proposed in this paper, along with a sensorless operation using a sliding ode observer. The rotor displacement tracking error functions and speed tracking error functions are used in the designing of both proposed methods of the sliding mode switching functions. To get a healthy and stable operation of the BSRM, the proposed controller’s tasks are divided into three steps. As a first step, the displaced rotor in any one of the four quadrants in the air gap has to pull back to the centre position successfully. The second step is to run the motor at a rated speed by exciting torque phase currents, and finally, the third step is to maintain the stable and robust operation of the BSRM even under the application of different loads and changes of the motor parameters. Simulation studies were conducted and analysed under different testing conditions. The suspension forces, rotor displacements, are robust and stable, and the rotor is pulled back quickly to the centre position due to the proposed controller’s actions. The improved performance characteristics of the dynamic sliding mode controller (DSMC)-based sliding mode observer (SMO) was compared with the conventional sliding mode controller (SMC)-based SMO. Full article
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Article
Fault-Tolerant SRM Drive with a Diagnosis Method Based on the Entropy Feature Approach
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103516 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
The power electronic converter design is essential for the operation of the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Thus, a fault-tolerant power converter is fundamental to ensure high reliability and extend the drive operation. To achieve fault tolerance, fault detection and diagnosis methods [...] Read more.
The power electronic converter design is essential for the operation of the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Thus, a fault-tolerant power converter is fundamental to ensure high reliability and extend the drive operation. To achieve fault tolerance, fault detection and diagnosis methods are critical in order to identify, as soon as possible, the failure mode of the drive. To provide such capability, it is proposed in this paper a new fault-tolerant power converter scheme combined with a fault detection method regarding the most common power semiconductors failures in SRM drives. The fast and reliable proposed diagnosis method is based on the entropy theory. Based on this theory, normalized indexes (diagnostic variables) are created, which are independent from the load and speed of the motor. Through this method, it is possible to identify the faulty leg, as well as the type of power semiconductor fault. To test and evaluate the proposed solution several laboratory experiments were carried out using a 2 kW four-phase 8 / 6 SRM. Full article
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Article
A New Guideline for Security Assessment of Power Systems with a High Penetration of Wind Turbines
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3190; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093190 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
By the increase of the penetration of power-electronic-based (PE-based) units, such as wind turbines and PV systems, many features of those power systems, such as stability, security, and protection, have been changed. In this paper, the security of electrical grids with high wind [...] Read more.
By the increase of the penetration of power-electronic-based (PE-based) units, such as wind turbines and PV systems, many features of those power systems, such as stability, security, and protection, have been changed. In this paper, the security of electrical grids with high wind turbines penetration is discussed. To do so, first, an overview of the power systems’ security assessment is presented. Based on that, stability and security challenges introduced by increasing the penetration of wind turbines in power systems are studied, and a new guideline for the security assessment of the PE-based power systems is proposed. Simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system show that the proposed security guideline is necessary for PE-based power systems, as the conventional security assessments may not be able to indicate its security status properly. Full article
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Article
Day-Ahead Optimization of Prosumer Considering Battery Depreciation and Weather Prediction for Renewable Energy Sources
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082774 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
In recent years, taking advantage of renewable energy sources (RESs) has increased considerably due to their unique capabilities, such as a flexible nature and sustainable energy production. Prosumers, who are defined as proactive users of RESs and energy storage systems (ESSs), are deploying [...] Read more.
In recent years, taking advantage of renewable energy sources (RESs) has increased considerably due to their unique capabilities, such as a flexible nature and sustainable energy production. Prosumers, who are defined as proactive users of RESs and energy storage systems (ESSs), are deploying economic opportunities related to RESs in the electricity market. The prosumers are contracted to provide specific power for consumers in a neighborhood during daytime. This study presents optimal scheduling and operation of a prosumer owns RESs and two different types of ESSs, namely stationary battery (SB) and plugged-in electric vehicle (PHEV). Due to the intermittent nature of RESs and their dependency on weather conditions, this study introduces a weather prediction module in the energy management system (EMS) by the use of a feed-forward artificial neural network (FF-ANN). Linear regression results for predicted and real weather data have achieved 0.96, 0.988, and 0.230 for solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed, respectively. Besides, this study considers the depreciation cost of ESSs in an objective function based on the depth of charge (DOD) reduction. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, predicted output and the real power of RESs are deployed, and a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is used to solve the presented day-ahead optimization problem. Based on the obtained results, the predicted output of RESs yields a desirable operation cost with a minor difference (US$0.031) compared to the operation cost of the system using real weather data, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed EMS in this study. Furthermore, optimum scheduling with regard to ESSs depreciation term has resulted in the reduction of operation cost of the prosumer and depreciation cost of ESS in the objective function has improved the daily operation cost of the prosumer by $0.8647. Full article
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