Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2023) | Viewed by 14049

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, Osijek University, Josip Juraj Strossmayer Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
Interests: microcirculation; n-3 PUFAs; endothelium; oxidative stress; eicosanoids; nutrients; exercise
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Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, Univertisty Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: arterial hypertension; chronic kidney disease; Balkan endemic nephropathy; epidemiology; public health; preventive cardiology
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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
Interests: microcirculation; oxidative stress; angiotensin II; oxygen; genetic rat models; antioxidative defense; Nrf2

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well documented that high dietary kitchen salt (NaCl) intake is a major risk factor in the development of hypertension and, consequently, multiorgan damage. Importantly, a high salt diet impairs endothelial function, even without changes in blood pressure, leading to impaired endothelium-dependent responses to various stimuli, and thus contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effect of a high salt diet is mediated by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased antioxidative balance, as well as changes in endothelial cell structure (such as stiffening or glycocalix modification). A high salt diet may be considered as an early independent risk factor for low-grade vascular inflammation, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. However, there is more evidence on the possibility of counteracting the noxious effects of a high salt diet by dietary intervention and physical exercise, thus opening a field for new experimental and controlled clinical studies.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or review articles to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerning high salt diets and oxidative stress in both normal processes and diseased states. This research can include both in vitro and in vivo studies in animal models and human participants, relating to any of the following topics: alteration of mechanisms of endothelial function and a high salt diet, inflammation and oxidative stress caused by a high salt diet, cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress and antioxidative balance altered by high salt diet, epigenetic effects of a high dietary salt intake, cellular signaling pathways altered by a high salt diet, pathophysiology of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in relation to oxidative stress and a high salt diet.

We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Ines Drenjančević
Prof. Dr. Bojan Jelaković
Prof. Dr. Julian H. Lombard
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • hypertension
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • antioxidative enzymes
  • HIF-1 alpha
  • Nrf2
  • vasodilation
  • epigenetic

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
Role of Oxidative Stress in Vascular Low-Grade Inflammation Initiation Due to Acute Salt Loading in Young Healthy Individuals
by Ana Knezović, Nikolina Kolobarić, Ines Drenjančević, Zrinka Mihaljević, Petar Šušnjara, Ivana Jukić, Marko Stupin, Aleksandar Kibel, Saška Marczi, Martina Mihalj and Ana Stupin
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030444 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of 7-day high-salt (HS) and the specific role of oxidative stress on vascular low-grade inflammation initiation in young salt-resistant healthy individuals. 30 young healthy individuals adhered to a 7-day low-salt (LS) diet (3.5 g salt/day), followed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of 7-day high-salt (HS) and the specific role of oxidative stress on vascular low-grade inflammation initiation in young salt-resistant healthy individuals. 30 young healthy individuals adhered to a 7-day low-salt (LS) diet (3.5 g salt/day), followed by a 7-day high-salt (HS) diet (~14.7 g salt/day) protocol. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, frequencies of peripheral blood Th17 and Treg cells, Th17/Treg ratio, enzymes SGK1, and p38/MAP kinase, as well as biomarkers of endothelial activation and oxidative stress, were measured before and after the 7-day HS diet protocol. Short-term HS diet significantly increased serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-9, and IL-17A levels, but also of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1. Relative amount of total SGK1 significantly increased, following the 7-day HS diet. Increased oxidative stress level, following HS diet, was negatively associated with the frequency of Treg cells. The increase in relative amount of total SGK1 in peripheral mononuclear cells following 7-day HS diet suggests lymphocyte (re)activation, in response to HS intake, resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory (IL-17, INF-γ), but also anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1). Increased oxidative stress, due to HS loading, alters immune regulatory mechanisms, presumably via effects on Treg cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet)
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Review

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39 pages, 2290 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet—Possible Implications for Development and Clinical Manifestation of Cutaneous Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Psoriasis vulgaris
by Ivana Krajina, Ana Stupin, Marija Šola and Martina Mihalj
Antioxidants 2022, 11(7), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071269 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5022
Abstract
Although oxidative stress is recognized as an important effector mechanism of the immune system, uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species promotes excessive tissue damage and leads to disease development. In view of this, increased dietary salt intake has been found to [...] Read more.
Although oxidative stress is recognized as an important effector mechanism of the immune system, uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species promotes excessive tissue damage and leads to disease development. In view of this, increased dietary salt intake has been found to damage redox systems in the vessel wall, resulting in endothelial dysfunction associated with NO uncoupling, inflammation, vascular wall remodeling and, eventually, atherosclerosis. Several studies have reported increased systemic oxidative stress accompanied by reduced antioxidant capacity following a high salt diet. In addition, vigorous ionic effects on the immune mechanisms, such as (trans)differentiation of T lymphocytes are emerging, which together with the evidence of NaCl accumulation in certain tissues warrants a re-examination of the data derived from in vitro research, in which the ionic influence was excluded. Psoriasis vulgaris (PV), as a primarily Th17-driven inflammatory skin disease with proven inflammation-induced accumulation of sodium chloride in the skin, merits our interest in the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PV, as well as in the possible beneficial effects that could be achieved through modulation of dietary salt intake and antioxidant supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet)
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14 pages, 874 KiB  
Review
Tissue Sodium Accumulation: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications
by Endre Sulyok, Bálint Farkas, Bernadett Nagy, Ákos Várnagy, Kálmán Kovács and József Bódis
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040750 - 9 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
Excessive sodium intake has been well established as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Its adverse effects are achieved by renal sodium retention and related volume expansion and by inducing low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) [...] Read more.
Excessive sodium intake has been well established as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Its adverse effects are achieved by renal sodium retention and related volume expansion and by inducing low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in the target tissues. This review presents the recent concept of nonosmotic sodium storage in the skin interstitium, the subsequent dissociation of sodium and volume homeostasis, and the cellular response to the increased tissue sodium concentration. Furthermore, data are shown on the sodium barrier and buffering potential of the endothelial glycocalyx that may protect the functional integrity of the endothelium when it is challenged by an increased sodium load. Finally, examples will be given of the involvement of oxygen free radicals (OFR) in sodium-induced tissue damage, and some clinical entities will be mentioned that are causally associated with sodium/volume retention and OS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet)
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Other

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15 pages, 723 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dietary Sodium and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review
by Guilherme da Silva Ferreira, Sergio Catanozi and Marisa Passarelli
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030599 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Restriction in sodium intake is an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, considering the direct influence of high-sodium diet consumption on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There are only a few studies dealing with the influence of [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Restriction in sodium intake is an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, considering the direct influence of high-sodium diet consumption on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There are only a few studies dealing with the influence of dietary sodium on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this systematic review, evidence in humans and animal models was compiled in a critical view of the influence of dietary sodium intake patterns on NAFLD markers; (2) Methods: Systematic review of PubMed data. Clinical outcomes included the prevalence/incidence of NAFLD for human studies, and NAFLD markers (hepatic lipogenesis, and markers of steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation) for animal studies. The protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review (PROSPERO; CRD42023390447); (3) Results and Conclusion: Seven studies in humans and eight in animals were included. All studies in humans were observational and associated high-sodium intake with NAFLD. However, in animals, both the increased and reduced consumption of sodium negatively influenced markers of liver steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Induced by High Salt Diet)
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