Special Issue "Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Antioxidant Enzyme Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jordi Camps Website E-Mail
University Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, Reus, Spain
Interests: cancer; cardiavascular diseases; inflammation; metabolism; non-communicable diseases; obesity; oxidative stress; paraoxonases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the existence of an enzyme termed paraoxonase was first described, more than 30 years ago, the number of publications describing its biological function and the role that it plays in human biology has increased exponentially. Currently, the existence of three different phylogenetically-related paraoxonases has been reported. All three are lipolactonases that degrade lipid peroxides within the cells and in the circulation. Because of this, the three enzymes play important roles as antioxidants and protect against oxidative stress and the consequent inflammatory reaction. Paraoxonases and their alterations have been related to diseases as important as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, liver diseases, neurological disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. Paraoxonases also seem to play a role in protecting mitochondrial function and the normal functioning of energy metabolism, and are a part of the innate immune system. This Special Issue aims to publish original research papers and reviews on paraoxonases and their relationships with oxidative stress and inflammation and wishes to be an instrument for communication and dissemination of the most recent findings about the role that these enzymes play in human diseases.

Dr. Jordi Camps
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Infectious diseases
  • Inflammation
  • Non-communicable diseases
  • Paraoxonases
  • Oxidative stress

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Paraoxonases (PON) 1, 2, and 3 Polymorphisms and PON-1 Activities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080252 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: Oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, vasoocclusion, and free iron are all features present in sickle cell disease. Paraoxonases (PON) are a family (PON-1, PON-2, PON-3) of antioxidant enzymes with anti-inflammatory action. Here, for the first time, we described PON-1 activities and PON-1, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, vasoocclusion, and free iron are all features present in sickle cell disease. Paraoxonases (PON) are a family (PON-1, PON-2, PON-3) of antioxidant enzymes with anti-inflammatory action. Here, for the first time, we described PON-1 activities and PON-1, PON-2, PON-3 polymorphisms in patients with sickle cell disease, homozygous for HbSS, compared with healthy controls. (2) Methods: The groups were matched for age and gender. PON-1 activities (arylesterase and paraoxonase) were determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of phenylcetate and paraoxon, respectively. Polymorphisms were determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR). (3) Results: Plasma cholesterol and fractions, ApoA1 and ApoB levels were all decreased in sickle cell disease patients, while anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies and C-reactive protein were increased. Serum arylesterase activity was lower in sickle cell disease patients when compared with healthy controls. In patients, paraoxonase activity was higher in those with PON-1 RR Q192R polymorphism. In these patients, the increase of serum iron and ferritin levels and transferrin saturation were less pronounced than those observed in patients with QQ or QR polymorphism. No differences were observed with PON-1 L55M, and PON-2 and PON-3 polymorphisms. Multivariate regression analysis showed that transferrin and ferritin concentrations correlated with arylesterase and paraoxonase activities. (4) Conclusions: Both transferrin and ferritin were the main predictors of decreased arylesterase and paraoxonase activities in patients with sickle cell disease. LDL oxidation increased, and RR PON-1 Q192R polymorphism is likely to be a protective factor against oxidative damage in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Paraoxonase-1-Related Variables and Lipoprotein Profile in Patients with Lung or Head and Neck Cancer: Effect of Radiotherapy
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070213 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
We investigated alterations in the levels of the antioxidant paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the lipoprotein profile (analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance) in patients with lung cancer (LC) or head and neck cancer (HNC), and the effects produced thereon by radiotherapy (RT). We included 33 [...] Read more.
We investigated alterations in the levels of the antioxidant paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the lipoprotein profile (analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance) in patients with lung cancer (LC) or head and neck cancer (HNC), and the effects produced thereon by radiotherapy (RT). We included 33 patients with LC and 28 patients with HNC. Before irradiation, and one month after completion of RT, blood samples were obtained. The control group was composed of 50 healthy subjects. Patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activity and concentration before RT than the control group. PON1-related variables were good predictors of the presence of LC or HNC, with analytical sensitivities and specificities greater than 80%. Patients showed a significant increase in the number of particles of all subclasses of very-low-density lipoproteins (large, medium and small). However, these changes were not maintained when adjusted for age, sex, and other clinical and demographic variables. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in PON1 concentration and, only in patients with HNC, with an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration. Our results suggest that determinations of the levels of PON1-related variables may constitute good biomarkers for the evaluation of these diseases. Studies with a larger number of patients are needed to fully confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle
Paraoxonase 1, HDL Subclasses and Post Surgery Acute Inflammation: A Pilot Study
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060192 - 22 Jun 2019
Abstract
High density lipoproteins (HDL) structure and function studies are needed to better understand the heterogeneous nature of the HDL particle, and its interaction with associated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and the environment. Our study assesses the effects of [...] Read more.
High density lipoproteins (HDL) structure and function studies are needed to better understand the heterogeneous nature of the HDL particle, and its interaction with associated proteins such as apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and the environment. Our study assesses the effects of acute inflammation on PON1 and HDL subclasses in post-surgical colorectal cancer patients. PON1 was measured kinetically through its arylesterase and lactonase activity and HDL sub-classes were measured using Quantimetrix Lipoprint® System. White blood cells (WBC) counts, c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were also analyzed using standard techniques. Our findings show that baseline PON1 activity is lower in colorectal cancer patients and significant reductions are observed in the acute inflammatory state post-surgery. PON1 changes are also inversely related to inflammatory markers such as SAA and CRP. In addition, our preliminary findings show that small and intermediate HDL decreases post-op Day 1. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the effects of chronic and acute inflammation on PON1. Specifically, PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activity is lower in states of chronic inflammation and further decreased in the acute inflammatory state. Additionally, in our limited sample size, while changes in PON1 and HDL subclasses may be variable in the acute inflammatory period, small HDL decreased with a loss of PON1 activity in the subacute phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessCommunication
PON2 Deficiency Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8010019 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein localized to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Previous studies have shown that PON2 exhibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, and PON2-deficient (PON2-def) mice are more susceptible to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, PON2 deficiency leads to impaired mitochondrial [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein localized to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Previous studies have shown that PON2 exhibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, and PON2-deficient (PON2-def) mice are more susceptible to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, PON2 deficiency leads to impaired mitochondrial function. (2) Methods: In this study, we examined the susceptibility of PON2-def mice to diet-induced obesity. (3) Results: After feeding of an obesifying diet, the PON2-def mice exhibited significantly increased body weight due to increased fat mass weight as compared to the wild-type (WT) mice. The increased adiposity was due, in part, to increased adipocyte hypertrophy. PON2-def mice had increased fasting insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance after diet-induced obesity. PON2-def mice had decreased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. Furthermore, the oxygen consumption rate of subcutaneous fat pads from PON2-def mice was lower compared to WT mice. Gene expression analysis of the subcutaneous fat pads revealed decreased expression levels of markers for beige adipocytes in PON2-def mice. (4) Conclusions: We concluded that altered systemic energy balance, perhaps due to decreased beige adipocytes and mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue of PON2-def mice, leads to increased obesity in these mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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