Special Issue "Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Silvia M. Arribas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Arzobispo Morcillo 2 28029-Madrid, Spain
Interests: fetal programming; hypertension; oxidative stress biomarkers; nutrition; confocal microscopy
Dr. Maria Angeles Martín-Cabrejas
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Institute of Food Science Research-CIAL, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds; analysis; biological activity; isolation; mechanism of action; bioaccessibility; bioavailability; food by-products; sustainability; bioeconomy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiometabolic diseases are considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the beneficial effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables are widely recognized. Oxidative stress and inflammation are acknowledged as fundamental mechanisms implicated in the development and progression of these diseases, and the health benefits of plant-based diets could be related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the wide array of bioactive compounds present in these foods. The characterization of foods, food extracts, and specific phytochemicals, and the identification of their mechanism of action, is key to scientifically validating the relationship between diet and cardiometabolic health.

We invite you to submit to this Special Issue your latest research or a review article related to this subject, focused on foods with antioxidant properties, their potential benefits to counteract obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and other related cardiometabolic diseases, and the molecular mechanisms implicated in their effects.

Dr. Silvia M. Arribas
Dr. Maria Angeles Martín-Cabrejas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cardiometabolic diseases
  • Antioxidant foods
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Functional foods
  • Biological activity
  • Bioaccessibility

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antioxidant Effect of Lonicera caerulea L. in the Cardiovascular System of Obese Zucker Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081199 - 27 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Background: Lonicera caerulea L. (Loni) represents a promising source of beneficial polyphenols with therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the effects of Loni and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on selected cardiometabolic parameters and NO/ROS balance in obese Zucker rats. Methods: Male [...] Read more.
Background: Lonicera caerulea L. (Loni) represents a promising source of beneficial polyphenols with therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the effects of Loni and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on selected cardiometabolic parameters and NO/ROS balance in obese Zucker rats. Methods: Male Zucker rats were divided into the control group and groups treated with CoQ10 (30 mg/kg/day) or Loni (5 g/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, body weight, heart weight, and plasma lipid profile were determined. NOS activity and protein expressions of eNOS, SOD, NADPH oxidase, and NF-kappa B were measured in the heart and aorta. Results: Neither body weight nor blood pressure were significantly changed after six weeks of Loni or CoQ10 treatment. Both Loni and CoQ10 decreased the plasma LDL level. Moreover, Loni decreased the total cholesterol level. The total NOS activity did not change in the heart after the treatments. However, in the aorta, Loni treatment increased NOS activity and protein expression of SOD and decreased expressions of NADPH oxidase and NF-kappa B compared to both the control and CoQ10 groups. There were no changes in the eNOS protein expression within the groups. In conclusion, it seems that the antioxidant effect of Loni was responsible for both the decrease of plasma LDL and the total cholesterol levels and the increase of vascular NOS activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Addition of Olive Leaf Extract to a Mixture of Algae and Extra Virgin Olive Oils Decreases Fatty Acid Oxidation and Synergically Attenuates Age-Induced Hypertension, Sarcopenia and Insulin Resistance in Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071066 - 01 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Olive-derived products, such as virgin olive oil (EVOO) and/or olive leaf extracts (OLE), exert anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and antihypertensive properties and may be useful for stabilizing omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) due to their high content in antioxidant compounds. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Olive-derived products, such as virgin olive oil (EVOO) and/or olive leaf extracts (OLE), exert anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and antihypertensive properties and may be useful for stabilizing omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) due to their high content in antioxidant compounds. In this study, the addition of OLE 4:0.15 (w/w) to a mixture of algae oil (AO) rich in n-3 PUFA and EVOO (25:75, w/w) prevents peroxides formation after 12 months of storage at 30 °C. Furthermore, the treatment with the oil mixture (2.5 mL/Kg) and OLE (100 mg/Kg) to 24 month old Wistar rats for 21 days improved the lipid profile, increased the HOMA-IR and decreased the serum levels of miRNAs 21 and 146a. Treatment with this new nutraceutical also prevented age-induced insulin resistance in the liver, gastrocnemius and visceral adipose tissue by decreasing the mRNA levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Oil mixture + OLE also attenuated the age-induced alterations in vascular function and prevented muscle loss by decreasing the expression of sarcopenia-related markers. In conclusion, treatment with a new nutraceutical based on a mixture of EVOO, AO and OLE is a useful strategy for improving the stability of n-3 PUFA in the final product and to attenuate the cardiometabolic and muscular disorders associated with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins, Curry Consumption, and Heavy Metal Levels on Metabolic Syndrome with Comorbidities: A Korean Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050808 - 19 May 2021
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Abstract
The burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased worldwide, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this phenomenon is related to environmental, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to determine the association between the levels of serum heavy metals, hs-CRP, vitamins, and curry [...] Read more.
The burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased worldwide, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this phenomenon is related to environmental, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to determine the association between the levels of serum heavy metals, hs-CRP, vitamins, and curry intake and to predict risks of MetS based on marginal effects. A data set of 60,256 Koreans aged ≥ 15 years between 2009 and 2017 was used to obtain information on sociodemographic, lifestyle, family history characteristics, MetS, food intake survey, and serum heavy metals. Daily intake of vitamins was measured by a one-day 24 h recall, and curry consumption was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. Serum heavy metal levels were quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and using a mercury analyzer. We found that vitamin B1, B2, B3, C, and A intakes were significantly lower in subjects with than without MetS. In contrast, serum levels of Pb, Hg, Cd, vitamin A, E, and hs-CRP were significantly higher in subjects with MetS. The risk of MetS was significantly lower for high curry consumers than low curry consumers (adjusted odds ratio 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.98). The risks of MetS were reduced by 12% and 1%, when vitamin B1 and C intakes increased by one mg, respectively, but were increased by 14%, 3%, and 9%, when serum levels of Pb, Hg, and hs-CRP increased by one unit. These results show that the potential health benefits resulting from vitamin and curry intakes could protect the public against the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Further studies are required to reduce risk factors associated with serum heavy metal levels and to determine whether interactions between vitamin and curry consumption influence the presence of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Galangin Resolves Cardiometabolic Disorders through Modulation of AdipoR1, COX-2, and NF-κB Expression in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050769 - 12 May 2021
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Abstract
Galangin is a natural flavonoid. In this study, we evaluated whether galangin could alleviate signs of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiac abnormalities in rats receiving a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given an HF diet plus 15% fructose for four months, [...] Read more.
Galangin is a natural flavonoid. In this study, we evaluated whether galangin could alleviate signs of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiac abnormalities in rats receiving a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given an HF diet plus 15% fructose for four months, and they were fed with galangin (25 or 50 mg/kg), metformin (100 mg/kg), or a vehicle for the last four weeks. The MS rats exhibited signs of MS, hypertrophy of adipocytes, impaired liver function, and cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. These abnormalities were alleviated by galangin (p < 0.05). Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations and expression were high in the plasma and cardiac tissue in the MS rats, and these markers were suppressed by galangin (p < 0.05). These treatments also alleviated the low levels of adiponectin and oxidative stress induced by an HF diet in rats. The downregulation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the upregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression were recovered in the galangin-treated groups. Metformin produced similar effects to galangin. In conclusion, galangin reduced cardiometabolic disorders in MS rats. These effects might be linked to the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress and the restoration of AdipoR1, COX-2, and NF-κB expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Genistein Prevents Nitric Oxide Deficiency-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling in Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020237 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Genistein is an isoflavone found in soybeans. This study evaluates the protective effects of genistein on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with L-NAME 40 mg/kg/day together for 5 weeks, [...] Read more.
Genistein is an isoflavone found in soybeans. This study evaluates the protective effects of genistein on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with L-NAME 40 mg/kg/day together for 5 weeks, with or without genistein at a dose of 40 or 80 mg/kg/day or lisinopril 5 mg/kg/day (n = 8 per group). Genistein prevented L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. Increases in the left ventricular weight, metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-9, and collagen type I intensity were observed in L-NAME rats, and these changes were attenuated in the genistein-treated group. Genistein reduced circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and angiotensin II concentrations in L-NAME rats. L-NAME increased plasma and cardiac malondialdehyde and vascular superoxide generations, as well as reductions of serum and cardiac catalase activities in rats. Plasma nitrate/nitrite were protected in the genistein-treated group. Genistein prevented the L-NAME-induced overexpression of angiotensin II receptor type I (AT1R), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit 2 (gp91phox), and transforming growth factor beta I (TGF-β1) in hypertensive rats. In conclusion, genistein exhibited a cardioprotective effect in hypertensive rats in this study. The molecular mechanisms might be mediated by suppression of oxidative stress through the Ang II/AT1R/NADPH oxidase/TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
Antioxidant Lifestyle, Co-Morbidities and Quality of Life Empowerment Concerning Liver Fibrosis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111125 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
The assessment of liver fibrosis has gained importance since the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, the description of the association between undetected liver fibrosis and lifestyle in terms of antioxidant habits, comorbidity and quality of life (QoL) domains may help [...] Read more.
The assessment of liver fibrosis has gained importance since the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, the description of the association between undetected liver fibrosis and lifestyle in terms of antioxidant habits, comorbidity and quality of life (QoL) domains may help in the characterization of subjects with NAFLD. A cross-sectional evaluation of (n = 116) consecutive patients from an Internal Medicine ambulatory evaluation was performed. Demographic data, lifestyle, co-morbidity, QoL (according to the SF-36 index) and analytical values to calculate the oxidative related Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index were recorded. The association between FIB-4 and co-morbidity, antioxidant habits in QoL was assessed in univariate analysis (p < 0.05) and confirmed in multivariable analysis for 4 of the 8 SF-36 categories: Physical QoL, Physical role, Social QoL and General QoL, as well as in the Physical summary of SF-36 (p < 0.05). Finally, interactions were assessed between co-morbidity, FIB-4 and antioxidant habits showed in the prediction of mean SF-36 (p < 0.01). Liver fibrosis assessed by the oxidative surrogate index FIB-4 is associated with the interaction between antioxidant lifestyle, co-morbidity and physical, social and general aspects of QoL in apparent liver disease-free individuals, generating a proof of concept for health empowerment and personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review

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Review
Blueberry as An Attractive Functional Fruit to Prevent (Pre)Diabetes Progression
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081162 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Prediabetes, a subclinical impairment between euglycemia and hyperglycemia, is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated micro- and macrovascular complications. Lifestyle therapy, the first-line treatment of prediabetes, includes physical exercise and dietary regimens enriched in phytochemicals [...] Read more.
Prediabetes, a subclinical impairment between euglycemia and hyperglycemia, is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated micro- and macrovascular complications. Lifestyle therapy, the first-line treatment of prediabetes, includes physical exercise and dietary regimens enriched in phytochemicals with health-related properties. Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), given their pleasant taste and great abundance in beneficial phytochemicals, have gained public interest all over the world. Along with a high antioxidant activity, this functional fruit is also well-recognized due to its hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects and has been recommended for overt T2DM management. Yet blueberries target several other pathophysiological traits, namely gut microbiota dysbiosis and hepatic dysmetabolism, that ensue when prediabetes begins and for which pharmacological interventions tend to be delayed. In this work, we revisited preclinical data from in vitro assays, animal models and human studies, aiming to disclose the potential mechanisms by which blueberries may be a fruitful source of phytochemicals able to prevent (pre)diabetes progression. Collectively, future efforts should focus on longer-term studies with standardized interventions and readouts, particularly in humans, that will hopefully bring more robust evidence and concrete guidance for blueberries’ effective use in prediabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review
Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiology and Diseases
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060933 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Unresolved inflammation plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases development. Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators (SPMs), derived from long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), enhances the host defense, by resolving the inflammation and tissue repair. In [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Unresolved inflammation plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases development. Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators (SPMs), derived from long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), enhances the host defense, by resolving the inflammation and tissue repair. In addition, SPMs also have anti-inflammatory properties. These physiological effects depend on the availability of LCPUFAs precursors and cellular metabolic balance. Most of the studies have focused on the impact of SPMs in adult cardiovascular health and diseases. In this review, we discuss LCPUFAs metabolism, SPMs, and their potential effect on cardiovascular health and diseases primarily focusing in neonates. A better understanding of the role of these SPMs in cardiovascular health and diseases in neonates could lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in cardiovascular dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Review
Mechanisms Modified by (−)-Epicatechin and Taxifolin Relevant for the Treatment of Hypertension and Viral Infection: Knowledge from Preclinical Studies
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030467 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Various studies have shown that certain flavonoids, flavonoid-containing plant extracts, and foods can improve human health. Experimental studies showed that flavonoids have the capacity to alter physiological processes as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with their antioxidant properties. An important function [...] Read more.
Various studies have shown that certain flavonoids, flavonoid-containing plant extracts, and foods can improve human health. Experimental studies showed that flavonoids have the capacity to alter physiological processes as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with their antioxidant properties. An important function of flavonoids was determined in the cardiovascular system, namely their capacity to lower blood pressure and to improve endothelial function. (−)-Epicatechin and taxifolin are two flavonoids with notable antihypertensive effects and multiple beneficial actions in the cardiovascular system, but they also possess antiviral effects, which may be of particular importance in the ongoing pandemic situation. Thus, this review is focused on the current knowledge of (−)-epicatechin as well as (+)-taxifolin and/or (−)-taxifolin-modified biological action and underlining molecular mechanisms determined in preclinical studies, which are relevant not only to the treatment of hypertension per se but may provide additional antiviral benefits that could be relevant to the treatment of hypertensive subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health)
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