Stress Management in Poultry

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Poultry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 10041

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Interests: gut health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation, regardless of its cause or nature, is the body’s response to cellular injury and the final stage of the stress process (biological, environmental, nutritional, physical, chemical, or psychological). Stress and inflammation are nonspecific defense mechanisms (innate responses) involving hormones, neuropeptides, immune cells, and molecular mediators essential for the survival and healing processes in all living organisms. During a stressful situation, the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine hormones (adrenaline and glucocorticoids), prepare every single cell in the body to either "fight or flight". If the stressful signal persists, the animal remains in "survival mode", a biological process intended to be short and acute. Nevertheless, if the stress continues, stress hormones and other pro-inflammatory molecules remain in circulation, keeping the animal in a chronic state of survival, oxidative stress and chronic systemic inflammation and in the process oxidative stress damages cell and mitochondria membranes (lipid peroxidation), compromising cell physiology in all tissues and organs. For these reasons, chronic stress and inflammation are identified as "secret killers".

Areas of interest: nutrition; physiology; welfare; endocrinology; poultry production and management; gut health; pathology; microbiology; immunology.

We invite you to share your recent findings through this Special Issue.

Dr. Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
Dr. Brittany Danielle M. Graham
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • poultry
  • stress
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • welfare

Published Papers (5 papers)

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15 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Hypocholesterolemic, Antioxidative, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dietary Spirulina platensisis Supplementation on Laying Hens Exposed to Cyclic Heat Stress
by Morshed I. M. Al-Otaibi, Hasan A. E. Abdellatif, Abdelmohsen K. A. Al-Huwail, Ahmed O. Abbas, Gamal M. K. Mehaisen and Eman S. Moustafa
Animals 2022, 12(20), 2759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202759 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the role of dietary Spirulina platensis (SP) supplementation in relieving the negative impacts of heat stress (HS) on the productive performance, cholesterol profile, redox status, and inflammatory cytokines of laying hens. A total of 288, 45-wk-old and 1550.7 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the role of dietary Spirulina platensis (SP) supplementation in relieving the negative impacts of heat stress (HS) on the productive performance, cholesterol profile, redox status, and inflammatory cytokines of laying hens. A total of 288, 45-wk-old and 1550.7 ± 2.3 g initial body weight, HY-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in two environmental-controlled compartments. Layers were allotted to eight treatments of a two × four factorial design, with six replicates containing six birds per treatment. The temperature in one of the compartments was kept at a thermoneutral condition (24 °C group), while the temperature in the other compartment was raised to a cyclic heat stress of 35 °C from 9:00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. (35 °C group). Layers in each compartment were fed on one of four experimental diets, containing 0%, 3%, 6%, or 9% SP (SP groups). The trial continued for five weeks. As a result of this study, exposure of laying hens to cyclic HS resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the total cholesterol (CH), low-density lipoprotein-CH, liver- and egg yolk-CH, ceruloplasmin, malondialdehyde, interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the high-density lipoprotein-CH, total antioxidant capacity, and reduced glutathione levels. HS negatively (p < 0.05) affected the hen–day egg production (EP, 90.5% vs. 77.0%), egg weight (EW, 61.8 g vs. 56.8 g), feed intake (FI, 111.6 g vs. 101.5 g) and feed conversion ratio (FCR, 2.00 vs. 2.37). As SP levels increased in layer diets, a linear (p < 0.05) improvement response in most of the parameters was obtained in both HS and non-HS layers, recording the best results with 9% SP (e.g., 78.8% vs. 87.6% EP, 56.7 g vs. 61.9 g EW, 103.3 g vs. 110.2 g FI, and 2.38 vs. 2.04 FCR, in 0% vs. 9% SP, respectively). When incorporating SP into the diets of HS-layers, the negative impacts of HS were remarkably relieved (p < 0.05). Therefore, diets containing 9% SP could be used as a promising approach to improve the productive and physiological performance of laying hens, particularly under heat stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Management in Poultry)
16 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplemental Chromium Yeast Improved the Antioxidant Capacity, Immunity and Liver Health in Broilers under High Stocking Density
by Xiangqi Xin, Miaomiao Han, Yuan Wu, Yuanyang Dong, Zhiqiang Miao, Junzhen Zhang, Xianyi Song, Ru Jia, Yuan Su, Ci Liu, Rui Bai and Jianhui Li
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172216 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of yeast chromium on growth performance, organ index, antioxidant capacity, immune performance and liver health of broilers under high stocking density. A total of 684 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were selected and [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of yeast chromium on growth performance, organ index, antioxidant capacity, immune performance and liver health of broilers under high stocking density. A total of 684 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were selected and fed a common diet from 1 to 22 days of age. At the end of 22 days, broilers with similar weight were randomly divided into six treatments, with six replications in each treatment. The broilers in control groups were fed with a control diet and raised at low stocking density of broilers (14 broilers/m2, LSD) and high stocking density (20 broilers/m2, HSD). The broilers in treatment groups were fed with diets supplemented with 200, 400, 800 and 1600 µg Cr/kg chromium yeast (Cr-yeast) under HSD, respectively. The experimental period was 23~42 days. Compared with the LSD group, the HSD group significantly decreased the liver index (ratio of liver weight to live weight of broilers) of broilers (p < 0.05), the HSD group significantly increased the content of corticosterone (CORT) and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and decreased the prealbumin (PA) level in the serum (p < 0.05). HSD decreased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) contents in the serum, liver and breast, serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, breast total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and liver catalase (CAT) activities of broilers (p < 0.05). The HSD group significantly increased the total histopathological score (p < 0.05). Compared with the HSD group, adding 200, 400, and 1600 Cr-yeast significantly increased the liver index of broilers (p < 0.05), all HSD + Cr-yeast groups decreased the ALT activities (p < 0.05), and the HSD + 800 group significantly decreased the CORT contents and the ALP activities of the serum (p < 0.05); the HSD + 400, 800 and 1600 groups increased the PA contents of the serum (p < 0.05); HSD + 800 group significantly reduced the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) contents of the serum (p < 0.05); moreover, the HSD + 400 group increased the GSH-Px activities of the serum (p < 0.05), the T-AOC and the T-SOD activities of the breast (p < 0.05) and the T-AOC and CAT activities of the liver (p < 0.05). Adding 800 Cr-yeast significantly decreased the total histopathological score (degree of hepatocyte edema and inflammatory cell infiltration) under HSD (p < 0.05). In summary, Cr-yeast can improve the antioxidant capacity and immune traits, and liver health of broilers under HSD. Based on the results of the linear regression analysis, the optimal supplementation of Cr-yeast in antioxidant capacity, immunity ability and liver health were at the range of 425.00–665.00, 319.30–961.00, and 800.00–1531.60 µg Cr/kg, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Management in Poultry)
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14 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Predisposing Factors of Necrotic Enteritis in Experimentally Challenged Broiler Chickens
by Larissa Justino, Ana A. S. Baptista, Marielen de Souza, Maísa F. Menck-Costa, Bárbara G. Pires, Claudineia E. Cicero, Ana P. F. R. L. Bracarense, Vanessa M. Kaneko, Alexandre Oba, Adriano S. Okamoto and Raphael L. Andreatti Filho
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151880 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Clostridium perfringens is the etiological agent of NE, a disease that greatly affects the poultry industry. Experiments on the induction of NE are difficult to carry out, as it is a multifactorial disease, and thus different predisposing factors have been used. This study [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens is the etiological agent of NE, a disease that greatly affects the poultry industry. Experiments on the induction of NE are difficult to carry out, as it is a multifactorial disease, and thus different predisposing factors have been used. This study evaluated the effect of the Gumboro disease vaccine virus vaccine (IBDV-vac) associated or not with infection by Eimeria spp. in broilers, as a predisposing factor for NE. Broilers (n = 99) were divided into groups (11) challenged with IBDV-vac, Eimeria spp. CP type G (CP13, CP14 and CP03) or both. The macroscopic evaluation revealed that the highest average (3.45) of injury occurred for the CP13 + IBDV-vac group. The microscopic analysis showed that Eimeria spp. increased the population of intraepithelial lymphocytes and reduced the villus/crypt ratio in duodenum and jejunum when associated with CP13 or CP14. There was a synergistic effect between the CP strain used and the predisposing factors; nevertheless, it was not clear which was the most effective predisposing factor to potentiate the lesions, suggesting that the association of the strain with the factors should first be evaluated for each experimental protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Management in Poultry)
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18 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Commercial Direct-Fed Microbial (Zymospore®) on the Fecal Microbiome and Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens under Experimental Challenge Conditions
by Otoniel F. de Souza, Bruno Vecchi, Emanuel Gumina, Fabrizio Matté, Fabio L. Gazoni, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Jeffrey W. Hall, Catarina Stefanello and Sherry Layton
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111436 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are added to broiler chicken diets in order to promote the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacterial populations, which may lead to gains in performance efficiency and, potentially, reduce the level of enteric pathogens in the broiler chickens. The selection and [...] Read more.
Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are added to broiler chicken diets in order to promote the proliferation of beneficial intestinal bacterial populations, which may lead to gains in performance efficiency and, potentially, reduce the level of enteric pathogens in the broiler chickens. The selection and laboratory evaluation of Bacillus subtilis strains as well as the experimental trial results of a novel Bacillus-based commercial DFM product are described. Fifteen wild-type Bacillus subtilis strains were characterized and assayed for their enzyme production capability, spore resistance to pH, salinity, and temperature, and ability to inhibit the growth of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The final DFM formulation was evaluated and compared to an antibiotic growth promoter (AGPs) in two experimental trials. In Experiment 1, broilers were given a defined challenge of Eimeria spp. and Clostridium perfringens to induce intestinal dysbiosis. The optimal dose of the DFM was determined to be 0.3 kg/ton of feed. At this dose, the broilers fed the DFM performed as well as the Flavomycin®-fed broilers. Further, intestinal microbiome analysis indicates that the use of the DFM enhances bacterial diversity of the gut flora by day 5 of age, increasing levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Clostridiales by 25 days of age, which may enhance the digestion of feed and promote growth of the birds. In Experiment 2, the broilers were raised on recycled litter and given an undefined challenge orally to mimic commercial growth conditions. In this trial, the DFM performed as well as the bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD)-11%-fed birds. The results of the present studies suggest that this novel DFM, Zymospore®, improves the performance of broiler chickens under experimental challenge conditions as effective as an AGP, providing a safe and effective substitute to the poultry industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Management in Poultry)
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9 pages, 277 KiB  
Brief Report
Experimental Cyclic Heat Stress on Intestinal Permeability, Bone Mineralization, Leukocyte Proportions and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens
by Alessandro Rocchi, Jared Ruff, Clay J. Maynard, Aaron J. Forga, Roberto Señas-Cuesta, Elizabeth S. Greene, Juan D. Latorre, Christine N. Vuong, Brittany D. Graham, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Guillermo Tellez, Jr., Victor M. Petrone-Garcia, Lauren Laverty, Billy M. Hargis, Gisela F. Erf, Casey M. Owens and Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
Animals 2022, 12(10), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101273 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The goal of this research was to assess cyclic heat stress on gut permeability, bone mineralization, and meat quality in chickens. Two separate trials were directed. 320 day-of-hatch Cobb 500 male chicks were randomly assigned to four thermoneutral (TN) and four cyclic heat [...] Read more.
The goal of this research was to assess cyclic heat stress on gut permeability, bone mineralization, and meat quality in chickens. Two separate trials were directed. 320 day-of-hatch Cobb 500 male chicks were randomly assigned to four thermoneutral (TN) and four cyclic heat stress (HS) chambers with two pens each, providing eight replicates per treatment in each trial (n = 20 chicks/replicate). Environmental conditions in the TN group were established to simulate commercial production settings. Heat stress chickens were exposed to cyclic HS at 35 °C for 12 h/day from days 7–42. Performance parameters, intestinal permeability, bone parameters, meat quality, and leukocyte proportions were estimated. There was a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in body weight (BW), BW gain, and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased in chickens under cyclic HS. Moreover, HS chickens had a significantly higher gut permeability, monocyte and basophil levels, but less bone mineralization than TN chickens. Nevertheless, the TN group had significant increases in breast yield, woody breast, and white striping in breast fillets compared to HS. These results present an alternative model to our previously published continuous HS model to better reflect commercial conditions to evaluate commercially available nutraceuticals or products with claims of reducing the severity of heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Management in Poultry)
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