Special Issue "Animal Infectious Diseases Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria: A One-Health Issue"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 10927

Special Issue Editors

Dr. María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
Interests: antimicrobial resistant bacteria of human; animal and environmental origin; clinical microbiology of small ruminants and camelids; Trypanosoma evansi
Prof. Juan Alberto Corbera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: small animals veterinary neurology; small ruminants and camel medicine; Trypanosome evansi; camelids nanobodies

Special Issue Information

Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a consequence of the selective pressure exerted by antimicrobial usage in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and animal production. This limits the choice of treatments for animals’ infectious diseases and increases therapeutic failures and adverse clinical outcomes. The number of veterinary clinical cases due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms increases year by year, representing now an important Public Health problem. Efforts should be made to improve clinical management and treatment of these infections, to study their causes and consequences, and to improve measures to content them inside veterinary health care centers and animal production facilities. 

In this Special Issue of the prestigious journal Animals, we aim to gather high-quality papers addressing different aspects of infectious diseases in animals caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, with a special focus on a “One-Health” perspective. Manuscripts should cover topics related to clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention and control of these infections in any type of animals (e.g., wildlife, pets, farm animals, laboratory animals, aquatic species). Novel therapies are also considered in this scope. 

Researchers working in veterinary infectious clinical medicine, veterinary microbiology or preventive veterinary medicine are invited to contribute in-depth reviews, original research articles, and case-report series.

Dr. María Teresa Tejedor-Junco
Prof. Juan Alberto Corbera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • animal’s infectious diseases
  • zoonosis
  • one-health
  • Biosecurity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Multidrug-Resistant Phenotypes of Escherichia coli Isolates in Wild Canarian Egyptian Vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis)
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061692 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in cloacal samples from Canarian Egyptian vultures was investigated. Samples were obtained from chicks (n = 65) and from adults and immature birds (n = 38). Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics included in 12 [...] Read more.
The presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in cloacal samples from Canarian Egyptian vultures was investigated. Samples were obtained from chicks (n = 65) and from adults and immature birds (n = 38). Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics included in 12 different categories was determined for 103 E. coli isolates. MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. Forty-seven different resistance phenotypes were detected: 31 MDR (41 isolates) and 16 non-MDR (62 isolates). One isolate was resistant to all 12 antimicrobial categories and 2 phenotypes included resistance to 9 antimicrobial categories. Imipenem resistance was included in five MDR phenotypes, corresponding to five different isolates. Statistically significant differences in prevalence of MDR-phenotypes were found between chicks in nests and the rest of the animals, probably due to the shorter exposure time of chicks to antimicrobials. The main risk derived from MDR bacteria in scavengers is that it threatens the treatment of wild animals in rescue centres and could be transferred to other animals in the facilities. In addition to this, it could pose a health risk to veterinarians or other staff involved in wildlife protection programmes. Full article
Article
Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacer jejuni on Swine Processing at a Slaughterhouse in Eastern Spain
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051339 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in humans in the EU, mainly from poultry meat consumption. C. jejuni is the main species involved in the human disease. However, little is known about the role of swine meat in its epidemiology. Thus, [...] Read more.
Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in humans in the EU, mainly from poultry meat consumption. C. jejuni is the main species involved in the human disease. However, little is known about the role of swine meat in its epidemiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of C. jejuni on swine processing at the slaughterhouse. To this end, a total of 21 pig herds were intensively sampled at the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter isolation was based on official method ISO 10272-1:2018, speciation was determined by the hippurate hydrolysis test, and antibiotic susceptibility was performed according to standard disc diffusion assay. The results showed that all batches shed Campylobacter in faeces upon arrival at the slaughterhouse and remained positive at the end of the slaughtering process (42.8%). Moreover, 41.5% of Campylobacter strains isolated were C. jejuni and all of them were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 96.3% were multidrug-resistant strains. In conclusion, the high level of multidrug-resistant C. jejuni swine batch contamination at the slaughterhouse makes it necessary to include the swine sector in national control programmes to reduce the bacterium and its resistance. Full article
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Article
Commensal Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Resistance and Multidrug-Resistance Dynamics during Broiler Growing Period: Commercial vs. Improved Farm Conditions
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041005 - 03 Apr 2021
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Abstract
New measures applied to reduce antimicrobial resistances (AMR) at field level in broiler production are focused on improving animals’ welfare and resilience. However, it is necessary to have better knowledge of AMR epidemiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate AMR [...] Read more.
New measures applied to reduce antimicrobial resistances (AMR) at field level in broiler production are focused on improving animals’ welfare and resilience. However, it is necessary to have better knowledge of AMR epidemiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR) dynamics during the rearing of broilers under commercial (33 kg/m2 density and max. 20 ppm ammonia) and improved (17 kg/m2 density and max. 10 ppm ammonia) farm conditions. Day-old chicks were housed in two poultry houses (commercial vs. improved), and no antimicrobial agents were administered at any point. Animals were sampled at arrival day, mid-period and at slaughter day. High AMR rates were observed throughout rearing. No statistical differences were observed between groups. Moreover, both groups presented high MDR at slaughter day. These results could be explained by vertical or horizontal resistance acquisition. In conclusion, AMR and MDR are present throughout rearing. Moreover, although a lower level of MDR was observed at mid-period in animals reared under less intensive conditions, no differences were found at the end. In order to reduce the presence of AMR bacteria in poultry, further studies are needed to better understand AMR acquisition and prevalence in differing broiler growing conditions. Full article
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Article
Multidrug Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Detection of mcr-1 Gene in Salmonella Species Isolated from Chicken
Animals 2021, 11(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010206 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Colistin (polymyxin E) is widely used in animal and human medicine and is increasingly used as one of the last-resort antibiotics against Gram-negative bacilli. Due to the increased use of colistin in treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to this antibiotic [...] Read more.
Colistin (polymyxin E) is widely used in animal and human medicine and is increasingly used as one of the last-resort antibiotics against Gram-negative bacilli. Due to the increased use of colistin in treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to this antibiotic ought to be monitored. The study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms, genetic relationships and phenotype correlations of colistin-resistant isolates. Here, we report the detection of the mcr-1 gene in chicken-associated Salmonella isolates in Bangladesh and its in-silico functional analysis. Out of 100 samples, 82 Salmonella spp. were isolated from chicken specimens (liver, intestine). Phenotypic disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay using different antimicrobial agents were performed. Salmonella isolates were characterized using PCR methods targeting genus-specific invA and mcr-1 genes with validation for the functional analysis. The majority of the tested Salmonella isolates were found resistant to colistin (92.68%), ciprofloxacin (73.17%), tigecycline (62.20%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (60.98%). When screened using PCR, five out of ten Salmonella isolates were found to carry the mcr-1 gene. One isolate was confirmed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, and other four isolates were confirmed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a divergent evolutionary relationship between the catalytic domain of Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase A (LptA) and MCR proteins, rendering them resistant to colistin. Three-dimensional homology structural analysis of MCR-1 proteins and molecular docking interactions suggested that MCR-1 and LptA share a similar substrate binding cavity, which could be validated for the functional analysis. The comprehensive molecular and in-silico analyses of the colistin resistance mcr-1 gene of Salmonella spp. of chicken origin in the present study highlight the importance of continued monitoring and surveillance for antimicrobial resistance among pathogens in food chain animals. Full article
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Review

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Review
Genomic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Chain and Livestock-Associated Salmonella Species
Animals 2021, 11(3), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030872 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
The rising trend of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by foodborne bacteria is a public health concern as these pathogens are easily transmitted to humans through the food chain. Non-typhoid Salmonella spp. is one of the leading foodborne pathogens which infect humans worldwide and is [...] Read more.
The rising trend of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by foodborne bacteria is a public health concern as these pathogens are easily transmitted to humans through the food chain. Non-typhoid Salmonella spp. is one of the leading foodborne pathogens which infect humans worldwide and is associated with food and livestock. Due to the lack of discovery of new antibiotics and the pressure exerted by antimicrobial resistance in the pharmaceutical industry, this review aimed to address the issue of antibiotic use in livestock which leads to AMR in Salmonella. Much attention was given to resistance to carbapenems and colistin which are the last-line antibiotics used in cases of multi drug resistant bacterial infections. In the present review, we highlighted data published on antimicrobial resistant Salmonella species and serovars associated with livestock and food chain animals. The importance of genomic characterization of carbapenem and colistin resistant Salmonella in determining the relationship between human clinical isolates and food animal isolates was also discussed in this review. Plasmids, transposons, and insertion sequence elements mediate dissemination of not only AMR genes but also genes for resistance to heavy metals and disinfectants, thus limiting the therapeutic options for treatment and control of Salmonella. Genes for resistance to colistin (mcr-1 to mcr-9) and carbapenem (blaVIM-1, blaDNM-1, and blaNDM-5) have been detected from poultry, pig, and human Salmonella isolates, indicating food animal-associated AMR which is a threat to human public health. Genotyping, plasmid characterization, and phylogenetic analysis is important in understanding the epidemiology of livestock-related Salmonella so that measures of preventing foodborne threats to humans can be improved. Full article
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Review
Escherichia coli as Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria among Food-Producing Animals: Health Implications of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) Production
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122239 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
Escherichia coli are facultative, anaerobic Gram-negative rods with many facets. Within resistant bacterial populations, they play an important ecological role and can be used as a bioindicator of antimicrobial resistance. All animal species used for food production, as well as humans, carry E. [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli are facultative, anaerobic Gram-negative rods with many facets. Within resistant bacterial populations, they play an important ecological role and can be used as a bioindicator of antimicrobial resistance. All animal species used for food production, as well as humans, carry E. coli in their intestinal tracts; plus, the genetic flexibility and adaptability of this bacteria to constantly changing environments allows it to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Thus, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in these commensal bacteria (or others, such as enterococci) can be a good indicator for the selective pressure caused by the use of antimicrobial agents, providing an early warning of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens. As many as 90% of E. coli strains are commensals inhabiting the intestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals. As a commensal, it lives in a mutually beneficial association with its hosts and rarely causes diseases. However, E. coli also remains as one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. In humans, it is the prominent cause of enteritis, community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI), septicemia, postsurgical peritonitis, and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis, while, in farm animals, it is more prominently associated with diarrhea. On a global scale, E. coli can be considered the most important human pathogen, causing severe infection along with other major bacterial foodborne agents, such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter. Thus, the importance of resistance in E. coli, typically considered a benign commensal, should not be underestimated. Full article
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