Special Issue "Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Companion Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rosalia Crupi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy
Interests: veterinary pharmacology; toxicology; inflammation; neuroinflammation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Enrico Gugliandolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, 98155 Messina, Italy
Interests: veterinary pharmacology; toxicology; pharmacological activity of natural substances; nutraceuticals; dietary contaminants; animal welfare
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Nowadays, pets are increasingly considered full family members. Their protection and health care are among the most remarkable social achievements of the last few decades, with positive effects for pets and owners. Nutrition—regarded as the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair—affects virtually every cellular process. Accordingly, dietary compounds might modify network function and stability. This is the foundation of dietary supplementation to help manage small animal disorders, especially of a chronic nature, where unresolved inflammation is a key mechanism of pathogenesis. Chronic disorders need long-term or even life-long treatment. Most adverse drug reactions are greater the higher the dose and the longer the exposure. It is thus mandatory to lower the dose as much as possible and shorten the time of administration. This is also true—albeit for somewhat different reasons—of antibiotics. Given all of the above, dietary management of small animal disorders might be a valuable answer to animal health needs, provided that data on safety, mechanisms and functions are methodologically sound and scientifically robust.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present recent research and reviews on “Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health” with the aim of stimulating interest, understanding and exploration of this important field.

Dr. Rosalia Crupi
Dr. Enrico Gugliandolo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • small animal
  • nutrition
  • animal welfare
  • complimentary feed
  • nutraceuticals
  • PARNUTs

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Fucoxanthin Exerts Anti-Tumor Activity on Canine Mammary Tumor Cells via Tumor Cell Apoptosis Induction and Angiogenesis Inhibition
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061512 - 23 May 2021
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid derived from brown algae. It is known to exhibit anticancer activity, including the promotion of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in several tumors. However, it remains unclear whether fucoxanthin exhibits anticancer activity against mammary gland tumors. In this study, [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid derived from brown algae. It is known to exhibit anticancer activity, including the promotion of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in several tumors. However, it remains unclear whether fucoxanthin exhibits anticancer activity against mammary gland tumors. In this study, we evaluated fucoxanthin activity against canine mammary tumor cells (CMT-U27) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate its effect on cell viability, migration, tube formation, and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) expression. Our results showed that fucoxanthin induced apoptosis via caspase activation in CMT-U27 cells. In rat aortic ring assay, fucoxanthin suppressed endothelial cell sprouting. Furthermore, fucoxanthin inhibited tube formation and migration in HUVECs. The number of migrated cells was assessed using CMT-U27 cells. The results demonstrated that fucoxanthin exerted anti-angiogenic activity on HUVECs and CMT-U27 cells by promoting Ang2 expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that fucoxanthin induced tumor cell death and inhibited angiogenesis, suggesting that fucoxanthin could be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for canine mammary gland tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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Article
Dietary Supplementation with Palmitoyl-Glucosamine Co-Micronized with Curcumin Relieves Osteoarthritis Pain and Benefits Joint Mobility
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101827 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Chronic mixed pain and orthopedic dysfunction are the most frequently associated consequences of canine osteoarthritis (OA). An unmet need remains for safe and effective therapies for OA. Palmitoyl-glucosamine (PGA) and curcumin are safe and naturally occurring compounds whose use is limited by poor [...] Read more.
Chronic mixed pain and orthopedic dysfunction are the most frequently associated consequences of canine osteoarthritis (OA). An unmet need remains for safe and effective therapies for OA. Palmitoyl-glucosamine (PGA) and curcumin are safe and naturally occurring compounds whose use is limited by poor bioavailability. Micronization is an established technique to increase bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate if the dietary supplementation with PGA co-micronized with curcumin (PGA-Cur, 2:1 ratio by mass) could limit pathologic process in two well-established rat models of inflammation and OA pain, i.e., subplantar carrageenan (CAR) and knee injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA), respectively. In CAR-injected animals, a single dose of PGA-cur significantly reduced paw edema and hyperalgesia, as well as tissue damage and neutrophil infiltration. The repeated administration of PGA-Cur three times per week for 21 days, starting the third day after MIA injection resulted in a significant anti-allodynic effect. Protection against cartilage damage and recovery of locomotor function by 45% were also recorded. Finally, PGA-cur significantly counteracted MIA-induced increase in serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, NGF, as well as metalloproteases 1, 3, and 9. All the effects of PGA-Cur were superior compared to the compounds used singly. PGA-Cur emerged as a useful dietary intervention for OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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Review

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Review
Successful and Unsuccessful Brain Aging in Pets: Pathophysiological Mechanisms behind Clinical Signs and Potential Benefits from Palmitoylethanolamide Nutritional Intervention
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092584 - 03 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Canine and feline cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a common neurodegenerative disorder of old age and a natural model of human Alzheimer’s disease. With the unavoidable expanding life expectancy, an increasing number of small animals will be affected. Although there is no cure, early [...] Read more.
Canine and feline cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a common neurodegenerative disorder of old age and a natural model of human Alzheimer’s disease. With the unavoidable expanding life expectancy, an increasing number of small animals will be affected. Although there is no cure, early detection and intervention are vitally important to delay cognitive decline. Knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression is an equally decisive factor for developing effective approaches. Uncontrolled neuroinflammation, orchestrated in the central nervous system mainly by astrocytes, microglia, and resident mast cells, is currently acknowledged as a hallmark of neurodegeneration. This has prompted scientists to find a way to rebalance the altered crosstalk between these cells. In this context, great emphasis has been given to the role played by the expanded endocannabinoid system, i.e., endocannabinoidome, because of its prominent role in physiological and pathological neuroinflammation. Within the endocannabinoidome, great attention has been paid to palmitoylethanolamide due to its safe and pro-homeostatic effects. The availability of new ultramicronized formulations highly improved the oral bioavailability of palmitoylethanolamide, paving the way to its dietary use. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide has been repeatedly tested in animal models of age-related neurodegeneration with promising results. Data accumulated so far suggest that supplementation with ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide helps to accomplish successful brain aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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Review
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate: Is There Any Scientific Evidence for Their Effectiveness as Disease-Modifying Drugs in Knee Osteoarthritis Preclinical Studies?—A Systematic Review from 2000 to 2021
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061608 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been proposed due to their physiological and functional benefits in the management of osteoarthritis in companion animals. However, the scientific evidence for their use is still controversial. The purpose of this review was to critically elucidate the efficacy [...] Read more.
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been proposed due to their physiological and functional benefits in the management of osteoarthritis in companion animals. However, the scientific evidence for their use is still controversial. The purpose of this review was to critically elucidate the efficacy of these nutraceutical therapies in delaying the progression of osteoarthritis, evaluating their impact on the synovial knee joint tissues and biochemical markers in preclinical studies by systematically reviewing the last two decades of peer-reviewed publications on experimental osteoarthritis. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus and, Web of Science) were screened for eligible studies. Twenty-two articles were included in the review. Preclinical studies showed a great heterogeneity among the experimental designs and their outcomes. Generally, the evaluated nutraceuticals, alone or in combination, did not seem to prevent the subchondral bone changes, the synovial inflammation or the osteophyte formation. However, further experimental studies may be needed to evaluate their effect at those levels. Regarding the cartilage status and biomarkers, positive responses were identified in approximately half of the evaluated articles. Furthermore, beneficial effects were associated with the pre-emptive administrations, higher doses and, multimodality approaches with some combined therapies. However, additional studies in the long term and with good quality and systematic design are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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Review
Zinc in Dog Nutrition, Health and Disease: A Review
Animals 2021, 11(4), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040978 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Zinc is an essential trace element, required for enzymatic, structural, and regulatory functions. As body reserves are scarce, an adequate zinc status relies on proper dietary supply and efficient homeostasis. Several biomarkers have been proposed that enable the detection of poor zinc status, [...] Read more.
Zinc is an essential trace element, required for enzymatic, structural, and regulatory functions. As body reserves are scarce, an adequate zinc status relies on proper dietary supply and efficient homeostasis. Several biomarkers have been proposed that enable the detection of poor zinc status, but more sensitive and specific ones are needed to detect marginal deficiencies. The zinc content of commercial dry dog foods has great variability, with a more frequent non-compliance with the maximum authorized limit than with the nutritional requirement. The bioavailability of dietary zinc also plays a crucial role in ensuring an adequate zinc status. Despite controversial results, organic zinc sources have been considered more bioavailable than inorganic sources, albeit the zinc source effect is more evident after a restriction period of dietary zinc. Many disorders have been associated with inadequate zinc status, not being clear whether the occurrence of the disease is the consequence or the cause. This review presents data on zinc requirements and biomarkers for zinc status, that can be applied for the development of supplementation strategies of zinc in complete pet foods. Moreover, it provides an understanding of the role zinc plays in the health of dogs, and how altered zinc status affects diseases in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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Review
Chronic Pain in Dogs and Cats: Is There Place for Dietary Intervention with Micro-Palmitoylethanolamide?
Animals 2021, 11(4), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040952 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
The management of chronic pain is an integral challenge of small animal veterinary practitioners. Multiple pharmacological agents are usually employed to treat maladaptive pain including opiates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and others. In order to limit adverse effects and tolerance development, they [...] Read more.
The management of chronic pain is an integral challenge of small animal veterinary practitioners. Multiple pharmacological agents are usually employed to treat maladaptive pain including opiates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and others. In order to limit adverse effects and tolerance development, they are often combined with non-pharmacologic measures such as acupuncture and dietary interventions. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-neuronal cells such as mast cells and microglia play active roles in the pathogenesis of maladaptive pain. Accordingly, these cells are currently viewed as potential new targets for managing chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide is an endocannabinoid-like compound found in several food sources and considered a body’s own analgesic. The receptor-dependent control of non-neuronal cells mediates the pain-relieving effect of palmitoylethanolamide. Accumulating evidence shows the anti-hyperalgesic effect of supplemented palmitoylethanolamide, especially in the micronized and co-micronized formulations (i.e., micro-palmitoylethanolamide), which allow for higher bioavailability. In the present paper, the role of non-neuronal cells in pain signaling is discussed and a large number of studies on the effect of palmitoylethanolamide in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain are reviewed. Overall, available evidence suggests that there is place for micro-palmitoylethanolamide in the dietary management of chronic pain in dogs and cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutrition for Small Animal Health)
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