Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Companion Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 36270

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Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: anaesthesia; gastro-oesophageal reflux; animal pain; diaphragmatic contractility; pulmonary atelectasis
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Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: anaesthesia; analgesia

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: anaesthesia; analgesia

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Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: anaesthesia; analgesia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: anaesthesia; analgesia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New strategies regarding veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia are constantly being developed, and the best scientific research is being promoted. The pillar of this practice is evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM), which is mainly reflected in peer-reviewed published work. The openness of this work, its widespread dissemination and public criticism further enhance the quality of this scientific effort. This practice, which is targeted not only for the sake of science, but also for the practical benefit of animals and animal carers—regarding the ethical protection and welfare of both—is at the heart of the science, and it stands as the cornerstone of the modern world of reasoning.

We cordially invite you to join us on a journey onboard of this Special Issue of Animals, and we hope you enjoy this trip to knowledge through uncharted waters.

Prof. Dr. Ioannis Savvas
Dr. Tilemahos Anagnostou
Dr. George M. Kazakos
Dr. Kiriaki Pavlidou
Prof. Dr. Dimitris Raptopoulos
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • anaesthesia
  • analgesia
  • companion animals

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Stereoselective Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine Administered at a Low Dose in Awake Dogs
by Gwenda Pargätzi, Alessandra Bergadano, Claudia Spadavecchia, Regula Theurillat, Wolfgang Thormann and Olivier L. Levionnois
Animals 2024, 14(7), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14071012 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of racemic ketamine in dogs at low doses. The secondary aims were to identify associated behavioural effects and propose a ketamine infusion rate. The study was conducted on nine intact male beagles, with each [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to examine the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of racemic ketamine in dogs at low doses. The secondary aims were to identify associated behavioural effects and propose a ketamine infusion rate. The study was conducted on nine intact male beagles, with each dog undergoing two treatments (BOL and INF). For treatment BOL, an intravenous bolus of 1 mg/kg was administered over 2 min. The treatment INF involved an initial bolus of 0.5 mg/kg given over 1 min, followed by an infusion at 0.01 mg/kg/min for 1 h. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. The median R/S enantiomer ratio of ketamine remained close to 1 throughout the study. Levels of S-norketamine were significantly higher than those of R-norketamine across all time points. Based on the collected data, the infusion rate predicted to achieve a steady-state racemic ketamine plasma concentration of 150 ng/mL was 0.028 mg/kg/min. Higher scores for behavioural effects were observed within the first five minutes following bolus administration. The most common behaviours observed were disorientation, head movements and staring eyes. Furthermore, employing ROC curve analysis, a racemic ketamine plasma concentration of 102 ng/mL was defined as the cut-off value, correlating with the occurrence of undesirable behavioural patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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10 pages, 1009 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided Versus Anatomical Landmark-Guided Thoracolumbar Retrolaminar Techniques in Canine Cadavers
by Julia Pentsou, Séamus Hoey, Michail Vagias, Bethany Guy and Vilhelmiina Huuskonen
Animals 2023, 13(19), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13193045 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The retrolaminar block was developed in humans as an easier and safer alternative to the thoracic paravertebral block. This study aims to describe an ultrasound-guided thoracolumbar retrolaminar injection in canine cadavers and compare the injectate distribution between a landmark-guided and an ultrasound-guided thoracolumbar [...] Read more.
The retrolaminar block was developed in humans as an easier and safer alternative to the thoracic paravertebral block. This study aims to describe an ultrasound-guided thoracolumbar retrolaminar injection in canine cadavers and compare the injectate distribution between a landmark-guided and an ultrasound-guided thoracolumbar retrolaminar technique using computed tomography. Ten canine cadavers were randomised to receive two injections each of 0.6 mL/kg of iodinated contrast at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12): a landmark-guided retrolaminar injection was performed on one hemithorax (group B, n = 10) and an ultrasound-guided on the other hemithorax (group U, n = 10). Groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. The median (range) spread of the contrast in the paravertebral space was 0 (0–3) and 1 (0–5) vertebrae in groups B and U, respectively (p = 0.038). The median (range) extent of the spread surrounding the interverbal foramina was 4 (0–5) in group B and 4 (3–5) in group U. The median (range) spread along the retrolaminar space cranial and caudal to T12 was 3 (0–6) retrolaminar segments in group B and 3 (3–4) in group U. The potential of the ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injection to provide analgesia for dogs suffering from thoracolumbar pain should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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14 pages, 4954 KiB  
Article
Thoracolumbar Retrolaminar Block: Anatomical and Radiological Study of Injectate Pattern Distribution in Canine Cadavers
by Julia Pentsou, Michail Vagias, Thomas Davies, Séamus Hoey and Vilhelmiina Huuskonen
Animals 2023, 13(19), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13193008 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The retrolaminar block is a regional anaesthetic technique, first developed in humans, in which the local anaesthetic is deposited directly onto the dorsal aspect of the thoracic or lumbar vertebral lamina. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of landmark-guided thoracolumbar retrolaminar injections [...] Read more.
The retrolaminar block is a regional anaesthetic technique, first developed in humans, in which the local anaesthetic is deposited directly onto the dorsal aspect of the thoracic or lumbar vertebral lamina. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of landmark-guided thoracolumbar retrolaminar injections in greyhound cadavers. Thirteen injections of contrast-dye solution were performed in eight cadavers at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12), with either 20 mL (n = 8, high volume, HV) or 10 mL (n = 5, low volume, LV) per site. The spread of the injectate was evaluated through computed tomography and transverse anatomical dissection. The groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. The median (range) of the extent of the spread was 4 (2–5) and 3 (2–4) intervertebral foramina in the LV and HV groups, respectively. The median (range) of the spread along the retrolaminar space was 3 (2–3) retrolaminar segments in the LV and 3 (2–4) in the HV group. Epidural and retroperitoneal spread was identified in seven cadavers. Following landmark-guided retrolaminar injections, the injectate spread both in the retrolaminar and paravertebral spaces, without any obvious association between the volume of injectate and the extent of the spread. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical efficacy of the technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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14 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
Comparison between the Effect of Lidocaine or Ropivacaine Hematoma Block and of Different Timings of Administration on Post-Operative Pain in Dogs Undergoing Osteosynthesis of Long-Bone Fractures
by Irene Dimopoulou, Tilemachos Anagnostou, Ioannis Savvas, Panagiota Karamichali and Nikitas Prassinos
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182858 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of intra-operative lidocaine hematoma block (HB) to ropivacaine HB and to compare the efficacy of different timings of ropivacaine HB in controlling post-operative pain in dogs undergoing the osteosynthesis of long-bone fractures. Study Design: We conducted [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of intra-operative lidocaine hematoma block (HB) to ropivacaine HB and to compare the efficacy of different timings of ropivacaine HB in controlling post-operative pain in dogs undergoing the osteosynthesis of long-bone fractures. Study Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study. Animals: Forty-eight dogs with long-bone fractures were included and were randomly allocated to four groups: lidocaine (L), ropivacaine (Rmid), ropivacaine pre- (Rpre) and ropivacaine post- (Rpost) groups. Methods: The dogs in group L (n = 14) and in group Rmid (n = 11) received a lidocaine or ropivacaine HB, respectively, after fracture reduction and before osteosynthesis material placement. Rpre dogs (n = 11) received ropivacaine HB before fracture reduction, and Rpost dogs (n = 12) received ropivacaine HB after osteosynthesis material placement. Eight post-operative pain assessments were performed using the University of Melbourne Pain Scale (UMPS) and an algometer. Rescue analgesia was administered based on UMPS scoring. For data analysis, the Shapiro–Wilk test of normality, chi-square, Student t test and Split Plot analysis were used. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: Rescue analgesia was administered to one dog in group L, one in group Rmid and one in group Rpost, with no significant differences detected. Compared to group Rmid, group L dogs exhibited significantly higher mean mechanical pain thresholds (p = 0.049) and lower mean UMPS scores (p = 0.001). Group Rpost dogs had statistically significantly higher mean pain thresholds compared to group Rmid (p = 0.009). Clinical Implications: When performed after fracture reduction and before osteosynthesis material placement, lidocaine HB seems to be more effective than ropivacaine HB in controlling post-operative pain in dogs undergoing osteosynthesis of long-bone fractures. The administration of ropivacaine HB after osteosynthesis material placement seems to be more effective than administration after fracture reduction and before osteosynthesis material placement or administration before fracture reduction in controlling post-operative pain in dogs undergoing osteosynthesis of long-bone fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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17 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Dobutamine, Norepinephrine, Vasopressin, and Hetastarch for the Treatment of Isoflurane-Induced Hypotension in Healthy, Normovolemic Dogs
by Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Carolina H. Ricco-Pereira and Vaidehi V. Paranjape
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162674 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7862
Abstract
Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalation anesthetic in species undergoing veterinary care that induces hypotension, impacting organ perfusion, making it imperative to minimize its occurrence or identify effective strategies for treating it. This study evaluated and compared the hemodynamic effects of DOB, NEP, [...] Read more.
Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalation anesthetic in species undergoing veterinary care that induces hypotension, impacting organ perfusion, making it imperative to minimize its occurrence or identify effective strategies for treating it. This study evaluated and compared the hemodynamic effects of DOB, NEP, VAS, and HES in twelve isoflurane-anesthetized Beagle dogs. The order of the first three treatments was randomized. HES was administered last. Data were collected before treatments (baseline) and after 10 min of a sustained MAP of <45 mmHg induced by a high end-tidal isoflurane concentration (T0). Once treatment was initiated and the target MAP was achieved (65 to 80 mmHg) or the maximum dose reached, data were collected after 15 min of stabilization (T1) and 15 min after (T2). A 15 min washout period with a MAP of ≥65 mmHg was allowed between treatments. The intravenous dosage regimens started and were increased by 50% every five minutes until the target MAP or maximum dose was reached. The dosages were as follows: DOB, 5–15 μg/kg/min; NEP, 0.1–2 μg/kg/min; VAS, 0.5–5 mU/kg/min; and HET, 6% 1–20 mL/kg/min. DOB improved CO, DO2, and VO2, but reduced SVR. VAS elevated SVR, but decreased CO, DO2, and VO2. HES minimally changed BP and mildly augmented CO, DO2, and VO2. These treatments failed to reach the target MAP. NEP increased the arterial BP, CO, MPAP, and PAWP, but reduced HR. Norepinephrine infusion at 0.44 ± 0.19 μg/kg/min was the most efficient therapy for correcting isoflurane-induced hypotension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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15 pages, 530 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study on Canine and Feline Mortality during Anaesthesia at a University Clinic in Greece
by Konstantinos Varkoulis, Ioannis Savvas, Tilemachos Anagnostou, George Kazakos and Kiriaki Pavlidou
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152486 - 01 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2736
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study investigated the mortality rate during anaesthesia and possible contributing factors in canine and feline population in an academic institution in Greece. Data on 1187 dogs and 250 cats which underwent general anaesthesia from 1 January 2018 to 31 December [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study investigated the mortality rate during anaesthesia and possible contributing factors in canine and feline population in an academic institution in Greece. Data on 1187 dogs and 250 cats which underwent general anaesthesia from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 at the Veterinary Faculty of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki were analysed regarding cardiac arrest and mortality. In dogs, the rate of cardiac arrest was 1.1% and the rate of death was 0.6%. In cats, these rates were 2.8% and 0.8%, respectively. The mortality rate in healthy/mild disease (ASA I-II) dogs was 0.1% and in cats was 0.5%. Sick (ASA III-V) dogs exhibited a death rate of 2.6%, while sick cats had a rate of 2.2%. In dogs, ASA status had a positive association with cardiac arrest and mortality, with sick dogs being 23 times more likely to suffer cardiac arrest and 24.5 times more likely to die than healthy/mild disease ones. Other factors associated with cardiac arrest and mortality were the anaesthetic protocol and the use of inotropes. In cats, premedication and inotropic support were related to cardiac arrest and death. Feline anaesthesia involves higher risk, and requires greater vigilance in peri-anaesthetic management than dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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18 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Electrical Cardiometry for Measuring Cardiac Output and Derived Hemodynamic Variables in Comparison with Lithium Dilution in Anesthetized Dogs
by Vaidehi V. Paranjape, Fernando L. Garcia-Pereira, Giulio Menciotti, Siddharth Saksena, Natalia Henao-Guerrero and Carolina H. Ricco-Pereira
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142362 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Numerous cardiac output (CO) technologies were developed to replace the ‘gold standard’ pulmonary artery thermodilution due to its invasiveness and the risks associated with it. Minimally invasive lithium dilution (LiD) shows excellent agreement with thermodilution and can be used as a reference standard [...] Read more.
Numerous cardiac output (CO) technologies were developed to replace the ‘gold standard’ pulmonary artery thermodilution due to its invasiveness and the risks associated with it. Minimally invasive lithium dilution (LiD) shows excellent agreement with thermodilution and can be used as a reference standard in animals. This study evaluated CO via noninvasive electrical cardiometry (EC) and acquired hemodynamic variables against CO measured using LiD in six healthy, anesthetized dogs administered different treatments (dobutamine, esmolol, phenylephrine, and high-dose isoflurane) impacting CO values. These treatments were chosen to cause drastic variations in CO, so that fair comparisons between EC and LiD across a wide range of CO values (low, intermediate, and high) could be made. Statistical analysis included linear regression, Bland–Altman plots, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc), and polar plots. Values of p < 0.05 represented significance. Good agreement was observed between EC and LiD, but consistent underestimation was noted when the CO values were high. The good trending ability, ρc of 0.88, and low percentage error of ±31% signified EC’s favorable performance. Other EC-acquired variables successfully tracked changes in CO measured using LiD. EC may be a pivotal hemodynamic tool for continuously monitoring circulatory changes, as well as guiding and treating cardiovascular anesthetic complications in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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12 pages, 787 KiB  
Article
Intranasal Atomization of Ketamine, Medetomidine and Butorphanol in Pet Rabbits Using a Mucosal Atomization Device
by Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld, Matteo Serpieri, Giuseppe Bonaffini, Chiara Ottino and Giuseppe Quaranta
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132076 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
A non-invasive method of drug delivery, intranasal atomization, has shown positive results in human medicine and in some animal species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intranasal atomization, compared to intramuscular administration, of a mix of anesthetic drugs [...] Read more.
A non-invasive method of drug delivery, intranasal atomization, has shown positive results in human medicine and in some animal species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intranasal atomization, compared to intramuscular administration, of a mix of anesthetic drugs in pet rabbits. In total, 104 mixed-breed pet rabbits, undergoing various types of surgery, received a combination of ketamine, medetomidine, and butorphanol (20, 0.4, and 0.2 mg/kg) by intranasal atomization using a Mucosal Atomization Device (Group MAD) or intramuscular administration (Group IM). When required, isoflurane was dispensed through a face mask. At the end of the procedures, atipamezole was administered using the same routes in the respective Groups. There were no differences in time to loss of righting reflex between the groups, while differences were found for the need for isoflurane (higher in Group MAD) and recovery time, occurring earlier in Group MAD. The results suggest that intranasal atomization of a combination of ketamine, medetomidine, and butorphanol produces a lighter depth of anesthesia in pet rabbits, compared to intramuscular administration. Intranasal atomization can be performed to administer sedative and anesthetic drugs, avoiding the algic stimulus related to the intramuscular inoculation of drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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13 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Atipamezole Reverses Cardiovascular Changes Induced by High-Dose Medetomidine in Cats Undergoing Sedation for Semen Collection
by Anna-Lea R. Diggelmann, Marco Baron Toaldo, Rima N. Bektas, Etienne Furthner, Iris M. Reichler and Annette P. N. Kutter
Animals 2023, 13(12), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13121909 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
This study aimed at describing the change in echocardiographic variables after high-dose medetomidine and the reversal with atipamezole in six cats undergoing sedation for semen collection. Further cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) concentration and the effect of repeated sedation were assessed. Echocardiography was performed [...] Read more.
This study aimed at describing the change in echocardiographic variables after high-dose medetomidine and the reversal with atipamezole in six cats undergoing sedation for semen collection. Further cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) concentration and the effect of repeated sedation were assessed. Echocardiography was performed before and 20 min after sedation with 0.1 mg/kg medetomidine intramuscularly (IM) for urethral catheterisation. Prior to epididymectomy, S-ketamine was administered intravenously. Twenty minutes after reversal with 0.5 mg/kg atipamezole IM, the third echocardiography was performed. Sedation with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole was repeated on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Heart rate (HR) and rhythm were monitored throughout all sedations. On day 0 and 28 cTnI concentrations were measured before and after the procedure. After normality testing, the values were compared over time. The administration of medetomidine led to a marked reduction in HR, cardiac output and ventricular systolic function and a significant increase in left ventricular dimensions. Rhythm abnormalities, such as ventricular premature complexes and idioventricular rhythm, could be observed. The administration of atipamezole completely reversed sedation and the changes in haemodynamic variables. No significant increase in cTnI concentrations could be detected, although two out of six cats showed values above the reference range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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14 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Analgesic Efficacy of Undiluted Intraperitoneal and Incisional Ropivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia in Dogs after Major Abdominal Surgery
by Inken S. Henze, Victoria Navarro Altuna, Joëlle I. Steiger, Paul R. Torgerson and Annette P. N. Kutter
Animals 2023, 13(9), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13091489 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Recommendations for intraperitoneal (IP) and incisional (INC) administration of local anaesthetics after visceral surgery exist, but evidence is scarce. This prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled, clinical trial compared postoperative pain in dogs undergoing major abdominal surgery. Sixteen client-owned dogs were anaesthetized with a standardized [...] Read more.
Recommendations for intraperitoneal (IP) and incisional (INC) administration of local anaesthetics after visceral surgery exist, but evidence is scarce. This prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled, clinical trial compared postoperative pain in dogs undergoing major abdominal surgery. Sixteen client-owned dogs were anaesthetized with a standardized balanced protocol including opioids and received either 2 mg/kg ropivacaine IP (0.27 mL/kg) and a 1 mg/kg INC splash (0.13 mL/kg) or equal volumes of saline. Influence of the treatment on heart rate (HR) and postoperative pain was assessed using the Short Form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (GCPS-SF), a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold testing (MNT). Data was tested with mixed ordinal regression and log linear mixed models for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h after extubation. Rescue analgesia was given to 3/8 dogs after ropivacaine and 0/8 dogs after saline. GCPS-SF and MNT were not different between groups. DIVAS was slightly higher after ropivacaine (odds increased by 5.44 (confidence interval (CI) 1.17–9.96, p = 0.012)), and HR after ropivacaine was 0.76 * that after saline (CI 0.61–0.96, p = 0.02) with no effect of time (p = 0.1). Undiluted ropivacaine IP and INC was not beneficial for postoperative analgesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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20 pages, 6152 KiB  
Article
Agreement between Electrical Cardiometry and Pulmonary Artery Thermodilution for Measuring Cardiac Output in Isoflurane-Anesthetized Dogs
by Vaidehi V. Paranjape, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Giulio Menciotti, Siddharth Saksena and Manuela Agostinho
Animals 2023, 13(8), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13081420 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
In animals, invasive pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATD) is a gold standard for cardiac output (CO) monitoring, but it is impractical in clinical settings. This study evaluates the agreement between PATD and noninvasive electrical cardiometry (EC) for measuring CO and analyzes the other EC-derived [...] Read more.
In animals, invasive pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATD) is a gold standard for cardiac output (CO) monitoring, but it is impractical in clinical settings. This study evaluates the agreement between PATD and noninvasive electrical cardiometry (EC) for measuring CO and analyzes the other EC-derived hemodynamic variables in six healthy anesthetized dogs subjected to four different hemodynamic events in a sequential order: (1) euvolemia (baseline); (2) hemorrhage (33% blood volume loss); (3) autologous blood transfusion; and (4) 20 mL/kg colloid bolus. The CO measurements obtained using PATD and EC are compared using Bland–Altman analysis, Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC), and polar plot analysis. Values of p < 0.05 are considered significant. The EC measurements consistently underpredict the CO values as compared with PATD, and the LCC is 0.65. The EC’s performance is better during hemorrhage, thus indicating its capability in detecting absolute hypovolemia in clinical settings. Even though the percentage error exhibited by EC is 49.4%, which is higher than the standard (<30%), EC displays a good trending ability. Additionally, the EC-derived variables display a significant correlation with the CO measured using PATD. Noninvasive EC may have a potential in monitoring trends in hemodynamics in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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17 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Electroencephalographic and Cardiovascular Changes Associated with Propofol Constant Rate of Infusion Anesthesia in Young Healthy Dogs
by Carla Murillo, Ann B. Weil, George E. Moore, Matthias Kreuzer and Jeff C. Ko
Animals 2023, 13(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040664 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3376
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalography (EEG) and cardiovascular changes associated with propofol constant rate of infusion (CRI) anesthesia in dogs. Six dogs were each given propofol CRI to induce different anesthetic phases including induction (1 mg/kg/min for 10 min), and decremental maintenance [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalography (EEG) and cardiovascular changes associated with propofol constant rate of infusion (CRI) anesthesia in dogs. Six dogs were each given propofol CRI to induce different anesthetic phases including induction (1 mg/kg/min for 10 min), and decremental maintenance doses of 2.4 mg per kg per min, 1.6 mg per kg per min, and 0.8 mg per kg per minute over 45 min. Processed EEG indices including patient state index (PSI), (burst) suppression ratio (SR), and spectral edge frequency (95%) were obtained continuously until the dogs recovered to sternal recumbency. The dogs were intubated and ventilated. Cardiovascular and EEG index values were compared between anesthetic phases. The PSI, SR, mean arterial blood pressure, and subjective anesthetic depth scores were highly correlated throughout anesthetic depth changes. The PSI decreased from 85.0 ± 17.3 at awake to 66.0 ± 29.0 at induction, and then sharply reduced to 19.7 ± 23.6 during maintenance and returned to 61.5 ± 19.2 at extubation. The SR increased from 15.4 ± 30.9% at induction to 70.9 ± 39.8% during maintenance and decreased to 3.4 ± 8.9% at extubation. We concluded that EEG indices can be used to aid in tracking ongoing brain state changes during propofol anesthesia in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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Review

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21 pages, 635 KiB  
Review
Management of Osteoarthritis and Joint Support Using Feed Supplements: A Scoping Review of Undenatured Type II Collagen and Boswellia serrata
by Ana Zapata and Rocio Fernández-Parra
Animals 2023, 13(5), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050870 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3406
Abstract
In the multimodal management of osteoarthritis (OA) in recent decades, the use of feed supplements to maintain joint cartilage has been advocated. The aim of this scoping review is to present the results found in the veterinary literature on the use of undenatured [...] Read more.
In the multimodal management of osteoarthritis (OA) in recent decades, the use of feed supplements to maintain joint cartilage has been advocated. The aim of this scoping review is to present the results found in the veterinary literature on the use of undenatured type II collagen and Boswellia serrata in dogs, specifically its use in dogs with clinical signs of OA, healthy dogs after intense exercise or dogs with diseases that predispose the individual to OA. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out using the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar, from which a total of 26 records were included in this review: fourteen evaluating undenatured type II collagen, ten evaluating Boswellia serrata and two evaluating the combination of undenatured type II collagen and Boswellia serrata. The review of the records showed that undenatured type II collagen decreases the clinical signs associated with OA, improving the general clinical state with a reduction in the degree of lameness and increase in physical activity or mobility. Evaluating the response to supplementation with Boswellia serrata alone is complicated due to the limited publication of studies and variations in the purity and compositions of the products used, but in general terms, its combination with other feed supplements produces benefits by relieving pain and reducing the clinical signs of OA in dogs. The combination of both in the same product provides results similar to those obtained in undenatured type II collagen studies. In conclusion, undenatured type II collagen and Boswellia serrata are considered a valid option for the multimodal approach to the management of OA and for improving activity during intense exercise, but more studies are needed to conclude whether or not it prevents OA in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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13 pages, 910 KiB  
Case Report
The Outcomes of an Opioid-Free Anaesthetic Plan in Fourteen Dogs Undergoing Enucleation Using an Ultrasound-Guided Supra-Temporal Retrobulbar Block: A Retrospective Case Series
by Gerardo Citarella, Daniele Corona, Eamonn Parsons, Stamatina Giannikaki and Eva Rioja
Animals 2023, 13(13), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13132059 - 22 Jun 2023
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Abstract
The objective of this retrospective case series is to report the outcomes of an opioid-free anesthetic plan in dogs undergoing enucleation surgery. A total of 14 dogs were admitted for enucleation between March and December 2020. A multimodal approach to perioperative analgesia was [...] Read more.
The objective of this retrospective case series is to report the outcomes of an opioid-free anesthetic plan in dogs undergoing enucleation surgery. A total of 14 dogs were admitted for enucleation between March and December 2020. A multimodal approach to perioperative analgesia was used, with a focus on retrobulbar anesthesia. A combination of an ultrasound-guided retrobulbblock with a supratemporal approach in association with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was used in the reported cases. Intraoperative nociception was defined as an increase of 20% from the baseline in one or more of the following parameters: heart rate, respiratory rate or mean arterial pressure. An ultrasound-guided retrobulbar block in an opioid-free anesthesia regime was effective at managing the perioperative analgesia of 13 out of 14 dogs. In only one case, a bolus of fentanyl was administered to treat intraoperative nociception. Recovery was uneventful in all the dogs, and the postoperative pain scores remained below the intervention threshold at all time points. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case series of opioid-free anesthesia for enucleation in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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7 pages, 228 KiB  
Case Report
Possible Brainstem Anaesthesia in a Cat after Ultrasound-Guided Retrobulbar Block
by Anastasia Papastefanou and Eva Rioja
Animals 2023, 13(5), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13050781 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
A 13-year-old neutered, blue-eyed female Siamese cat with a bodyweight of 4.8 kg was admitted for enucleation of the right eye. An ultrasound guided retrobulbar block with 1 mL of ropivacaine was performed under general anaesthesia. When the tip of the needle was [...] Read more.
A 13-year-old neutered, blue-eyed female Siamese cat with a bodyweight of 4.8 kg was admitted for enucleation of the right eye. An ultrasound guided retrobulbar block with 1 mL of ropivacaine was performed under general anaesthesia. When the tip of the needle was visualised inside the intraconal space, negative aspiration of the syringe before injection and no obvious resistance during injection were confirmed. Instantly, after ropivacaine was administered, the cat became apnoeic, and its heart rate and the blood pressure increased significantly for a short period of time. During surgery, the cat needed cardiovascular support to maintain blood pressure and was under continuous mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous breathing returned 20 min after the end of anaesthesia. Brainstem anaesthesia was suspected, and after recovery, the contralateral eye was examined. A reduced menace response, horizontal nystagmus, mydriasis, and absence of the pupillary light reflex were present. The following day, mydriasis was still present, but the cat was visual and was discharged. The inadvertent intra-arterial injection of ropivacaine was suspected to be the cause of the spread into the brainstem. To the current authors’ knowledge, possible brainstem anaesthesia has only been reported in a cat 5 min after a retrobulbar block but never instantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
9 pages, 234 KiB  
Case Report
Severe Hypercapnia during Anaesthesia under Mechanical Ventilation in Two Paediatric Patients
by Anastasia Papastefanou and Eva Rioja
Animals 2023, 13(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040663 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
A 2-month-old male 1.56 kg Yorkshire terrier (Case No. 1) and a 3-month-old male 2.3 kg Jack Russell Terrier (Case No. 2) were scheduled for ophthalmological surgery under general anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade. For both patients, volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) was used with set [...] Read more.
A 2-month-old male 1.56 kg Yorkshire terrier (Case No. 1) and a 3-month-old male 2.3 kg Jack Russell Terrier (Case No. 2) were scheduled for ophthalmological surgery under general anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade. For both patients, volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) was used with set tidal volumes (VT) of 13 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg for cases No. 1 and 2, respectively. The type of ventilator used did not take into account the intrinsic compliance of the breathing system; therefore, a significant part of the delivered VT was wasted in the expansion of the breathing system, and did not reach the patients, causing alveolar hypoventilation. Both cases developed low dynamic compliance (CD), and after a recruitment manoeuvre, EtCO2 of up to 116 mmHg and 197 mmHg were revealed for cases No. 1 and 2, respectively. The two cases had to be ventilated manually, using positive inspiratory pressures (PIP) of 20–25 mmHg, in order to improve alveolar ventilation and reduce the EtCO2, as adjustments to the VCV were ineffective. Both patients maintained an oxygen haemoglobin saturation between 94% and 100% throughout the procedure and they recovered well. Using a higher VT from the beginning, to compensate for the compliance of the breathing system, or the use of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), could have potentially helped to avoid these two incidences of severe hypercapnia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals)
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