New Insight into Crops Defense Response

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 11202

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Guest Editor
Department of Biology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, PBS Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, 7 Prof. Kaliskiego Ave., 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: entomology; plant volatile organic compounds; semiochemicals; phytoecdysteroids; plant–insect/pathogen interactions; plant defense system
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants frequently live in environments characterized by the presence of stresses. The molecular mechanisms activated by plants in response to abiotic and biotic environmental factors are still important research topics.

The importance of plant–insect/plant pathogen interactions has long been known, but they have only recently received any detailed attention and study, which has led to the discovery of novel plant defensive strategies. The farm to fork strategy sets the ambitious target of reducing by 50% the overall use and risk of chemical and other more hazardous pesticides, in addition to reducing the risk connected with an increasing number of outbreaks of new pests and pests that were not previously considered important. This highlights that there is an urgent need for a totally novel, environment-friendly approach to tackle these challenges.

The aim of this Special Issue is to examine crops’ defense responses based on volatile organic compounds, phenolic acids, plant toxins, phytoecdysteroids etc.

All types of scientific paper dealing with this topic are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Piesik
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • entomology
  • plant volatile organic compounds
  • semiochemicals
  • phytoecdysteroids
  • plant–insect/pathogene interactions
  • plant defense system

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Binucleate Rhizoctonia Strain: A Potential Biocontrol Agent in Wheat Production
by Grzegorz Lemańczyk, Karol Lisiecki and Dariusz Piesik
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020523 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
As a polyphagous organism, Rhizoctonia is one of the most infectious soil-borne pathogens for many plant species. To reduce this threat to plants and hence provide good quality plant products for the end-user, it is crucial to develop sophisticated and environmental friendly plant [...] Read more.
As a polyphagous organism, Rhizoctonia is one of the most infectious soil-borne pathogens for many plant species. To reduce this threat to plants and hence provide good quality plant products for the end-user, it is crucial to develop sophisticated and environmental friendly plant protection methods. One such method is biological control using beneficial agents, e.g., microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, but also mites or insects. To investigate the potential of this control, we present here a study involving AG B0 (BNR), which is a binucleate, non-pathogenic Rhizoctonia as a control against pathogens from the same genus, namely, Rhizoctonia cerealis (AG DI) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG5 and AG 1IC). This is novel because the relationship between plant-pathogen and plant-non-pathogen interactions has received only limited attention. Once the relative activities of the various plant defense mechanisms and the overall plant conditions were taken into account, the non-pathogenic binucleate strain was found to lower the impact of the pathogenic strain. We conclude that the response of plant genotype within the context of the protective activity of the non-pathogenic Rhizoctonia is race-specific. The research showed the ability to successfully protect wheat plants from R. cerealis negative impact, as well as in some cases from R. solani. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Crops Defense Response)
19 pages, 13068 KiB  
Article
Seed Priming and Foliar Application with Ascorbic Acid and Salicylic Acid Mitigate Salt Stress in Wheat
by Mohammed Mohammed El-Hawary, Omnia S. M. Hashem and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020493 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA) are naturally active antioxidants that protect against plant stresses, including salinity. We studied the physiological response of wheat to AA and SA (100, 200 ppm) as well as the combined treatment of AA and SA (100 [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA) are naturally active antioxidants that protect against plant stresses, including salinity. We studied the physiological response of wheat to AA and SA (100, 200 ppm) as well as the combined treatment of AA and SA (100 ppm) through application as both priming and foliar spray treatments under saline conditions. The results showed that wheat plants under salt-affected soils exhibited numerous physiological effects in plant metabolism, which subsequently affected the qualitative and quantitative parameters of growth and yield. Moreover, the photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant content, and yield are significantly enhanced under the combined treatment of AA and SA. In contrast, the application of AA and SA lowered the osmolytes and lipid peroxidation content under saline conditions. Accordingly, the enhancement of the mentioned parameter was related to the scavenging of the reactive oxygen species and decreasing the oxidative stress on the plant under the salinity stress. Our results explore the significance of applied AA and SA as efficacious compounds in wheat farming under saline conditions. The combined application of (100 ppm) AA with (100 ppm) SA using priming or a foliar spray can be a promising treatment for beneficent wheat growth and productivity improvement under salt-affected soil conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Crops Defense Response)
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20 pages, 3247 KiB  
Article
Foliar Application of Ascorbic Acid and Tocopherol in Conferring Salt Tolerance in Rapeseed by Enhancing K+/Na+ Homeostasis, Osmoregulation, Antioxidant Defense, and Glyoxalase System
by Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Md. Rakib Hossain Raihan, Hesham F. Alharby, Hassan S. Al-Zahrani, Hameed Alsamadany, Khalid M. Alghamdi, Naznin Ahmed and Kamrun Nahar
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020361 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
This study explored the role of exogenous α-Toc (0.5 mM) and Asc (1 mM) in alleviating the damaging effects of salt stress in rapeseed plants (Brassica campestris cv. BARI Sarisha-17). Exposure of 21-day-old plants to different levels of salt stress (75 mM [...] Read more.
This study explored the role of exogenous α-Toc (0.5 mM) and Asc (1 mM) in alleviating the damaging effects of salt stress in rapeseed plants (Brassica campestris cv. BARI Sarisha-17). Exposure of 21-day-old plants to different levels of salt stress (75 mM and 150 mM NaCl) resulted in the higher accumulation of sodium ions (Na+), reduced potassium ion (K+) levels, lower K+/Na+ ratio, increased oxidative damage, chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown, and disrupted antioxidant and glyoxalase systems. Phenotype responses to salt stress included reductions in plant height, shoot fresh weight, dry weight, number of siliques plant−1, silique length, number of seeds silique−1, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield plant−1. Exogenous α-Toc and Asc applications enhanced the levels of endogenous ascorbate, glutathione (GSH), AsA/dehydroascorbate ratios, GSH/glutathione disulfide, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in the salt-stressed plants. Exogenous α-Toc and Asc enhanced antioxidant defense system components and insured better oxidative stress tolerance, as indicated by reduced hydrogen peroxide generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage. Exogenous α-Toc and Asc increased glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities in the salt-affected plants. Moreover, they regulated proline levels and increased the leaf relative water content, as well as the Chl level. Exogenous α-Toc and Asc also restored growth and improved yield attributes and seed yield per plants in the salt-affected rapeseed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Crops Defense Response)
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15 pages, 4576 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Gallic Acid Confers Salt Tolerance in Rice Seedlings: Modulation of Ion Homeostasis, Osmoregulation, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems
by Anisur Rahman, Mazhar Ul Alam, Md. Shahadat Hossain, Jubayer Al Mahmud, Kamrun Nahar, Masayuki Fujita and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010016 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
The worldwide saline-affected area is expanding day by day, and soil salinity restricts crop development and productivity, including rice. Considering this, the current study explored the response of gallic acid (GA) in conferring salinity tolerance in rice seedlings. Fourteen-day-old rice (Oryza sativa [...] Read more.
The worldwide saline-affected area is expanding day by day, and soil salinity restricts crop development and productivity, including rice. Considering this, the current study explored the response of gallic acid (GA) in conferring salinity tolerance in rice seedlings. Fourteen-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan52) seedlings were treated with 200 mM NaCl alone or combined with 1 mM GA. Salt stress resulted in osmotic, ionic, and oxidative stress in rice seedlings. Osmotic stress increased proline accumulation and osmotic potential, which decreased the relative water content, chlorophyll contents, and dry weight. Ionic stress interrupted ion homeostasis by Na+ accumulation and K+ leakage. Osmotic and ionic stress, concomitantly, disrupted antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG), respectively. It resulted in oxidative damage indicated by the high amount of malondialdehyde (MDA). The supplementation of GA in salt-treated rice seedlings partially recovered salt-induced damages by improving osmotic and ionic homeostasis by increasing water balance and decreasing Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio. Supplemental GA enhanced the antioxidant defense system in salt-treated rice seedlings by increasing ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), and phenolic compounds and the activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes, including monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes that accelerated ROS detoxification and decreased oxidative damage. Gallic acid also enhanced the detoxification of MG by triggering glyoxalase enzyme activities in salt-treated rice seedlings. The present findings elucidated that supplemental GA reversed salt-induced damage in rice seedlings through improving osmotic and ionic homeostasis and upregulating the ROS and MG detoxification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Crops Defense Response)
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11 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Fenclorim Increasing Butachlor Selectivity between Wheat and Roegneria kamoji by Seed Soaking
by Wei Tang, Jinqiu Sun, Xiaoyue Yu, Fengyan Zhou, Shengnan Liu, Mengjie Liu, Yongliang Lu and Yongjie Yang
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112870 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Roegneria kamoji Ohwi (Poaceae), a wild relative plant of wheat which is widely distributed across China, has become a dominant and problematic weed in wheat fields in some regions. We have previously confirmed that R. kamoji is highly tolerant to foliar-applied acetyl-CoA carboxylase [...] Read more.
Roegneria kamoji Ohwi (Poaceae), a wild relative plant of wheat which is widely distributed across China, has become a dominant and problematic weed in wheat fields in some regions. We have previously confirmed that R. kamoji is highly tolerant to foliar-applied acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The sensitivity of R. kamoji to pre-emergence (PRE) herbicides and the basis of fenclorim increase selectivity to butachlor between wheat and R. kamoji were evaluated in this study. Screenhouse bioassay showed that R. kamoji exhibited similar sensitivity to wheat to PRE herbicides at their recommended field doses (RFD); it also showed that buatchlor provides the highest relative control for R. kamoji (53.4% emergence and 81.5% fresh weight reduction, respectively), while it had no impact on seedling emergence of wheat among the six PRE herbicides. When butachlor was applied at four-fold RFD, no R. kamoji seedlings emerged; however, it significantly reduced the above-ground biomass of wheat compared with the non-treated control. Pre-treatment with herbicide safener fenclorim by seed soaking increased the ED10 value of butachlor to wheat from 221.8 to 1600.1 g a.i. ha−1, thus increasing the selectivity index from 9.6 to 68.9 between wheat and R. kamoji. The activities of α-amylase activity and protein content during germination, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) in the seedlings, could be induced by butachlor in both wheat seeds with or without fenclorim pre-soaking. These results suggested that butachlor provides the highest control for R. kamoji and did not affect germination and emergence in wheat. The basis of fenclorim-increased selectivity to butachlor was associated with the induced GST and KCS-mediated enhanced herbicide metabolism in wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Crops Defense Response)
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