'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 March 2023) | Viewed by 43263

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing 210014, China
Interests: interests: harvester; mechanics of materials of crops; intelligent agricultural equipment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, China
Interests: harvesters; mechanical troubleshooting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China
Interests: high-end agricultural machinery and equipment health maintenance; intelligent manufacturing technology and equipment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Harvesting machinery has the main function of cutting, picking, or digging mature crop seeds, fruits, stalks, leaves, root parts, or the whole plant and are also necessary to complete collection, threshing, cleaning, transfer, and other operations. The characteristics of harvesting machinery are as follows: First, the operating object is biological; second, the working process refers to the separation between plant tissues or the separation of a plant from soil; and third, the working environment is unstructured. Therefore, efficient harvesting machinery is an area of comprehensive research that integrates the fields of mechanical and biological material, information, and computers. This Special Issue focuses on precise identification and positioning systems (“eyes”), sensitive decision-making and control systems (“brain”), highly adaptable chassis and mobile platforms (“feet”), efficient end-effectors and harvesting components (“hands”), etc., that are related to efficient harvesting machinery. Outstanding articles will be selected to showcase the latest ideas and to provide key technological references for research on efficient harvesting machinery.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Crop–soil–machine systems;
  • Mechanics and dynamics of harvesting machinery;
  • Chassis of harvesting machinery;
  • Efficient harvesting components;
  • Field environment sensing and recognition;
  • Navigation and positioning systems of harvesting machinery;
  • Multi-source information fusion, analysis, and decision making in harvesting operations;
  • Cooperative harvesting operations of multiple machines in the field;
  • Unmanned harvesters.

Dr. Cheng Shen
Prof. Dr. Zhong Tang
Prof. Dr. Maohua Xiao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart agriculture
  • intelligent agricultural equipment
  • harvester
  • efficient harvesting
  • harvester chassis
  • image recognition
  • navigation
  • decision and control algorithms

Published Papers (22 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

3 pages, 167 KiB  
Editorial
“Eyes”, “Brain”, “Feet” and “Hands” of Efficient Harvesting Machinery
by Cheng Shen, Zhong Tang and Maohua Xiao
Agriculture 2023, 13(10), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13101861 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The main function of harvesting is the cutting, picking, or digging of mature crop seeds, fruits, stalks, leaves, root parts, or the whole plant [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

24 pages, 9690 KiB  
Article
The Random Vibrations of the Active Body of the Cultivators
by Petru Cardei, Nicolae Constantin, Vergil Muraru, Catalin Persu, Raluca Sfiru, Nicolae-Valentin Vladut, Nicoleta Ungureanu, Mihai Matache, Cornelia Muraru-Ionel, Oana-Diana Cristea and Evelin-Anda Laza
Agriculture 2023, 13(8), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13081565 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The article continues the exposition of the results obtained in researching an agricultural machine for processing soil, designed for research with applications including exploitation. The MCLS (complex machine for soil tillage) was designed to research the working processes of the instruments [...] Read more.
The article continues the exposition of the results obtained in researching an agricultural machine for processing soil, designed for research with applications including exploitation. The MCLS (complex machine for soil tillage) was designed to research the working processes of the instruments intended for soil processing. The MCLS cultivator is a modulated machine (it can work for three working widths: 1, 2, and 4 m, with tractors of different powers) that is designed to use a wide range of working bodies. The experimental data obtained with the structure with a working width of 1 m and the results of their processing within the framework of the theory of random vibrations are presented in this article. The experimental results are analysed as random vibrations of the supports of the active working bodies. As a result, the main characteristics of random vibrations are exposed: the distribution function, the average value, the autocorrelation, and the frequency spectrum. These general results regarding random vibrations are used for several critical applications in the design, execution, and exploitation of some subassemblies and assemblies of agricultural machines of this type. The main applications include estimating the probability of the occurrence of dangerous load peaks, counting and selecting the load peaks that produce fatigue accumulation in the material of the supports of the working bodies, identifying some design deficiencies or defects in the work regime, and estimating the effects of vibrations on the quality of soil processing. All of the outcomes are composed of applications in MCLS research and exploitation. The applications pursue well-known objectives of modelling the working processes of agricultural machines: safety at work, increasing the quality of work, optimising energy consumption, and increasing productivity, all in a broad context to obtain a compromise situation. The material and the method are based on experimental data acquisition, processing, and interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 10303 KiB  
Article
Design and Experiment of a Low-Loss Harvesting Test Platform for Cabbage
by Wenyu Tong, Jianfei Zhang, Guangqiao Cao, Zhiyu Song and Xiaofeng Ning
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061204 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In order to explore the mechanism and influence mechanism of cabbage harvest damage, a low-loss cabbage harvest test platform was designed on the basis of combining the physical characteristics of cabbage with the mechanical characteristics of mechanical harvest and the cabbage harvest operation [...] Read more.
In order to explore the mechanism and influence mechanism of cabbage harvest damage, a low-loss cabbage harvest test platform was designed on the basis of combining the physical characteristics of cabbage with the mechanical characteristics of mechanical harvest and the cabbage harvest operation process. Through the design of key components of the test platform harvesting, the key parameters of the pulling-out device, the reel device, the flexible clamping and conveying device, and the double-disc cutting device were determined. The movement changes of cabbage during pulling out, conveying, and cutting were analyzed to clarify the process of damage generation and critical conditions of damage in cabbage harvesting operations. The test results showed that when the speed of the pulling out device was controlled at 80–120 r/min, the speed of the clamping and conveying device was controlled at 120–240 r/min, and the speed of the double disc cutter was controlled at 140–180 r/min, the average success rate of pulling on the low-loss harvesting test platform was 92.7%; the average damage rate of the pulling process was 7.32%; the average success rate of clamping and conveying was 88.6%; the average damage rate of the clamping and conveying link was 12%; the average success rate of root cutting was 89.3%; and the average damage rate of the cutting link was 11.34%. The average qualified rate of harvesting in the pulling link was 86.7%, the average qualified rate of harvesting in the clamping and conveying link was 75.3%, and the average qualified rate of harvesting in the cutting link was 77.3%. All the performance indicators meet the design requirements and relevant standards, and the research results can provide a reference for the development and structural improvement of low-loss harvesting equipment for cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6202 KiB  
Article
Detection of Famous Tea Buds Based on Improved YOLOv7 Network
by Yongwei Wang, Maohua Xiao, Shu Wang, Qing Jiang, Xiaochan Wang and Yongnian Zhang
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061190 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Aiming at the problems of dense distribution, similar color and easy occlusion of famous and excellent tea tender leaves, an improved YOLOv7 (you only look once v7) model based on attention mechanism was proposed in this paper. The attention mechanism modules were added [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problems of dense distribution, similar color and easy occlusion of famous and excellent tea tender leaves, an improved YOLOv7 (you only look once v7) model based on attention mechanism was proposed in this paper. The attention mechanism modules were added to the front and back positions of the enhanced feature extraction network (FPN), and the detection effects of YOLOv7+SE network, YOLOv7+ECA network, YOLOv7+CBAM network and YOLOv7+CA network were compared. It was found that the YOLOv7+CBAM Block model had the highest recognition accuracy with an accuracy of 93.71% and a recall rate of 89.23%. It was found that the model had the advantages of high accuracy and missing rate in small target detection, multi-target detection, occluded target detection and densely distributed target detection. Moreover, the model had good real-time performance and had a good application prospect in intelligent management and automatic harvesting of famous and excellent tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
V-Shaped Toothed Roller Cotton Stalk Puller: Numerical Modeling and Field-Test Validation
by Zhenwei Wang, Weisong Zhao, Jingjing Fu, Hu Xie, Yinping Zhang and Mingjiang Chen
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061157 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
The V-shaped toothed roller cotton stalk puller has a low removal ratio and weak pulling effect. Hence, we constructed a simplified mathematical model of the V-shaped tooth roller stalk puller based on elastic collision theory and simple beam theory and conducted a mechanical [...] Read more.
The V-shaped toothed roller cotton stalk puller has a low removal ratio and weak pulling effect. Hence, we constructed a simplified mathematical model of the V-shaped tooth roller stalk puller based on elastic collision theory and simple beam theory and conducted a mechanical analysis based on this model to explore the causes of pulling errors and fractures. Specifically, the V-shaped tooth plates of the machine were optimized in an orthogonal experiment with the rotational speed, cogging angle, and ground clearance as the influencing factors, and the removal ratio as the evaluation index. This experiment was designed to enable analysis of the physical characteristics of cotton stalks, and the forces applied during the pulling process. Additionally, a V-shaped toothed roller-type stalk-pulling test bench was constructed. The results revealed that, unlike the cogging angle, the ground clearance significantly affected the removal ratio. Furthermore, the highest removal ratio (i.e., 97%) was achieved when the ground clearance was −20 mm, the rotational speed was 300 rpm, and the cogging angle was 32.5°. An L9 (34) orthogonal field experiment was also conducted with the rotational speed, cogging angle, and ground clearance as the influencing factors to investigate their respective influences on the stalk removal ratio. The results revealed that the ground clearance most significantly influenced the ratio, followed by the rotational speed, and cogging angle. The ground clearance and rotational speed of the V-shaped toothed roller were each found to significantly influence the ratio. Furthermore, a ground clearance of −20 mm, rotational speed of 300 r/min, and cogging angle of 25° yielded an average removal ratio of 98.27%. Through this research, the mechanism of toothed roller stalk pulling is further deepened and the toothed series stalk pulling technology provides theoretical support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 10332 KiB  
Article
Calibration of Ramie Stalk Contact Parameters Based on the Discrete Element Method
by Yao Hu, Wei Xiang, Yiping Duan, Bo Yan, Lan Ma, Jiajie Liu and Jiangnan Lyu
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13051070 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
To obtain the physical parameters and contact parameters of ramie stalk decorticating simulation, the structural dimensions, density, moisture content, elastic modulus, and contact parameters of the ramie stalk were measured in this study based on the phloem and xylem of the ramie stalk. [...] Read more.
To obtain the physical parameters and contact parameters of ramie stalk decorticating simulation, the structural dimensions, density, moisture content, elastic modulus, and contact parameters of the ramie stalk were measured in this study based on the phloem and xylem of the ramie stalk. The physical stacking angles of the phloem and xylem were measured by the cylinder lift method and the extraction of the partition method, respectively. The contact parameters between the xylem and phloem of the ramie stalk were directly calibrated. Additionally, the contact parameters of the phloem–phloem, phloem–Q235A steel, xylem–xylem, and xylem–Q235A steel were used as calibration objects, and the simulated stacking angle was used as the evaluation index. Then, the Plackett–Burman test was designed to screen for the parameters which were significantly affecting the simulated stacking angle. Furthermore, the steepest ascent test determined the optimal range of values for two significant parameters of the phloem and three significant parameters of the xylem. Based on the central composite design, the second-order regression equations between the significant parameters of the phloem and xylem and the stacking angle were established, respectively. The physical stacking angles of 37.93° for phloem and 27.17° for xylem were the target values to obtain the optimal parameter group. The results showed that the restitution, static, and rolling friction coefficients between the xylem and phloem were 0.60, 0.53, and 0.021, respectively. The static and rolling friction coefficients between the phloem and phloem were 0.41 and 0.056, respectively. The rolling friction coefficient between the xylem and Q235A steel was 0.033, and the static and rolling friction coefficients between the xylem and xylem were 0.44 and 0.016, respectively. The verification test showed that the relative error values were less than 2.11%, which further indicated that the modeling method and parameter calibration of the ramie stalk phloem and xylem models were accurate and reliable. They can be used for the subsequent calibration simulation tests of ramie stalk bonding parameters and ramie stalk decorticating simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9386 KiB  
Article
Design of a Spring-Finger Potato Picker and an Experimental Study of Its Picking Performance
by Lihe Wang, Fei Liu, Qiang Wang, Jiaqi Zhou, Xiaoyu Fan, Junru Li, Xuan Zhao and Shengshi Xie
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050945 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
To address the problems of low pickup rates and high rates of wounds in the mechanised harvesting of potatoes under sectional harvesting conditions, a spring-finger potato picker was designed and its overall structure and working principles were described. The kinematic principle of the [...] Read more.
To address the problems of low pickup rates and high rates of wounds in the mechanised harvesting of potatoes under sectional harvesting conditions, a spring-finger potato picker was designed and its overall structure and working principles were described. The kinematic principle of the spring-finger was analysed based on the picking constraints, and the kinematic parameters of the picker were determined. A response surface Box–Behnken Design test design was used to carry out a quadratic orthogonal rotational test, with the speed of the spring-finger, the forward speed of the machine, and the embedded depth as test factors, and the loss rate and the wounded potato rate as evaluation indicators. The test results were optimised and analysed. When the spring-finger speed was 19.57 r/min, the forward speed was 0.61 m/s and the embedded depth was 71.31 mm, the loss rate was 1.18%, and the wounded potato rate was 5.71%. The optimised data were verified, and the results showed that the loss rate of the spring-finger potato picker was 1.48% and the wounded potato rate was 4.98%, meeting the potato picking and harvesting requirements. The research can provide a theoretical basis and design reference for the development and application of sectional potato harvesting machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 9929 KiB  
Article
Design and Testing of a Self-Propelled Dandelion Seed Harvester
by Zhe Qu, Qi Lu, Haihao Shao, Long Liu, Xiuping Wang and Zhijun Lv
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040917 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
At present, there are few harvesters for dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) seeds, which limits the large-area planting of dandelion. Furthermore, manual harvesting is characterized by huge labor intensity, low efficiency, and high costs. Combining the material characteristics of dandelion plants and seeds [...] Read more.
At present, there are few harvesters for dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) seeds, which limits the large-area planting of dandelion. Furthermore, manual harvesting is characterized by huge labor intensity, low efficiency, and high costs. Combining the material characteristics of dandelion plants and seeds with agronomic requirements for harvesting dandelion seeds, a self-propelled dandelion seed harvester was designed. The harvester is mainly composed of collection devices, separation devices, transmission devices, and a rack. It can facilitate seed collection from plants, seed transportation, and seed–pappus separation in one operation. The collection and separation processes of dandelion seeds were studied to ascertain the main factors that affect the collection rate. Then, the collection and separation devices were designed, and their parameters were analyzed. Taking the forward speed, wind velocity of blowers, and rate of rotation of the drum as test factors and the collection rate as the evaluation index, quadratic regression orthogonal rotating field tests were performed. In this way, the optimal combination of operation parameters was determined: the collection rate is optimal when the forward speed is 0.8 m·s−1, the air velocity from the blowers is 1.63 m·s−1, and the rate of rotation of the drum is 419 rpm. Field test results showed that a favorable harvesting effect was achieved after operation of the harvester, and only small amounts of dandelion seeds remained unharvested. Under the optimal parameter combination, the collection rate reached 89.1%, which could meet requirements for practical field harvesting of dandelion seeds. The test results satisfy the design requirement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

0 pages, 37956 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Experiment of Compression Molding Behavior of Substrate Block Suitable for Mechanical Transplanting Based on Discrete Element Method (DEM)
by Jingjing Fu, Zhichao Cui, Yongsheng Chen, Chunsong Guan, Mingjiang Chen and Biao Ma
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040883 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The compression molding performance of a substrate block has a significant effect on the quality and stability of mechanical transplanting. The physical experiment and DEM simulation were combined to evaluate the compression molding behavior of substrate block in this study. A calibration procedure [...] Read more.
The compression molding performance of a substrate block has a significant effect on the quality and stability of mechanical transplanting. The physical experiment and DEM simulation were combined to evaluate the compression molding behavior of substrate block in this study. A calibration procedure of DEM parameters of peat particles was proposed at first. Then, the above parameters were brought into the contact model of the compression system–particles, and the effect of the loading speed on the compression behavior of the peat substrate block was investigated. The compressive force–displacement curves of the simulated and measured tests were all contained in the initial linear stage and non-linear stiffing stage. The particle number of central sections was higher than side section, and the variable coefficient was greater at higher loading speed. The substrate blocks all expanded after demolding. The higher the loading speed, the greater the expansion in the height’s direction, and the easier it was for cracks to be generated near the bottom. This study will provide a reference for the design of substrate block forming machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 5378 KiB  
Article
Design and Experiment of an Underactuated Broccoli-Picking Manipulator
by Huimin Xu, Gaohong Yu, Chenyu Niu, Xiong Zhao, Yimiao Wang and Yijin Chen
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040848 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Mature broccoli has large flower balls and thick stems. Therefore, manual broccoli picking is laborious and energy-consuming. However, the big spheroid vegetable-picking manipulator has a complex structure and poor enveloping effect and easily causes mechanical damage. Therefore, a broccoli flower ball-picking manipulator with [...] Read more.
Mature broccoli has large flower balls and thick stems. Therefore, manual broccoli picking is laborious and energy-consuming. However, the big spheroid vegetable-picking manipulator has a complex structure and poor enveloping effect and easily causes mechanical damage. Therefore, a broccoli flower ball-picking manipulator with a compact structure and simple control system was designed. The manipulator was smart in structure and stable in configuration when enveloped in flower balls. First, a physical damage test was carried out on broccoli according to the underactuated manipulator’s design scheme. The maximum surface pressure of the flower ball was 30 N, and the maximum cutting force of the stem was 35 N. Then, kinematic analysis was completed, and the statical model of the underactuated mechanism was established. The dimension of the underactuated mechanism for each connecting rod was determined based on the damage test results and design requirements. The sizes of each connecting rod were 50 cm, 90 cm, 50 cm, 90 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm, and 65 cm. The statical model calculated the required thrust of the underactuated mechanism as 598.66–702.88 N. Then, the manipulator was simulated to verify its reliability of the manipulator. Finally, the manipulator’s motion track, speed, and motor speed were determined in advance in the laboratory environment. One-hundred picking tests were carried out on mature broccoli with a 135–185 mm diameter. Results showed that the manipulator had an 84% success rate in picking and a 100% lossless rate. The fastest single harvest time in the test stand was 11.37 s when the speed of the robot arm was 3.4 m/s, and the speed of the stepper motor was 60 r/min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research for Digging and Inverting of Upright Peanuts by Digger-Inverter
by Haiyang Shen, Hongguang Yang, Qimin Gao, Fengwei Gu, Zhichao Hu, Feng Wu, Youqing Chen and Mingzhu Cao
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040847 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
In order to quickly dry the peanut pods and effectively reduce the mildew on peanut pods in rainy weather, this paper analyzed the research status of peanut digging and inverting technology in China and abroad, combined with the peanut two-stage harvesting mode. The [...] Read more.
In order to quickly dry the peanut pods and effectively reduce the mildew on peanut pods in rainy weather, this paper analyzed the research status of peanut digging and inverting technology in China and abroad, combined with the peanut two-stage harvesting mode. The orthogonal experiment was carried out by using the peanut digger-inverter to study the different forms of upright type, taking the rate of vines inverting, the rate of buried pods, and the rate of fallen pods as the evaluation indexes, and taking the traveling speed of the tractor A, the line speed of the conveyor chain B, and the line speed of the inverting roller C as the experimental factors. The results showed that, in the states of unpressed vines and pressed vines, the order of influence of the peanut digger-inverter on the evaluation indices was A > C > B. The optimal horizontal combination of unpressed vines was A2C3B2, when the traveling speed of the tractor is 1.06 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 2.12 m/s, and the line speed of the conveyor chain is 1.02 m/s; the rate of vines inverting was 71.07%, the rate of buried pods was 0.2%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.22%. Under the condition of vines pressing, the best horizontal combination is A2C2B2, when the travelling speed of the tractor is 1.01 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 1.88 m/s, and the line speed of the conveyor chain is 1.02 m/s; the rate of vines inverting was 74.29%, the rate of buried pods was 0.14%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.33%. The paired t-test was carried out by the peanut digger-inverter under the state of pressed and unpressed vines. There was little difference in the influence of each factor on the rate of fallen pods and the rate of buried pods, but there was a significant difference in the influence on the rate of vines inverting. The rate of inversion of vines under the state of pressed vines was higher than that under the state of unpressed vines. The research results will provide certain technical support for the late optimization of the peanut digger-inverter and create a hardware foundation for the intelligence and information harvesting of peanuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2338 KiB  
Article
An Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Threshing Performance in a Flexible Threshing Device
by Lan Ma, Fangping Xie, Dawei Liu, Xiushan Wang and Zhanfeng Zhang
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040788 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Rice is a widely cultivated food crop worldwide, and threshing is one of the most important operations of combine harvesters in grain production. It is a complex, nonlinear, multi-parameter physical process. The flexible threshing device has unique advantages in reducing the grain damage [...] Read more.
Rice is a widely cultivated food crop worldwide, and threshing is one of the most important operations of combine harvesters in grain production. It is a complex, nonlinear, multi-parameter physical process. The flexible threshing device has unique advantages in reducing the grain damage rate and has already been one of the major concerns in engineering design. Using the measured test database of the flexible threshing test bench, the rotation speed of the threshing cylinder (RS), threshing clearance of the concave sieve (TC), separation clearance of the concave sieve (SC), and feeding quantity (FQ) are used as the input layer. In contrast, the crushing rate (YP), impurity rate of the threshed material (YZ), and loss rate (YS) are used in the output layer. A 4-5-3-3 artificial neural network (ANN) model, with a backpropagation learning algorithm, was developed to predict the threshing performance of the flexible threshing device. Next, we explored the degree to which the inputs affect the outputs. The results showed that the R of the threshing performance model validation set in the hidden layer reached 0.980, and the root mean square error (RMSE) and the average absolute error (MAE) were less than 0.139 and 0.153, respectively. The built neural network model predicted the performance of the flexible threshing device, and the regression determination coefficient R2 between the prediction data and the experimental data was 0.953. The results showed revealed that the data combined with the ANN method is an effective approach for predicting the threshing performance of the flexible threshing device in rice. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis showed that RS, TC, and SC were crucial factors influencing the performance of the flexible threshing device, with an average relative importance of 15.00%, 14.89%, and 14.32%, respectively. FQ had the least effect on threshing performance, with an average threshing relative importance of 11.65%. Our findings can be leveraged to optimize the threshing performance of future flexible threshing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
Research on Fault Diagnosis of HMCVT Shift Hydraulic System Based on Optimized BPNN and CNN
by Jiabo Wang, Zhixiong Lu, Guangming Wang, Ghulam Hussain, Shanhu Zhao, Haijun Zhang and Maohua Xiao
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020461 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
There are some problems in the shifting process of hydraulic CVT, such as irregularity, low stability and high failure rate. In this paper, the BP neural network and convolutional neural network are used for fault diagnosis of the HMCVT hydraulic system. Firstly, through [...] Read more.
There are some problems in the shifting process of hydraulic CVT, such as irregularity, low stability and high failure rate. In this paper, the BP neural network and convolutional neural network are used for fault diagnosis of the HMCVT hydraulic system. Firstly, through experiments, 120 groups of pressure and flow data under normal and four typical fault modes were obtained and preprocessed; they were divided into 80 groups of training samples and 40 groups of test samples via random extraction, using the BP neural network model and convolutional neural network model for fault classification. The results show that compared with BP, PSO-BP and other models, the fault diagnosis rate of the BAS-BP neural network model can reach 92.5%, and the average diagnosis accuracy rate of the convolutional neural network can reach 97.5%, which can be effectively applied to the fault diagnosis of the HMCVT hydraulic system and provide some reference for the shifting reliability of hydraulic CVT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4418 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of the Picking Process of Supernormal Jujube Branches
by Ren Zhang, Guofeng Wang, Wei Wang, Dezhi Ren, Yuanjuan Gong, Xiang Yue, Junming Hou and Mengmeng Yang
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020408 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
This paper elaborates on a digital simulation study on supernormal particle flow used to investigate and analyze the process of picking up jujube branches, which was a meaningful attempt to search for accurate and effective advanced numerical analogy methods in the agricultural field. [...] Read more.
This paper elaborates on a digital simulation study on supernormal particle flow used to investigate and analyze the process of picking up jujube branches, which was a meaningful attempt to search for accurate and effective advanced numerical analogy methods in the agricultural field. In this paper, the meshless technology based on the element-free Galerkin method was used for the first time to present the effects of particle size, particle number and particle acting force on the movement of irregular particles, and the influence of the gear rotation speed, the feeding amount, and the jujube branch size on the movement behavior as well as the picking rate. It can describe not only the particles’ dynamic movement in the process of picking up jujube twigs, such as feeding, collision, throwing and rolling, but also the effect of the quality and shape caused by the particle size, which in turn affects the surface force of particles and interparticle acting force, thereby affecting the weight function in the analytical solution, the total feeding amount and the effect of the acting force resulting from the particles’ contact, roll and collision caused by gear rotation. The findings reveal that the digital simulation, based on the meshless Galerkin technology and Rocky software, is effective in dealing with issues related to supernormal particle flow. By eliminating the influence of geometric shapes on calculations, the method boasts an effective solution to the movement problems of irregularly shaped particles, which would be further applied in the agriculture field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4495 KiB  
Article
Research on the Measurement Method of Feeding Rate in Silage Harvester Based on Components Power Data
by Fengzhu Wang, Jizhong Wang, Yuxi Ji, Bo Zhao, Yangchun Liu, Hanlu Jiang and Wenhua Mao
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020391 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
For existing problems, such as the complex interactions between a crop and a machine, the measuring difficulty and the limited measurement precision of the feeding quantity within the corn silage harvester, a method of feeding rate measurement based on key conditions data, working [...] Read more.
For existing problems, such as the complex interactions between a crop and a machine, the measuring difficulty and the limited measurement precision of the feeding quantity within the corn silage harvester, a method of feeding rate measurement based on key conditions data, working data cleaning, and multiple variate regression is proposed. Non-destructive rotation speed, rotation torque, and power consumption sensors are designed for the key mechanical components. The data conditions, such as rotating speed, rotating torque, power consumption, hydraulic pressure, and hydraulic flow for the key operation of parts including cutting, feeding, shredding, and throwing are monitored and collected in real-time during field harvesting. The working data are screened and preprocessed, and the Mann-Kendall boundary extraction algorithm is applied, as is multiple component time lag correction analysis, and the Grubbs exception detection method. Based on a Pearson correlation analysis results, one-factor and multiple-factor regression models are respectively developed to achieve an accurate measurement of the corn feeding rate. The field validation tests show that the working data boundary extraction results among the load-stabilizing components such as shredding roller and throwing blower are highly reliable, with a correct rate of 100%. The power monitoring data of the shredding roller and throwing blowers are significantly correlated with the crop feeding rate, with a max correlation coefficient of 0.97. The determination coefficient of the single-factor feeding rate model based on the shredding roller reaches 0.94, and the maximum absolute error of the multi-factor feeding rate model is 0.58 kg/s. The maximum relative error is ±5.84%, providing technical and data support for the automatic measuring and intelligent tuning of the feeding quantity in a silage harvester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4004 KiB  
Article
A Method of Modern Standardized Apple Orchard Flowering Monitoring Based on S-YOLO
by Xinzhu Zhou, Guoxiang Sun, Naimin Xu, Xiaolei Zhang, Jiaqi Cai, Yunpeng Yuan and Yinfeng Huang
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020380 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
Monitoring fruit tree flowering information in the open world is more crucial than in the research-oriented environment for managing agricultural production to increase yield and quality. This work presents a transformer-based flowering period monitoring approach in an open world in order to better [...] Read more.
Monitoring fruit tree flowering information in the open world is more crucial than in the research-oriented environment for managing agricultural production to increase yield and quality. This work presents a transformer-based flowering period monitoring approach in an open world in order to better monitor the whole blooming time of modern standardized orchards utilizing IoT technologies. This study takes images of flowering apple trees captured at a distance in the open world as the research object, extends the dataset by introducing the Slicing Aided Hyper Inference (SAHI) algorithm, and establishes an S-YOLO apple flower detection model by substituting the YOLOX backbone network with Swin Transformer-tiny. The experimental results show that S-YOLO outperformed YOLOX-s in the detection accuracy of the four blooming states by 7.94%, 8.05%, 3.49%, and 6.96%. It also outperformed YOLOX-s by 10.00%, 9.10%, 13.10%, and 7.20% for mAPALL, mAPS, mAPM, and mAPL, respectively. By increasing the width and depth of the network model, the accuracy of the larger S-YOLO was 88.18%, 88.95%, 89.50%, and 91.95% for each flowering state and 39.00%, 32.10%, 50.60%, and 64.30% for each type of mAP, respectively. The results show that the transformer-based method of monitoring the apple flower growth stage utilized S-YOLO to achieve the apple flower count, percentage analysis, peak flowering time determination, and flowering intensity quantification. The method can be applied to remotely monitor flowering information and estimate flowering intensity in modern standard orchards based on IoT technology, which is important for developing fruit digital production management technology and equipment and guiding orchard production management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5143 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Algorithm Optimization of Liquid Manure Spreading Control
by Pengjun Wang, Yongsheng Chen, Binxing Xu, Aibing Wu, Jingjing Fu, Mingjiang Chen and Biao Ma
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020278 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
The growth of field crops needs appropriate soil nutrients. As a basic fertilizer, liquid manure provides biological nutrients for crop growth and increases the content of organic matter in crops. However, improper spraying not only reduces soil fertility but also destroys soil structure. [...] Read more.
The growth of field crops needs appropriate soil nutrients. As a basic fertilizer, liquid manure provides biological nutrients for crop growth and increases the content of organic matter in crops. However, improper spraying not only reduces soil fertility but also destroys soil structure. Therefore, the precise control of the amount of liquid manure is of great significance for agricultural production and weight loss. In this study, we first built the model of spraying control, then optimized the BP neural network algorithm through a genetic algorithm. The stability and efficiency of the optimized controller were compared with PID, fuzzy PID and BPNN-PID control. The simulation results show that the optimized algorithm has the shortest response time and lowest relative error. Finally, platform experiments were designed to verify the four control algorithms at four different vehicle speeds. The results show that, compared with other control algorithms, the control algorithm described here has good stability, short response time, small overshoot, and can achieve an accurate fertilizer application effect, providing an optimization scheme for research on the precise application of liquid manure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
Simulation Analysis and Experiments for Blade-Soil-Straw Interaction under Deep Ploughing Based on the Discrete Element Method
by Jin Zhang, Min Xia, Wei Chen, Dong Yuan, Chongyou Wu and Jiping Zhu
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010136 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
The desirable sowing period for winter wheat is very short in the rice-wheat rotation areas. There are also lots of straw left in harvested land. Deep rotary tillage can cover rice straw under the surface to increase soil organic matter. Clarifying the effect [...] Read more.
The desirable sowing period for winter wheat is very short in the rice-wheat rotation areas. There are also lots of straw left in harvested land. Deep rotary tillage can cover rice straw under the surface to increase soil organic matter. Clarifying the effect of the rotary tillage blade on the soil and straw, as well as analyzing the movement patterns and forces on the straw and soil, are essential to investigate the deep rotary tillage process in order to solve the problems of energy consumption and poor straw burial effect of deep tillage and deep burial machinery. In this study, we built the interaction model of rotary blade-soil-straw through the discrete element method to conduct simulation and identified the factors that affect the power consumption and operation quality of the rotary blade. The simulation process reflects the law of rotary blade-soil-straw interaction, and the accuracy of the simulation model has been verified by field trials. The simulation test results show that the optimized structural parameters of the rotary tillage blade were 210 mm, 45 mm, 37° and 115° (R, H, α and β) designed based on this theoretical model can cultivate to a depth of 200 mm. The operating parameters were 8π rad/s for rotational speed and 0. 56 m/s for forward speed, respectively; the simulated and field comparison tests were conducted under the optimal combination of parameters, and the power, soil breaking rate, and straw burial rate were 1.73 kW, 71.34%, and 18.89%, respectively; the numerical error rates of simulated and field test values were 6.36%, 5.42%, and 8.89%, respectively. The accuracy of the secondary model was verified. The simulation model had good accuracy at all factor levels. The model constructed in this study can provide a theoretical basis and technical reference for the interaction mechanism between rotary tillage and soil straw, the optimization of machine geometry, and the selection of operating parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7567 KiB  
Article
Research on Flexible End-Effectors with Humanoid Grasp Function for Small Spherical Fruit Picking
by Fu Zhang, Zijun Chen, Yafei Wang, Ruofei Bao, Xingguang Chen, Sanling Fu, Mimi Tian and Yakun Zhang
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010123 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3221
Abstract
The rapid, stable, and undamaged picking of small-sized spherical fruits are one of the key technologies to improve the level of intelligent picking robots and reduce grading operations. Cherry tomatoes were selected as the research object in this work. Picking strategies of two-stage [...] Read more.
The rapid, stable, and undamaged picking of small-sized spherical fruits are one of the key technologies to improve the level of intelligent picking robots and reduce grading operations. Cherry tomatoes were selected as the research object in this work. Picking strategies of two-stage “Holding-Rotating” and finger-end grasping were determined. The end-effector was designed to separate the fruit from the stalk based on the linear motion of the constraint part and the rotating gripper. This work first studied the human hand-grasping of cherry tomatoes and designed the fingers with sinusoidal characteristics. The mathematical model of a single finger of the gripper was established. The structural parameters of the gripper were determined to meet the requirements of the grabbing range from 0 to 61.6 mm. Based on the simulation model, the constraint part was set to 6 speeds, and the fruit sizes were set to 20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm, respectively. When the speed was 0.08m/s, the results showed that the grabbing time was 0.5381 s, 0.387 s, and 0.2761 s, respectively, and the maximum grabbing force was 0.9717 N, 3.5077 N, and 4.0003 N now of clamping, respectively. It met the picking requirements of high speed and low loss. The criterions of two-index stability and undamaged were proposed, including the grasping index of the fixed value and the slip detection of variance to mean ratio. Therefore, the control strategy and algorithm based on two-stage and two-index for rapid, stable, and non-destructive harvesting of small fruit were proposed. The results of the picking experiment for seventy-two cherry tomatoes showed that the picking success rate was 95.82%, the average picking time was 4.86 s, the picking damage rate was 2.90%, the browning rate was 2.90% in 72 h, and the wrinkling rate was 1.49% in 72 h, which can meet the actual small spherical fruit picking requirements. The research will provide an idea for the flexible end-effectors with humanoid grasp function and provides a theoretical reference for small spherical fruit picking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4690 KiB  
Article
Parameter Optimization of Reciprocating Cutter for Chinese Little Greens Based on Finite Element Simulation and Experiment
by Wei Wang, Xiaolan Lv and Zhongyi Yi
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122131 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Optimizing the working performance of the cutting device for harvesting Chinese little greens is crucial to reducing energy consumption in cutting and improving cutting quality. To explore the mechanical characteristics of leafy vegetables in cutting, the dynamic process of cutting Chinese little greens [...] Read more.
Optimizing the working performance of the cutting device for harvesting Chinese little greens is crucial to reducing energy consumption in cutting and improving cutting quality. To explore the mechanical characteristics of leafy vegetables in cutting, the dynamic process of cutting Chinese little greens with a cutter was simulated numerically by using the finite element method based on theoretical analysis. In the numerical simulation, the response-surface methodology (RSM) and central composite rotatable design (CCD) were used to describe the influence rule of sliding–cutting angle (X1), oblique angle (X2), and the average cutting speed (X3) on cutting stress. Then, the stress distribution pattern produced by the cutting blade and the stalks were evaluated by using different working parameters. Subsequently, taking the minimum cutting stress as the target value, the best combination of cutter structure and working parameters were obtained: the sliding–cutting angle was 29°, the oblique angle was 38°, and the average cutting speed was 500 mm/s. At the condition of optimal parameter combinations, the ultimate cutting stress of the upper cutting blade was 0.95 Mpa and that of the bottom cutting blade was 0.77 Mpa. A cutting test was carried out by using a bench test of the cutting performance, and the mechanical properties of cutting at different cutting speeds were studied. Test results showed that at the optimal cutting speed of 500 mm/s, the cutting stress on the cutter was relatively small and the cutting effect reached the best value. The finite element simulation of cutting the little greens reduced the test cost and provided a reference for the development of a cutting device with low power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4766 KiB  
Article
Research and Experiments of Hazelnut Harvesting Machine Based on CFD-DEM Analysis
by Dezhi Ren, Haolin Yu, Ren Zhang, Jiaqi Li, Yingbo Zhao, Fengbo Liu, Jinhui Zhang and Wei Wang
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122115 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
To solve the problem of difficult hazelnut harvesting in mountainous areas of Liaoning, China, a small pneumatic hazelnut harvesting machine was designed, which can realize negative pressure when picking up hazelnut mixtures and positive pressure when cleaning impurities. The key structure and parameters [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of difficult hazelnut harvesting in mountainous areas of Liaoning, China, a small pneumatic hazelnut harvesting machine was designed, which can realize negative pressure when picking up hazelnut mixtures and positive pressure when cleaning impurities. The key structure and parameters of the harvesting machine were determined by constructing a mechanical model of the whole machine and combining theoretical analysis and operational requirements. To explore the harvesting machine scavenging performance, Liaoning hazelnut No. 3 with a moisture content of 7.47% was used as the experimental object. Firstly, the terminal velocity of hazelnuts and fallen leaves was measured using a material suspension velocity test bench. Secondly, the gas–solid two-phase flow theory was applied comprehensively, and the motion state, particle distribution, and air flow field distribution of hazelnuts from the inlet to the outlet of the pneumatic conveying device were simulated and analyzed using the coupling of computational flow fluid dynamics method (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) to evaluate the cleaning performance from the perspective of the net fruit rate of hazelnuts in the cleaning box. Finally, a Box–Behnken design experiment was conducted with the sieve plate angle, the distance of the sieve plate, and the air flow velocity as factors and the net fruit rate of hazelnuts as indicators to explore the influence of the three factors on the net fruit rate of hazelnuts. The parameter optimization module of Design-Expert software was used to obtain the optimal combination of parameters for the factors. The experimental results show that the test factors affecting the test index are the following: the air flow rate, the angle of the screen plate, and the distance of the screen plate. The best combination of parameters was an air flow velocity of 14.1 m∙s−1, a sieve plate angle of 55.7°, and a distance of the sieve plate of 33.2 mm. The net fruit rate of hazelnuts was 95.12%. The clearing performance was stable and can guarantee the requirements of hazelnut harvester operation, which provides a certain theoretical basis for the design of a nut harvester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8454 KiB  
Article
Design and Multi-Parameter Optimization of a Combined Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) Seed Harvester
by Zhaoyan You, Xuemei Gao, Jianchun Yan, Hai Wei, Huichang Wu, Tieguang He and Ji Wu
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122074 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
In order to solve problems such as poor applicability of headers, weak separation ability of threshing mechanisms and poor impurity-removal ability of cleaning devices in the existing seed harvest methods of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), a combined Chinese milk vetch [...] Read more.
In order to solve problems such as poor applicability of headers, weak separation ability of threshing mechanisms and poor impurity-removal ability of cleaning devices in the existing seed harvest methods of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), a combined Chinese milk vetch seed harvester was designed in this paper. The parameters of the key components, such as the flexible anti pod-dropping seedling-lifting header, the longitudinal rod-teeth-type threshing device and the air-sieve-type layered impurity-controlled cleaning device, were designed and optimized. Aiming at reducing seed loss rate, breakage rate and impurity rate of Chinese milk vetch during the mechanical harvesting process, through multi-parameter optimization, the best combination of working parameters was obtained: machine forward speed was 3 km·h−1, rotation speed of the threshing drum was 550 r·min−1, rotation speed of the cleaning fan was 990 r·min−1 and the scale sieve’s opening was 35 mm. Field tests were performed under these parameters, and the results showed that the seed loss rate of Chinese milk vetch was 2.35%, the breakage rate was 0.22% and the impurity rate was 0.51%, which were better than the technical requirements of loss rate and breakage rate less than 5% and impurity rate less than 3% specified in relevant standards. The research results can solve the shortage problem of efficient seed harvest equipment in large-scale planting areas of Chinese milk vetch, and will further help to carry out seed harvest experiments on different varieties of Chinese milk vetch and other green manure varieties in paddy fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 'Eyes', 'Brain', 'Feet' and 'Hands' of Efficient Harvesting Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop