# Experimental Research for Digging and Inverting of Upright Peanuts by Digger-Inverter

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

_{2}C

_{3}B

_{2}, when the traveling speed of the tractor is 1.06 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 2.12 m/s, and the line speed of the conveyor chain is 1.02 m/s; the rate of vines inverting was 71.07%, the rate of buried pods was 0.2%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.22%. Under the condition of vines pressing, the best horizontal combination is A

_{2}C

_{2}B

_{2}, when the travelling speed of the tractor is 1.01 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 1.88 m/s, and the line speed of the conveyor chain is 1.02 m/s; the rate of vines inverting was 74.29%, the rate of buried pods was 0.14%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.33%. The paired t-test was carried out by the peanut digger-inverter under the state of pressed and unpressed vines. There was little difference in the influence of each factor on the rate of fallen pods and the rate of buried pods, but there was a significant difference in the influence on the rate of vines inverting. The rate of inversion of vines under the state of pressed vines was higher than that under the state of unpressed vines. The research results will provide certain technical support for the late optimization of the peanut digger-inverter and create a hardware foundation for the intelligence and information harvesting of peanuts.

## 1. Introduction

^{7}ha with a total yield of 5.36 × 10

^{7}t, and the planting area for peanuts in China was 4.62 × 10

^{6}ha with a total yield of 1.81 × 10

^{7}t. The area and total yield were ranked second and first in the world, accounting for 14.63% and 33.64% of the global peanut area and yield, respectively [8,9].

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Agronomic Process Based on Peanut Two-Stage Harvesting Operation Mode

#### 2.2. Design of Overall Structure and Principle

#### 2.2.1. Overall Structure

#### 2.2.2. Working Principle

#### 2.3. Experimental Instruments and Conditions

#### 2.3.1. Experimental Instruments

#### 2.3.2. Experimental Conditions

#### 2.4. Experimental Factors, Indicators, and Methods

#### 2.4.1. Experimental Factors

_{9}(3

^{4}) is established [35].

#### 2.4.2. Experimental Indexes

- V—The traveling speed of the tractor, expressed in meters per second (m/s);
- L—The length of the entire test area, expressed in meters (m);
- T—Time to pass through the test area, expressed in seconds (s).

_{m}= M

_{m}/M

_{x}×100%

_{s}= M

_{s}/M

_{x}× 100%

_{f}= l/L × 100%

- P
_{m}—The rate of buried pods, the weight of the pod buried in the soil layer in the plot divided by the total weight of the pod in the whole plot (%); - M
_{m}—The pod mass (excluding naturally fallen pods) buried in the soil layer in the plot, expressed in grams (g); - M
_{x}—The total pod weight of crops in the plot, expressed in grams (g); - P
_{s}—The rate of fallen pods, the mass of pods dropped in the cell divided by the total mass of pods in the whole cell (%); - M
_{s}—Mass of pods dropped in the plot, expressed in grams (g); - P
_{f}—The rate of vines inverting; the number of peanut vines with no pod in the community divided by the total number of peanut vines in the community (%); - l—The number of peanut vines without pods on the ground after peanut harvest in the community; unit is the number of vines;
- L—Total number of peanut vines in the community; unit is the number of vines.

#### 2.4.3. Experimental Methods

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Results of Unpressed Vines Experiment

_{1}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 1 for each experimental factor, t

_{2}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 2 for each experimental factor, and t

_{3}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 3 for each experimental factor.

_{3}B

_{2}C

_{2}. Similarly, according to the range analysis in Figure 5b, the order of influence of all factors on the rate of buried pods is as follows: A > B > C. From comprehensive comparability, it can be seen that the lower the average value of each factor group in the rate of buried pods, the better the level of the factor. Moreover, according to variance results in Table 4, it can be seen that the traveling speed of the tractor has a significant impact on the rate of buried pods, while the line speed of the conveyor chain and the line speed of the inverting roller have no significant impact on the rate of buried pods. At the same time, A

_{1}and A

_{2}are the same, so the minimum horizontal combination is chosen as A

_{2}B

_{1}C

_{3}by mechanical performance. Similarly, from the range analysis in Figure 5c, it can be seen that the order of influence of all factors on the rate of fallen pods is as follows: A > C > B. From the comprehensive comparability, it can be seen that the lower the average value of each factor group for the rate of fallen pods, the better the level of that factor. Moreover, from the variance results in Table 4, it can be seen that the influence of the traveling speed of the tractor and the line speed of the inverting roller on the rate of fallen pods is extremely significant, and the line speed of the conveyor chain has a significant effect on the rate of fallen pods, so the minimum horizontal combination is A

_{1}C

_{1}B

_{2}.

_{2}, followed by factor C at the level of C

_{3}, and then factor B at the level of B

_{2}. In conclusion, the best horizontal combination can be A

_{2}C

_{3}B

_{2}, that is, the traveling speed of the tractor is 0.9~1.1 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 2.12 m/s, and the line speed of the conveying chain is 1.02 m/s. In order to further verify the operation effect, three repeated experiments were carried out under the above optimal working parameters: the average traveling speed of the tractor was 1.06 m/s, the rate of vines inverting was 71.07%, the rate of buried pods was 0.2%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.22%. The rate of buried pods and the rate of fallen pods were far less than the identification standard of the peanut harvester.

#### 3.2. Results of Pressed Vines Experiment

_{1}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 1 for each experimental factor, t

_{2}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 2 for each experimental factor, and t

_{3}represents the average value of experimental results at the level of 3 for each experimental factor.

_{3}B

_{2}C

_{2}. Similarly, according to the range analysis in Figure 6b, it can be seen that the order of influence of all factors on the rate of buried pods is as follows: A > B > C. From the comprehensive comparability, it can be seen that the lower the average value of each factor group for the rate of buried pods, the better the factor level. Moreover, from the variance results in Table 7, it can be seen that the traveling speed of the tractor has a significant impact on the rate of buried pods. The line speed of the conveyor chain and the line speed of the inverting roller had no significant effect on the rate of buried pods, so the minimum horizontal combination was chosen as A

_{1}B

_{1}C

_{2}. Similarly, according to the range analysis in Figure 6c, it can be seen that the order of influence of all factors on the rate of fallen pods is as follows: A > C > B. Based on comprehensive comparability, it can be seen that the smaller the average value of each factor group, the better the level of that factor. Moreover, according to variance results in Table 7, it can be seen that the influence of the traveling speed of the tractor on the rate of fallen pods is extremely significant, the influence of the line speed of the inverting roller on the rate of fallen pods is significant, and the influence of the line speed of the conveyor chain on the rate of fallen pods is insignificant, so the minimum horizontal combination is A

_{1}C

_{2}B

_{1}.

_{2}, followed by factor C at the level of C

_{2}, and then factor B at the level of B

_{2}. In summary, the best horizontal combination can be A

_{2}C

_{2}B

_{2}, that is, the traveling speed of the tractor is 0.9~1.1 m/s, the line speed of the inverting roller is 1.88 m/s, and the line speed of the conveyor chain is 1.02 m/s. In order to further verify the operation effect, three repeated experiments were carried out under the above optimal working parameters: the average traveling speed of the tractor was 1.01 m/s, the rate of vines inverting was 74.29%, the rate of buried pods was 0.14%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.33%. The rate of buried pods and the rate of fallen pods were far less than the identification standard of the peanut harvester.

#### 3.3. Results of Pairing Analysis between Unpressed Vines and Pressed Vines

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

_{2}C

_{3}B

_{2}, that is, the speed of the tractor is 0.9~1.1 m/s, the line speed of the conveying chain is 1.02 m/s, and the line speed of the inverting roller is 2.12 m/s. Under the horizontal combination, the experimental results were as follows: the average travelling speed of the tractor was 1.06 m/s, the rate of vines inverting was 71.07%, the rate of buried pods was 0.2%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.22%.

_{2}C

_{2}B

_{2}, that is, the traveling speed of the tractor is 0.9~1.1 m/s, the speed of the conveying chain is 1.02 m/s, and the line speed of the inverting roller is 1.88 m/s. Under this horizontal combination, the experimental results were as follows: the average travelling speed of the tractor was 1.01 m/s, the rate of vines inverting was 74.29%, the rate of buried pods was 0.14%, and the rate of fallen pods was 0.33%.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Peanut digger-inverter: 1. Depth limiting roller 2. V-shaped digging shovel 3. Vines guide rod 4. Rear wheel 5. inverting roller 6. Collecting plate 7. Inverting rod 8. Harrow teeth 9. Back loop conveyor chain 10. Frame 11. Transmission assembly.

**Figure 4.**Field experiment flow of peanut digger-inverter: (

**a**) The process of field experiment of peanut digger-inverter. (

**b**) The effect of peanut digger-inverter after field operation. (

**c**) Random 3 m sampling of a stroke after peanut operation. (

**d**) The sampled peanuts were picked manually. (

**e**) The buried pod, fallen pod, and total pod weight of peanuts shall be weighed after operation.

**Figure 7.**Box diagram of paired samples. (

**a**) the rate of vines inverting; (

**b**) the rate of buried pods; (

**c**) the rate of fallen pods.

Parameters | Design Value |
---|---|

Type | Suspension-type |

Machine dimensions: size (Length × width × height)/(mm × mm × mm) | 3500 × 2100 × 1550 |

Total weight/kg | 1500 |

Most suitable row spacing/mm | 800 |

Numbers of ridge | Double ridge |

Working width/mm | 1800 |

Digging depth/mm | ≤250 |

Travelling speed/(m/s) | 0.7~1.3 |

Efficiency/(ha/h) | 0.45~0.84 |

Factors | Levels | ||
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | |

Traveling speed of the tractor A/(m/s) | 0.7~0.9 | 0.9~1.1 | 1.1~1.3 |

Line speed of the conveyor chain B/(m/s) | 0.84 | 1.02 | 1.13 |

Line speed of the inverting roller C/(m/s) | 1.57 | 1.88 | 2.12 |

Test Number | Travelling Speed of the Tractor A/(m/s) | Line Speed of the Conveyor Chain B/(m/s) | Line Speed of the Inverting Roller C/(m/s) | Rate of Vines Inverting P_{f}/(%) | Rate of Buried Pods P_{m}/(%) | Rate of Fallen Pods P_{s}/(%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 1 (0.89) | 1 (0.84) | 1 (1.57) | 55.56 | 0 | 0.08 |

2 | 1 (0.86) | 2 (1.02) | 2 (1.88) | 68.06 | 0.18 | 0.35 |

3 | 1 (0.84) | 3 (1.13) | 3 (2.12) | 60 | 0.21 | 0.19 |

4 | 2 (1.04) | 1 (0.84) | 2 (1.88) | 64.29 | 0.15 | 0.72 |

5 | 2 (1.01) | 2 (1.02) | 3 (2.12) | 69.7 | 0.13 | 0.23 |

6 | 2 (1.05) | 3 (1.13) | 1 (1.57) | 62.5 | 0.12 | 0.44 |

7 | 3 (1.25) | 1 (0.84) | 3 (2.12) | 65.31 | 0.77 | 0.77 |

8 | 3 (1.29) | 2 (1.02) | 1 (1.57) | 72.73 | 1.32 | 0.54 |

9 | 3 (1.13) | 3 (1.13) | 2 (1.88) | 73.44 | 1.08 | 1.45 |

Indexes | Variance Source | Sum of Squares | Free Degree | F-Value | p-Value | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

P_{f} | A | 129.613 | 2 | 95.98 | 0.01 | ** |

B | 107.724 | 2 | 79.771 | 0.012 | ** | |

C | 39.891 | 2 | 29.539 | 0.033 | ** | |

Error | 1.35 | 2 | ||||

T | 278.579 | 8 | ||||

P_{m} | A | 1.711 | 2 | 25.141 | 0.038 | * |

B | 0.088 | 2 | 1.294 | 0.436 | ||

C | 0.022 | 2 | 0.326 | 0.754 | ||

Error | 0.068 | 2 | ||||

T | 1.89 | 8 | ||||

P_{s} | A | 0.783 | 2 | 47.567 | 0.021 | ** |

B | 0.154 | 2 | 9.34 | 0.097 | * | |

C | 0.435 | 2 | 26.433 | 0.036 | ** | |

Error | 0.016 | 2 | ||||

T | 1.389 | 8 |

_{f}) R square = 0.995, (P

_{m}) R square = 0.964, (P

_{s}) R square = 0.988. Note: The critical value of significant judgment F

_{0.01}(2,2) = 99, F

_{0.05}(3,3) = 19, F

_{0.1}(2,2) = 9. * Indicates that the factors have some influence on the test index (0.05 < p ≤ 0.1), ** indicates that the factors have a significant influence on the test index (0.01 < p ≤ 0.05).

Index | Factor Importance Order | The Best Level and the Next Best Level | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

A | B | C | ||

P_{f} | A, B, C | A_{3} or A_{2} | B_{2} | C_{2} or C_{3} |

P_{m} | A | A_{1} and A_{2} | ||

P_{s} | A, C, B | A_{1} or A_{2} | B_{2} | C_{1} or C_{3} |

Test Number | Travelling Speed of the Tractor A/(m/s) | Line Speed of the Conveyor Chain B/(m/s) | Line Speed of the Inverting Roller C/(m/s) | Rate of Vines Inverting P_{f}/(%) | Rate of Buried Pods P_{m}/(%) | Rate of Fallen Pods P_{s}/(%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 1 (0.74) | 1 (0.84) | 1 (1.57) | 60 | 0.13 | 0.36 |

2 | 1 (0.71) | 2 (1.02) | 2 (1.88) | 73.77 | 0.19 | 0.38 |

3 | 1 (0.82) | 3 (1.13) | 3 (2.12) | 66.67 | 0.37 | 0.6 |

4 | 2 (0.96) | 1 (0.84) | 2 (1.88) | 67.8 | 0.1 | 0.39 |

5 | 2 (1.01) | 2 (1.02) | 3 (2.12) | 68.18 | 0.36 | 0.89 |

6 | 2 (1.09) | 3 (1.13) | 1 (1.57) | 67.69 | 0.76 | 0.93 |

7 | 3 (1.26) | 1 (0.84) | 3 (2.12) | 70.97 | 0.79 | 1.02 |

8 | 3 (1.29) | 2 (1.02) | 1 (1.57) | 77.92 | 0.89 | 1.15 |

9 | 3 (1.15) | 3 (1.13) | 2 (1.88) | 80.49 | 0.8 | 0.8 |

Indexes | Variance Source | Sum of Squares | Free Degree | F-Value | p-Value | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

P_{m} | A | 167.662 | 2 | 53.935 | 0.018 | ** |

B | 80.997 | 2 | 26.056 | 0.037 | ** | |

C | 59.376 | 2 | 19.1 | 0.05 | ** | |

Error | 3.109 | 2 | ||||

T | 311.144 | 8 | ||||

P_{s} | A | 0.564 | 2 | 14.419 | 0.065 | * |

B | 0.138 | 2 | 3.538 | 0.22 | ||

C | 0.081 | 2 | 2.071 | 0.326 | ||

Error | 0.039 | 2 | ||||

T | 0.822 | 8 | ||||

P_{f} | A | 0.443 | 2 | 32.556 | 0.03 | ** |

B | 0.083 | 2 | 6.07 | 0.141 | ||

C | 0.183 | 2 | 13.421 | 0.069 | * | |

Error | 0.014 | 2 | ||||

T | 0.723 | 8 |

_{f}) R square = 0.99, (P

_{m}) R square = 0.952, (P

_{s}) R square = 0.981. Note: The critical value of significant judgment F

_{0.01}(2,2) = 99, F

_{0.05}(3,3) = 19, F

_{0.1}(2,2) = 9. * indicates that the factors have some influence on the test index (0.05 < p ≤ 0.1), ** indicates that the factors have a significant influence on the test index (0.01 < p ≤ 0.05).

Index | Factor Importance Order | The Best Level and the Next Best Level | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

A | B | C | ||

P_{f} | A, B, C | A_{3} or A_{2} | B_{2} | C_{2} |

P_{m} | A | A_{1} or A_{2} | ||

P_{s} | A, C | A_{1} or A_{2} | C_{2} |

Sample Group | Correlation | p-Value | Significance |
---|---|---|---|

Traveling speed of tractor A | 0.913 | 0.001 | *** |

Line speed of the conveyor chain B | 0.787 | 0.012 | ** |

Line speed of the inverting roller C | 0.281 | 0.464 |

_{0.01}(8) = 2.896, t

_{0.05}(8) = 1.86, t

_{0.1}(8) = 1.397. ** indicates that the factors have a significant influence on the test index (0.01 < p ≤ 0.05), *** indicates that the factors have a very significant influence on the test index (p ≤ 0.01).

Sample Group | T | df | p-Value | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|

Traveling speed of tractor A | −5.479 | 8 | 0.001 | *** |

Line speed of the conveyor chain B | −0.468 | 8 | 0.652 | |

Line speed of the inverting roller C | −1.326 | 8 | 0.222 |

_{0.01}(8) = 2.896, t

_{0.05}(8) = 1.86, t

_{0.1}(8) = 1.397. *** indicates that the factors have a very significant influence on the test index (p ≤ 0.01).

Type of Peanut Harvesting Structure | Sources | Performance Indexes | |
---|---|---|---|

Rate of Vines Inverting/(%) | Rate of Fallen Pods/(%) | ||

The peanut digger-inverter | This study (unpressed vines) | 71.07 | 0.22 |

This study (pressed vines) | 74.29 | 0.33 | |

Turnover Laying Device | Ref. [32] | 72 | 2.1 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Shen, H.; Yang, H.; Gao, Q.; Gu, F.; Hu, Z.; Wu, F.; Chen, Y.; Cao, M.
Experimental Research for Digging and Inverting of Upright Peanuts by Digger-Inverter. *Agriculture* **2023**, *13*, 847.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040847

**AMA Style**

Shen H, Yang H, Gao Q, Gu F, Hu Z, Wu F, Chen Y, Cao M.
Experimental Research for Digging and Inverting of Upright Peanuts by Digger-Inverter. *Agriculture*. 2023; 13(4):847.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040847

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Shen, Haiyang, Hongguang Yang, Qimin Gao, Fengwei Gu, Zhichao Hu, Feng Wu, Youqing Chen, and Mingzhu Cao.
2023. "Experimental Research for Digging and Inverting of Upright Peanuts by Digger-Inverter" *Agriculture* 13, no. 4: 847.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040847