Special Issue "Piezoelectric Actuators"

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kenji Uchino

Materials Research Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: 814-863-6734
Interests: piezoelectric actuator; ultrasonic motor; piezo-transformer; high power piezoelectrics; loss mechanism; Pb-free piezoelectrics; piezoelectric composite; multilayer actuator; relaxor piezoelectric single crystal; piezoelectric energy harvesting; piezoelectric driver

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Actuator applications of piezoelectrics started in the late-1970s, and enormous investment was made in practical developments during the 1980s, aiming at consumer applications, such as precision positioners with high strain materials, multilayer device designing and mass-fabrication processes for portable electronic devices, ultrasonic motors for micro-robotics, and smart structures. We are now facing a sort of “Renaissance” of piezoelectric actuators according to the social environmental changes. Five key trends to the future perspectives are “Performance to Reliability”, “Hard to Soft”, “Macro to Nano”, “Homo to Hetero”, and “Single to Multi-functional”.

This Special Issue will collect review and/or special topic papers on smart actuators, emphasizing the above key trends, including Pb-free piezoelectrics, high power piezoelectrics, transformers, soft actuators, polymer-ceramic composites, piezo MEMS, multifunctional piezoelectric composite devices such as magnetoelectric transducers, bio/medical and energy harvesting applications, and more.

Prof. Dr. Kenji Uchino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Piezoelectric actuator – New Applications
  • Ultrasonic motor
  • Piezo-transformer
  • High power piezoelectrics, Loss mechanism
  • Pb-free piezoelectrics
  • Piezoelectric composite – Multifunctional devices
  • Piezo MEMS – Recent research
  • Multilayer actuator – Base metal electrodes
  • Relaxor piezoelectric single crystal – High performance
  • Piezoelectric energy harvesting
  • Piezoelectric driver
  • Piezo-Actuator Modeling/Simulation – New Version

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010007
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 31 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive [...] Read more.
Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010002
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in [...] Read more.
Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO) phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol) or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D)], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020015
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operational robustness. This paper reviews the design of high precision motion solutions based on L1B2 ultrasonic motors—from the basic motor structure to the complete motion solution architecture, including motor drive and control, material considerations and performance envelope. The performance is demonstrated, via constructed motion stages, to exhibit fast move and settle, a repeatability window of tens of nanometers, lifetime into the tens of millions of operational cycles, and compatibility with clean room and aerospace environments. Example stages and modules for semiconductor, aerospace, electro-optical and biomedical applications are presented. The described semiconductor and aerospace solutions are powered by Nanomotion HR type motors, driven by a sine wave up to 80 V/mm rms, having a driving frequency of 39.6 kHz, providing a maximum force up to 4 N per driving element (at 5 W power consumption per element) and a maximum linear velocity above 300 mm/s. The described electro-optical modules are powered by small Nanomotion Edge motors driven by voltages up to 11 V AC, providing stall forces up to 0.35 N (power consumption up to 0.75 W) and maximum linear velocity above 200 mm/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020011
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antiferroelectrics (AFE) can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26%) associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE) phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick [...] Read more.
Antiferroelectrics (AFE) can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26%) associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE) phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms). In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.4)1-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST) system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs), the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1) isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2) piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020012
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (5130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Status and Perspectives of Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Composite Materials and Applications
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010009
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 99 | PDF Full-text (8271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) composites are attractive materials for various electrically and magnetically cross-coupled devices. Many studies have been conducted on fundamental understanding, fabrication processes, and applications of ME composite material systems in the last four decades which has brought the technology closer to [...] Read more.
Multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) composites are attractive materials for various electrically and magnetically cross-coupled devices. Many studies have been conducted on fundamental understanding, fabrication processes, and applications of ME composite material systems in the last four decades which has brought the technology closer to realization in practical devices. In this article, we present a review of ME composite materials and some notable potential applications based upon their properties. A brief summary is presented on the parameters that influence the performance of ME composites, their coupling structures, fabrications processes, characterization techniques, and perspectives on direct (magnetic to electric) and converse (electric to magnetic) ME devices. Overall, the research on ME composite systems has brought us closer to their deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010008
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (7347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development [...] Read more.
Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010006
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (6296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors), inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010005
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (2340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, [...] Read more.
Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
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