Special Issue "Advanced Ionic Liquid-Based Mixed Solvent Systems"

A special issue of ChemEngineering (ISSN 2305-7084).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 October 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Mark P. Heitz

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The College at Brockport, State University of New York, Brockport, New York, NY 14420, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ionic liquid + cosolvent solutions; supercritical fluids; proteins; microheterogeneous media; molecular solvation dynamics; computational chemistry; physicochemical solution properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, there has been a dramatic surge in the number of articles published in the literature that focus on (room-temperature) ionic liquids.  Interest in these salts has caused research to soar past the point of being just a curiosity to one of extensive efforts aimed at understanding these materials.  As a result, ionic liquids are arguably among the most studied materials in the physical sciences. The tremendous amount of work by researchers across many disciplines arises from the ever-growing number of applications of ionic liquids in areas such as chemical synthesis, engineering, and fabrication of electrochemical devices, among many others.

It is often the case that applications of ‘new’ materials frequently outpace the development of a detailed, molecular-level understanding.  Therefore, the importance of building a predictive capability becomes necessarily and progressively more important. Appropriately, much of the research published to date (both theoretical and experimental) has focused on neat ionic liquids.  However, as the diversity of applications continues to expand, ionic liquids are being combined with molecular cosolvents to further enhance their utility.

While a significant amount of effort has been made to study molecular-level details concerning the structure, dynamics, and interactions in neat ionic liquids, there is much work to do on cosolvent-modified ionic liquid systems. The chemistry, physics, and engineering of ionic liquid systems requires both experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve the desired understanding of the underpinnings that drive the widening array of ionic liquid-based materials.  To this end, a complete picture will only be achieved when a concerted effort involving all available tools is applied. This Special Issue seeks to highlight new results that discuss the properties and applications of multicomponent ionic liquid-cosolvent systems toward the advancement of a more complete understanding of ionic liquid chemistry and engineering.

Prof. Mark P. Heitz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ChemEngineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ionic liquids
  • multicomponent ionic liquid solvent systems
  • molecular dynamics
  • thermodynamics
  • solution structure
  • physical and applied chemistry of ionic liquid solutions

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Vapor Pressure Mapping of Ionic Liquids and Low-Volatility Fluids Using Graded Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3020042
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One of the hallmarks of ionic liquids (ILs) and a critical part of their sustainable implementation is their low volatility, although statements in this regard are frequently made in the absence of a critical evaluation. Although it is generally accepted that conventional ILs [...] Read more.
One of the hallmarks of ionic liquids (ILs) and a critical part of their sustainable implementation is their low volatility, although statements in this regard are frequently made in the absence of a critical evaluation. Although it is generally accepted that conventional ILs exhibit significantly reduced vapor pressures relative to common organic solvents, glib statements about ILs having zero volatility can no longer be abided, even if a concrete temperature-dependent vapor pressure, Pvap(T), framework for placement of IL performance has not yet been established. In this communication, Pvap(T) values of 30 illustrative low-volatility fluids—including representative imidazolium-, ammonium-, and pyrrolidinium-based aprotic ILs; examples of protic, polymeric, and di-cationic ILs; as well as deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and glycols—were determined using a simple, convenient, and reproducible isothermal thermogravimetric method. Guided by this “vapor pressure map”, observed trends can be discussed in terms of anion basicity, cation geometry, alkane chain length, hydrogen bonding strength, and van der Waals forces, providing a context for the placement of theoretical and experimental vapor pressures gleaned in future IL and DES studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ionic Liquid-Based Mixed Solvent Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Specifically Designed Ionic Liquids—Formulations, Physicochemical Properties, and Electrochemical Double Layer Storage Behavior
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3020058
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
PDF Full-text (9122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two key features—non-volatility and non-flammability—make ionic liquids (ILs) very attractive for use as electrolyte solvents in advanced energy storage systems, such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. Since most ILs possess high viscosity and are less prone to dissolving common electrolytic salts when compared [...] Read more.
Two key features—non-volatility and non-flammability—make ionic liquids (ILs) very attractive for use as electrolyte solvents in advanced energy storage systems, such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. Since most ILs possess high viscosity and are less prone to dissolving common electrolytic salts when compared to traditional electrolytic solvents, they must be formulated with low viscosity thinner solvents to achieve desired ionic conductivity and dissolution of electrolyte salts in excess of 0.5 M concentration. In the past few years, our research group has synthesized several specifically designed ILs (mono-cationic, di-cationic, and zwitterionic) with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) and dicyanamide (DCA) as counter anions. This article describes several electrolyte formulations to achieve superior electrolytic properties. The performance of a few representative IL-based electrolytes in supercapacitor coin cells is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ionic Liquid-Based Mixed Solvent Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Mixed Solvent Systems Comprising Salt Hydrate Melts with Water: A Review

    Author: Yizhak Marcus

    Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel

Abatract: Molten salt hydrates are a sub-group of room temperature ionic liquids. When mixed with water their melting temperatures are depressed down to a eutectic point. The resulting liquids are deemed to be deep eutectic solvents. Appropriate choices of the salts (non-toxic and inexpensive) produce ‘green’ deep eutectic solvents that have low vapour pressures, are non-flammable and have low viscosities. Examples of such solvents are 2 KF∙2H2O (t= 18.5 ⁰C) : 3 H2O, tm eutectic = –40 ⁰C and 1 ZnCl2∙3H2O (t= 6.5 ⁰C) : 1 H2O, tm eutectic = –62 ⁰C. Deep eutectic solvents have found many applications, such as reaction media, biomass and biodiesel processes, extraction of bioactive materials, nanotechnology, and sorption of obnoxious gases.

2. Title: Specifically Designed Ionic Liquids: formulations, electrolytic properties and performances in electrochemical cells

    Authors: Zheng Yue1, Xinyi Mei1, Qiang Ma2, Hamza Dunya1, Dana Alramahi1, Abigail Schulz1, Christopher McGarry2, Jim Tufts1, Amartya Chakrabarti3, Braja K. Mandal1*

    Affiliation: 1 Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA.

2 5X Energy Solutions, Inc., 805 Plainfield Rd., Suite 112, Darien, IL 60561, USA

3 Department of Physical Sciences, Dominican University, River Forest, IL 60305, USA.

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 312 5673446; fax: +1 312 5673494. E-mail address: [email protected] (B.K. Mandal).

Abstract: The two key features, non-volatility and non-flammability, make ionic liquids (ILs) very attractive for use as electrolyte solvents in advanced energy storage systems, such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and supercapacitors (SCs).  Since most ILs possess high viscosity and less prone to dissolve common electrolytic salts than traditional electrolytic solvents, they must be formulated with low viscosity thinner solvents to achieve desired ionic conductivity and dissolution of electrolyte salts in excess of 1 M concentration.  In the past few years, our research group has synthesized several specifically designed ILs (mono-cationic, di-cationic and zwitterionic) with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) and dicynamide (DCA) as counter anions.  This article will feature extensive electrolyte formulations to achieve superior electrolytic properties.  The performances of the best electrolytes in Li-S and SC coin cells will be presented.

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