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Bacteria, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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19 pages, 3601 KiB  
Article
First Pangenome of Corynebacterium rouxii, a Potentially Toxigenic Species of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Complex
by Fernanda Diniz Prates, Max Roberto Batista Araújo, Eduarda Guimarães Sousa, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Marcus Vinícius Canário Viana, Siomar de Castro Soares, Louisy Sanches dos Santos and Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo
Bacteria 2024, 3(2), 99-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3020007 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Corynebacterium rouxii is one of the recently described species of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae complex. As this species can potentially infect different hosts and harbor the tox gene, producing diphtheria toxin, we present its first pangenomic analysis in this work. A total of fifteen [...] Read more.
Corynebacterium rouxii is one of the recently described species of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae complex. As this species can potentially infect different hosts and harbor the tox gene, producing diphtheria toxin, we present its first pangenomic analysis in this work. A total of fifteen genomes deposited in online databases were included. After confirming the taxonomic position of the isolates by genomic taxonomy, the genomes were submitted to genomic plasticity, gene synteny, and pangenome prediction analyses. In addition, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes were investigated. Finally, epidemiological data were obtained through molecular typing, clustering, and phylogenetic analysis. Our data demonstrated genetic diversity within the species with low synteny. However, the gene content is extensively conserved, and the pangenome is composed of 2606 gene families, of which 1916 are in the core genome and 80 are related to unique genes. Prophages, insertion sequences, and genomic islands were found. A type I-E CRISPR-Cas system was also detected. Besides the tox gene, determinants involved in adhesion and iron acquisition and two putative antimicrobial resistance genes were predicted. These findings provide valuable insight about this species’ pathogenicity, evolution, and diversity. In the future, our data can contribute to different areas, including vaccinology and epidemiology. Full article
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22 pages, 1126 KiB  
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ESKAPE: Navigating the Global Battlefield for Antimicrobial Resistance and Defense in Hospitals
by Kamna Ravi and Baljit Singh
Bacteria 2024, 3(2), 76-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3020006 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
The current healthcare environment is at risk due to the facilitated transmission and empowerment of the ESKAPE pathogens, comprising of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species. These pathogens have posed significant [...] Read more.
The current healthcare environment is at risk due to the facilitated transmission and empowerment of the ESKAPE pathogens, comprising of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species. These pathogens have posed significant challenges to global public health and the threat has only amplified over time. These multidrug-resistant bacteria have become adept at escaping the effects of conventional antibiotics utilized, leading to severe healthcare-associated infections and compromising immunocompromised patient outcomes to a greater extent. The impact of ESKAPE pathogens is evident in the rapidly rising rates of treatment failures, increased mortality, and elevated healthcare costs. To combat this looming crisis, diverse strategies have been adopted, ranging from the development of novel antimicrobial agents and combination therapies to the implementation of stringent infection control measures. Additionally, there has been a growing emphasis on promoting antimicrobial stewardship programs to optimize the use of existing antibiotics and reduce the selective pressure driving the evolution of resistance. While progress has been made to some extent, the rapid adaptability of these pathogens and the enhancement of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms proves to be a major hurdle yet to be crossed by healthcare professionals. In this viewpoint, the impending threat heralded by the proliferation of ESKAPE pathogens, and the need for a concerted global effort via international collaborations for the assurance of effective and sustainable solutions, are explored. To curb the possibility of outbreaks in the future and to safeguard public health, better preparation via global awareness and defense mechanisms should be given paramount importance. Full article
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17 pages, 1238 KiB  
Review
Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) as a Plant Growth Enhancer for Sustainable Agriculture: A Review
by Asma Hasan, Baby Tabassum, Mohammad Hashim and Nagma Khan
Bacteria 2024, 3(2), 59-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3020005 - 1 Apr 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
The rhizosphere of a plant is home to helpful microorganisms called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which play a crucial role in promoting plant growth and development. The significance of PGPR for long-term agricultural viability is outlined in this review. Plant growth processes such [...] Read more.
The rhizosphere of a plant is home to helpful microorganisms called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which play a crucial role in promoting plant growth and development. The significance of PGPR for long-term agricultural viability is outlined in this review. Plant growth processes such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and hormone secretion are discussed. Increased plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, reduced use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and enhanced nutrient availability, soil fertility, and absorption are all mentioned as potential benefits of PGPR. PGPR has multiple ecological and practical functions in the soil’s rhizosphere. One of PGPR’s various roles in agroecosystems is to increase the synthesis of phytohormones and other metabolites, which have a direct impact on plant growth. Phytopathogens can be stopped in their tracks, a plant’s natural defenses can be bolstered, and so on. PGPR also helps clean up the soil through a process called bioremediation. The PGPR’s many functions include indole acetic acid (IAA) production, ammonia (NH3) production, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, catalase production, and more. In addition to aiding in nutrient uptake, PGPR controls the production of a hormone that increases root size and strength. Improving crop yield, decreasing environmental pollution, and guaranteeing food security are only some of the ecological and economic benefits of employing PGPR for sustainable agriculture. Full article
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17 pages, 3293 KiB  
Article
Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus Attributes as Influenced by Carao (Cassia grandis) Fruit Parts
by Miguel Mariano Tabora, Ricardo S. Aleman, Ashley Castro, Allan Avila, Dany Avila, David Picha, Roberto Cedillos, Shirin Kazemzadeh, Leyla K. Pournaki, Ajitesh Yaday, Jhunior Marcia and Aryana Kayanush
Bacteria 2024, 3(2), 42-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bacteria3020004 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Carao (Cassia grandis) contains numerous bioactive substances that contribute to gastrointestinal well-being. The present study assessed the potential impacts of carao on the viability and performance of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus under various adverse conditions. These conditions included bile, acid, [...] Read more.
Carao (Cassia grandis) contains numerous bioactive substances that contribute to gastrointestinal well-being. The present study assessed the potential impacts of carao on the viability and performance of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus under various adverse conditions. These conditions included bile, acid, gastric juice, and lysozyme exposure, simulating the digestive process from the mouth to the intestines. The activity of proteases from cultures was monitored to examine their proteolytic capabilities. To achieve this, the cultures were cultivated in a solution containing plant material, and the results were compared against a control sample after an incubation period. Subsequently, the total phenolic content, total carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, sugar profile, and acid profile of the plant materials were analyzed. These analyses were conducted to explore these compounds’ influence on cultures’ survival. Seeds contained the highest total phenols (766.87 ± 11.56 µg GAE/mL), total carotenoid content (7.43 ± 0.31 mg Q/mL), and antioxidant activity (40.76 ± 1.87%). Pulp contained the highest moisture (12.55 ± 0.44%), ash (6.45 ± 0.15%), lipid (0.66 ± 0.07%), protein (16.56 ± 0.21%), sucrose (9.07 ± 0.78 g/100 g), and fructose (3.76 ± 0.06 g/ 100 g). The crust had the highest content of ash (85.14 ± 0.27%) and succinic acid (2.01 ± 0.06 g/100 g). Results indicated that seeds negatively affected cultures’ survival in the bile tolerance test and had positive effects on Lactobacillus bulgaricus in the protease activity test. Otherwise, the other carao tissues could not change the results significantly (p > 0.05) compared to the control in different tests. The carao crust positively affected cultures’ against protease activity, especially in Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and had a negative effect on the growth of S. thermophilus in the lysozyme and gastric acid resistance test. Full article
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