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Med. Sci. Forum, 2024, One Health 2023

The 2nd International One Health Conference

Barcelona, Spain | 19–20 October 2023

Volume Editors:
Margherita Ferrante, University of Catania, Italy
Gea Oliveri Conti, University of Catania, Italy

Number of Papers: 9
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume presents a collection of contributions from the 2nd International One Health Conference, held on 19–20 October 2023 in Barcelona. The conference aimed to promote a collaborative, [...] Read more.
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7 pages, 346 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Public Health Implications of Antimicrobial Resistance in Wildlife at the One Health Interface
by Julio A. Benavides, Marilia Salgado-Caxito, Carmen Torres and Sylvain Godreuil
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025001 - 31 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant (CARBA) Enterobacterales is a main global cause of human deaths and a major health burden to domestic animals. AMR circulation in wildlife has also been reported worldwide, but the public health impact and [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant (CARBA) Enterobacterales is a main global cause of human deaths and a major health burden to domestic animals. AMR circulation in wildlife has also been reported worldwide, but the public health impact and the policy actions that could limit this circulation remain unknown. Here, we summarize the key trends of AMR in wildlife, clarify the use of the term ‘reservoir’ when referring to AMR in wildlife, identify whether national plans to tackle AMR in Latin America and Europe include wildlife, and discuss the public health implications of this circulation. We provide recommendations for AMR surveillance and prevention among wild animals, as well as the key scientific knowledge gaps that are hindering understanding its dynamics. We expect our conclusions to shed light on the necessity and degree of prevention and control regarding AMR in wildlife at the human–animal–environment interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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7 pages, 1054 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards a One Health Assessment of Artisanal and Informal Mining in Benue State, Nigeria
by Samuel N. Paul, Chiara Frazzoli and Orish E. Orisakwe
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025002 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 486
Abstract
This study evaluated the eco-health risk associated with exposure to lead (Pb) in mining sites in Benue State, Nigeria. Lead contamination was assessed in 48 water samples and 40 human blood samples. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for Pb analysis and ELISA [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the eco-health risk associated with exposure to lead (Pb) in mining sites in Benue State, Nigeria. Lead contamination was assessed in 48 water samples and 40 human blood samples. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for Pb analysis and ELISA kits for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) analysis. A correlation was found between the blood Pb level (BLL) and the upregulation of KIM-1. The BLL of females was slightly higher than males, resulting in a higher inflammatory response through increased TNF-α levels. An increased inflammatory response due to chronic Pb exposure was observed with age. Miners and farmers around the mining sites recorded higher TNF-α levels compared to businesspeople, thus suggesting direct exposure to other mining-associated contaminants. Artisanal and informal mining impact environmental health and the Pb body burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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6 pages, 3127 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Lignin Nanoparticles: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches
by Rossella Grappa, Virginia Venezia, Brigida Silvestri, Aniello Costantini and Giuseppina Luciani
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025003 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Lignin, a main byproduct from paper manufacturing and biorefineries, is now emerging as a new low-cost, renewable starting material for new product development. Its biocompatibility and safety make it valuable for creating novel and value-added products. Lignin, a polymer with many hydrophilic and [...] Read more.
Lignin, a main byproduct from paper manufacturing and biorefineries, is now emerging as a new low-cost, renewable starting material for new product development. Its biocompatibility and safety make it valuable for creating novel and value-added products. Lignin, a polymer with many hydrophilic and active groups, confers many useful properties. However, there are several challenges to overcome due to its complex chemical structure and heterogeneous self-assembly behavior. Nanostructured systems using lignin could address these challenges, finding applications in food science, cosmetics, and healthcare. This study explores two main green synthesis approaches for lignin nanoparticles: bottom-up based on the self-assembly in a solvent–antisolvent system and top-down based on the ultrasonication. These nanoparticles are evaluated for morphology, estimation of phenolic content and antioxidant effects. Specifically, the antisolvent nanostructures show a spherical conformation with a higher antioxidant activity due to a better organization of phenolic hydroxyl groups. Obtained result have been exploited to draw an efficient and cheap technological route for lignin valorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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5 pages, 211 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Understanding “Eco Anxiety” in Adolescents and Young Adults
by Julie Garcia Souza
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025004 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 840
Abstract
As environmental issues become more complex, so do our emotional responses to them. Paul Robbins and Sarah A. Moore offer the term “ecological anxiety” to frame scholarly discourse around a fearful response to the “negative normative influence of humans on the earth” and [...] Read more.
As environmental issues become more complex, so do our emotional responses to them. Paul Robbins and Sarah A. Moore offer the term “ecological anxiety” to frame scholarly discourse around a fearful response to the “negative normative influence of humans on the earth” and the “inherent influence of normative human values within one’s own science”. This comprehensive literature review unpacks the implications of “eco anxiety” within. The eco anxiety framework is relatively new, with minimal consensus on symptomatic criteria. To appropriately reflect the thoughts, emotions, and experiences of adolescents and young adults, this literature review encourages more accessible climate communication for the sake of the public and science community. Furthermore, more avenues of research are needed to study the term eco anxiety to fit a global context extending beyond Western understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
17 pages, 620 KiB  
Conference Report
Preface and Abstracts of the 2nd International One Health Conference
by Margherita Ferrante, Gea Oliveri Conti, Domenico Vito, Gabriela Fernandez, Carol Maione, Paolo Lauriola, Prisco Piscitelli, Melissa Jimenez Gomes Tagle, Carlos Dora, Jordi Serrano Pons, Carole Conforti, Joima Panisello, Paula Sol Ventura, Ilaria Bernotti, Carmen Ruiz Martin, Edgar Buloz, Marcella Trombetta, Giuseppe Banfi and Valentina Tageo
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025005 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 611
Abstract
The International One Health Conference 2023, scheduled for October in Barcelona, fosters a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to health involving professionals, academics, and decision-makers. Operating in a hybrid format, the conference aims to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and policies, aligning with the [...] Read more.
The International One Health Conference 2023, scheduled for October in Barcelona, fosters a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to health involving professionals, academics, and decision-makers. Operating in a hybrid format, the conference aims to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and policies, aligning with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Health in All Policies (HiAP). Emphasizing community involvement and the symbiotic relationship between basic needs, sustainable lifestyles, and empowerment, the conference envisions a comprehensive approach to sustainable development. D’Alisa introduces a framework incorporating participative democracy, recognizing the interconnectedness of economic, social, environmental, and participative democratic dimensions. Framing questions for the conference delve into critical aspects, addressing the integration of the One Health framework within health sectors, emphasizing interlinkages between health, climate change, and decision-making. The conference’s five-dimension framework tackles the complexity of One Health, addressing concerns, solutions, and opportunities in a holistic paradigm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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9 pages, 2638 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Developing a Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) Index for Italian Municipalities
by Julia Nawaro, Lorenzo Gianquintieri and Enrico G. Caiani
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025006 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Since the establishment of the SDGs, related progress at a national level has usually been measured using the province as the smallest geographical aggregation. To cope with this gap, we aimed to develop a methodology for SDG3 index calculation for Italian municipalities. Official [...] Read more.
Since the establishment of the SDGs, related progress at a national level has usually been measured using the province as the smallest geographical aggregation. To cope with this gap, we aimed to develop a methodology for SDG3 index calculation for Italian municipalities. Official data for 2018–2022 were collected to cover 11 of 13 SDG3 targets that were mapped to 29 unique indicators: 10 were computed at municipal level, while for the remaining 19 a lower granularity was applied. The SDG3 index, calculated by weighting the targets equally, ranged from 0 to 1, with higher values corresponding to better goal fulfilment. The methodology was applied to the municipalities in the Lombardy region, where the index spanned 0.538 to 0.769. Since SDG indices contribute to the 2030 Agenda goal achievements at country level, more attention should be paid to the geographical details of assessment through policy information and local benchmarking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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9 pages, 1705 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Climate Crises Associated with Epidemiological, Environmental, and Ecosystem Effects of a Storm: Flooding, Landslides, and Damage to Urban and Rural Areas (Extreme Weather Events of Storm Daniel in Thessaly, Greece)
by Ioannis Adamopoulos, Aikaterini Frantzana and Niki Syrou
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025007 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The effects of climate crises and disasters must be managed appropriately. These effects can have a considerable influence on public health. This issue relates to epidemiological models and policy regarding climate factors, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and health results. Historical data were [...] Read more.
The effects of climate crises and disasters must be managed appropriately. These effects can have a considerable influence on public health. This issue relates to epidemiological models and policy regarding climate factors, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and health results. Historical data were analyzed so that patterns and connections between climatic factors and health outcomes could be found. Epidemiological models were used to simulate the spread of illnesses. Climate variables were used as inputs to these models to determine their effect on the spread of disease. This study examines the current public health regulations concerning epidemiology, climate change, and establishing new policies or revising existing ones to address the issues found to protect public health. To conclude, immediate efforts are needed to save human lives, protect vulnerable wildlife, and improve public health. Ecological assessments need to be conducted to understand extreme weather events (such as Storm Daniel), monitor ecosystem recovery, and adapt management strategies as needed, as well as to develop disaster preparedness to reduce future risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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6 pages, 639 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Isolation of Multiresistant Bacterial Strains from Dairy Wastewater: A Public Health Concern in a One Health Perspective
by Caterina Elisabetta Rizzo, Paola Tripodi, Isabella La Spina, Maria Eufemia Gioffrè, Antonino Virga, Alessio Facciolà and Pasqualina Laganà
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025008 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The use of antibiotics in the veterinary and zootechnic sectors poses a challenge to the reduction in antibiotic resistance rates. We evaluated the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wastewater of dairy farms in the Sicily Region, Italy. The samples were examined by [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics in the veterinary and zootechnic sectors poses a challenge to the reduction in antibiotic resistance rates. We evaluated the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wastewater of dairy farms in the Sicily Region, Italy. The samples were examined by isolating and identifying the bacterial strains, which were then tested for the main classes of antibiotics. Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp. were the more commonly isolated strains (18.2%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. (15.9%), Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. (13.6%). Macrolides were the drugs against which the highest resistance was detected, followed by tetracyclines, penicillins, and cephalosporins. The agri-food chain and zootechnic areas embody an important source of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, and their presence in wastewater from processing factories could play a pivotal role in spreading these microorganisms and in environmental contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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10 pages, 10085 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Barrio Logan Case Study: Modern Environmental Injustice
by Marco Nunez Moctezuma and Gabriela Fernandez
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 25(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2024025009 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Barrio Logan is a Mexican American community in San Diego in which industrial companies and residences share a space enclosed by a bay and an interstate. Ever since WWII, the Barrio Logan community has faced environmental injustice. There is a gap in Barrio [...] Read more.
Barrio Logan is a Mexican American community in San Diego in which industrial companies and residences share a space enclosed by a bay and an interstate. Ever since WWII, the Barrio Logan community has faced environmental injustice. There is a gap in Barrio Logan’s ability to self-monitor, so business models were developed to bring forth citizen science projects based on data collected from government environmental studies, the nurse’s office at Barrio Logan’s Perkins K-8 School, and interviews with Perkins K-8 School’s principal and the director and staff at the Chicano Park Museum and Cultural Center. It was found that children in Barrio Logan are experiencing a health crisis. Homelessness, single-parent households, unemployment, gentrification, low-wage jobs, continuous diesel particulate matter exposure, and high levels of asthma can be found in Barrio Logan. There is a lack of easily accessible, community-wide health programs that address ACEs and a lack of air pollution monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International One Health Conference)
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