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Med. Sci. Forum, 2024, ECA 2023

The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics

Online | 1–15 December 2023

Volume Editors:
Marc Maresca, Aix-Marseille University, France
Efstathios Giaouris, University of the Aegean, Greece
Zhenbo Xu, South China University of Technology, China

Number of Papers: 19
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume presents a collection of contributions at the 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics held on 1–15 December 2023. Antibiotics have revolutionized medicine, but the [...] Read more.
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617 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Bharatpur, Chitwan
by Anup Muni Bajracharya, Puja Kharel, Shila Thapa and Sujata Shrestha
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16386 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 645
Abstract
This study addresses the global public health concern of the rapid dissemination of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in major Gram-negative pathogens. It focused on isolating MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria in chicken meat from Bharatpur. Conducted from April to June 2023 at Balkumari College’s Microbiology laboratory [...] Read more.
This study addresses the global public health concern of the rapid dissemination of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in major Gram-negative pathogens. It focused on isolating MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria in chicken meat from Bharatpur. Conducted from April to June 2023 at Balkumari College’s Microbiology laboratory in Bharatpur, Chitwan, the study analyzed 40 samples. The results revealed that E. coli, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Proteus, Shigella, and Klebsiella were prevalent, with varying degrees of multidrug resistance and MBL positivity. Notably, a significant proportion of the isolates exhibited MBL production, highlighting the need for vigilance and containment strategies in the face of this emerging threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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242 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Asking Bing with GPT-4 about the Antibiotic Use of Clays
by Carlos Alves
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16392 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 269
Abstract
In this work, Microsoft Bing chat with GPT-4 was used for researching the antibiotic use of clays by submitting three requests that were literally the following: (+) write a bullet list of the most important points concerning research on the use of clay [...] Read more.
In this work, Microsoft Bing chat with GPT-4 was used for researching the antibiotic use of clays by submitting three requests that were literally the following: (+) write a bullet list of the most important points concerning research on the use of clay minerals for preparing antibiotics; (+) write a bullet list of suggestions for future and original research, not performed before, on the use of clay minerals for preparing antibiotics; (+) write a bullet list of the most important results of clinical trials of clay minerals as antibiotics. Bing’s answers were extensive, containing information on mineralogical and health issues. Bing also suggested follow-up questions, some of which were also included, and that expanded the topics considered to domains of ethics and arguably even politics, with repeated references to “respecting the traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous or local communities that have used clay minerals for medicinal purposes for centuries”, including the answer to the following question suggested by Bing, “How can we improve the antibiotic activity and specificity of clay minerals?”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
243 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Approaches to Reduce the Side Effects of Antibiotic Therapy in Premature Newborns
by Igor Belenichev, Olena Aliyeva, Nina Bukhtiyarova, Olga Ryzhenko and Dmytro Skoryna
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16390 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Significant risk of side effects of drug therapy in newborns, especially in premature neonates, is associated with immaturity of a number of enzyme systems and biotransformation mechanisms and pharmacokinetic specificity. We consider the use of thiotriazoline), a drug licensed in Ukraine with proven [...] Read more.
Significant risk of side effects of drug therapy in newborns, especially in premature neonates, is associated with immaturity of a number of enzyme systems and biotransformation mechanisms and pharmacokinetic specificity. We consider the use of thiotriazoline), a drug licensed in Ukraine with proven hepatoprotective and cardioprotective activity and a high safety profile, for premature infants to reduce side effects of antibiotic therapy. The use of thiotriazoline in antibiotic therapy results in an increase in the concentration of eNOS in blood plasma and a decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin in blood plasma. These results provide experimental support for the use of thiotriazoline to reduce the side effects of azithromycin therapy in newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
244 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Revitalizing Antibiotics: Strategies to Combat Resistance and Restore Effectiveness
by Devendra Kumar Mishra, Ila Dixit, Sumit Chaudhari, Sandeep Yadav, Lavkush Tiwari, Khalid Abdul Waheed and Savita Upadhyay
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16391 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 445
Abstract
The rising issue of antibiotic resistance has emerged as a serious global health problem, compromising our capacity to successfully tackle bacterial diseases. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have hastened the development of resistance, leaving many once-effective medications useless. This research investigates ways for reversing [...] Read more.
The rising issue of antibiotic resistance has emerged as a serious global health problem, compromising our capacity to successfully tackle bacterial diseases. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have hastened the development of resistance, leaving many once-effective medications useless. This research investigates ways for reversing antibiotic resistance, with a special emphasis on rejuvenating older drugs. Several main techniques are being investigated in the attempt to “Make Old Antibiotics Great Again.” First, we investigate the mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance, offering information on the evolutionary processes that drive bacterial adaptability. Following that, we will look at the possibilities of antibiotic combination treatment, a strategy that can improve the efficacy of older antibiotics by utilising synergistic drug interactions. Furthermore, we investigate the potential of antibiotic stewardship programmes, stressing the ethical use of antibiotics to lessen selection pressure for resistant bacteria. Rapid molecular testing, for example, is highlighted as a vital tool for accurate antibiotic selection, improving treatment regimens, and limiting resistance development. The importance of research and development activities in the quest to discover new antibiotics is underlined, as it provides a long-term solution to the resistance challenge. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of policy interventions and global cooperation in creating the landscape of antibiotic resistance, eventually recommending a united response to this critical issue. In summary, this study underlines the need to reverse antibiotic resistance, emphasises the potential of older antibiotics when used wisely, and recommends a holistic strategy incorporating scientific, medical, and policy strategies to address this emerging danger to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
604 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pork and Chicken Meat from Argentina
by Hernán D. Nievas, Camila Aurnague, Raúl E. Iza, María Elisa Helman, Matías Martínez Zugazúa, Victorio F. Nievas, Martín Carriquiriborde, Lucía Galli and Fabiana A. Moredo
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16388 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Between June and September 2023, a total of 80 meat samples from pork and chicken meat were collected from 16 retail markets in La Plata, Argentina. Eighty-four highest priority critically important antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and two Salmonella spp. were isolated. Resistance to ciprofloxacin [...] Read more.
Between June and September 2023, a total of 80 meat samples from pork and chicken meat were collected from 16 retail markets in La Plata, Argentina. Eighty-four highest priority critically important antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and two Salmonella spp. were isolated. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime was observed in 65 and 49 E. coli isolates, respectively. Seventy-five E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Fourteen E. coli isolates from chicken meat showed resistance to three of the HPCIA. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporin was associated with blaCTX-M. It is 15 times more likely to find HPCIA-resistant E. coli in chicken meat than in pork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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859 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Optimization of a Polyvinyl Alcohol and Gum Tragacanth Membrane with Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Gold Nanoparticles for Wound Healing Applications
by Hadiya Malik, Nosheen Fatima Rana, Tehreem Tanweer and Farid Menaa
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16387 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 335
Abstract
Bandages, gauzes, and alcoholic pads have been widely used for wound healing. However, bacterial infection in wounds is still a major problem and needs to be explored. Apart from antibacterial activity, the hydrophilicity of a membrane is also a major characteristic of membranes [...] Read more.
Bandages, gauzes, and alcoholic pads have been widely used for wound healing. However, bacterial infection in wounds is still a major problem and needs to be explored. Apart from antibacterial activity, the hydrophilicity of a membrane is also a major characteristic of membranes that should be explored. Upon contact with wound exudates, the hydrophilic membranes absorb water, swell, and liquefy to form a gel over the wound, which enhances autolytic debridement. Keeping this in view, this study aimed to synthesize and optimize a Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Gum Tragacanth (GT) membrane having different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and their effect on the hydrophilicity of the membranes. CIP-AuNPs were prepared by the Turkevich method, and then for confirmation FTIR was performed. Membranes with different concentrations of CIP-AuNPs incorporated in PVA/GT and analyzed for their hydrophilicity. A membrane swelling ratio test as well as contact angle analysis were performed. Through this study, it was concluded that hydrophilic membrane of PVA/GT having a 5% concentration of CIP-AuNPs can be used as a wound healing material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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270 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring Winemaking By-Products of Tinto Cão Grapes: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity against Multiresistant Bacteria
by Vanessa Silva, Jessica Ribeiro, Rupesh Kumar Singh, Alfredo Aires, Rosa Carvalho, Virgílio Falco, José Eduardo Pereira, Gilberto Igrejas and Patrícia Poeta
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16399 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The growing global concern about antimicrobial resistance necessitates alternative strategies against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Our study explores the antimicrobial potential of phenolic compounds from Tinto Cão grape winemaking by-products. These compounds effectively combat S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae, and L. monocytogenes, showing [...] Read more.
The growing global concern about antimicrobial resistance necessitates alternative strategies against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Our study explores the antimicrobial potential of phenolic compounds from Tinto Cão grape winemaking by-products. These compounds effectively combat S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae, and L. monocytogenes, showing promise in addressing antimicrobial resistance. Additionally, we found remarkable antioxidant activity in these compounds. Shoot extracts exhibited the strongest antimicrobial performance, while seed and leaf extracts displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. These findings highlight phenolic compounds as a sustainable solution to address multidrug-resistant bacteria, offering an alternative to traditional antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
700 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Occurrence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria
by Oluwatobi Stephen Fasiku, Oladipo Olufemi Omotosho, Samuel Oreoluwa Ajulo, Esther Enioto Adesanwo, Oluwadamilola Deborah Oni, Adebayo Adedamola Awoyele, Olayemi Akinsola Okunlade and Victoria Olusola Adetunji
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16398 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Background: Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has emerged as a leading antimicrobial-resistant pathogen challenging global health systems and antibiotic therapy. Pigs have been identified as important reservoirs for livestock-associated MRSA. The major concern with MRSA occurrence in pigs is [...] Read more.
Background: Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has emerged as a leading antimicrobial-resistant pathogen challenging global health systems and antibiotic therapy. Pigs have been identified as important reservoirs for livestock-associated MRSA. The major concern with MRSA occurrence in pigs is the potential for human transmission. Reports on the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains in pigs in Nigeria are still limited, hence, the need for this study. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in pig farms in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, and to determine their antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods: We collected 93 composites (n = 5; total n = 465) of faecal samples from pigs in twenty-five farms across five local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria. Isolation of S. aureus was conducted using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was conducted using the disc diffusion method. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and compared with the CLSI and EUCAST standards for sensitivity and resistance. Results: The prevalence of S. aureus was 31.2%, with the proportion of MSSA and MRSA isolates being 23.7% and 7.5%, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed a high multidrug resistance prevalence among both MSSA (86.4%) and MRSA (100%). All MRSA isolates and 40.9% (9/22) of MSSA were found to be resistant to at least five different sub-classes of antibiotics. Conclusions: This study supports the existing reports on pigs being an important reservoir of highly resistant S. aureus strains. The high multidrug resistance and the occurrence of MRSA may be evidence of continuous antimicrobial exposure and substandard hygienic practices on these farms. This is undesirable because it constitutes a health hazard for farmers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, and pork consumers, who may further disseminate these highly resistant strains to their families and society. There is a need for further surveillance and a multisectoral approach involving policymakers, farmers, health practitioners, and the public in implementing good infection control practices and safe antibiotic usage from the grassroots level on farms in line with the vision of the one health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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2656 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Resistotyping of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from Milk and Milk Products Sold in Sabon Gari and Zaria Local Government Areas in Kaduna State, Nigeria
by Muhammad Muhsin Fathuddin, Saleh Alhaji Ado, Muhammad Bashir Tijjani, Haruna Makonjuola Kazeem, John Solomon Obidah and Rafeedah Fathuddin
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16393 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 573
Abstract
This study investigated the resistotyping of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products sold in Sabon Gari and Zaria local government areas in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 122 isolates (Salmonella spp. (65) and Staphylococcus aureus (57)) were [...] Read more.
This study investigated the resistotyping of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products sold in Sabon Gari and Zaria local government areas in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 122 isolates (Salmonella spp. (65) and Staphylococcus aureus (57)) were isolated from 400 milk and milk products. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion and E-test methods. The results obtained from the study indicated that 39 (31.967%) isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 47 (38.525%) were resistant to a single antibiotic. Furthermore, 36 (29.508%) were resistant to two antibiotics, and none showed resistance to at least three antibiotics. None showed resistance to all four antibiotics. Resistance rates were most frequently observed in tetracycline with 80 isolates (65.574%), followed by ampicillin with 39 isolates (31.967%), and gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, both with 00 (00.000%) isolates. After making comparisons with the CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints, the resistance rate with CLSI was observed in tetracycline with 104 isolates (85.245%), followed by ampicillin with 39 isolates (66.393%), ciprofloxacin with 14 isolates (11.475%), and gentamicin with 06 isolates (04.918%). The resistance rate with EUCAST was tetracycline with 122 isolates (100.000%), followed by ampicillin with 110 isolates (90.164%), ciprofloxacin with 88 isolates (72.131%), and gentamicin with 17 isolates (13.934%). Based on these findings, it can be shown that Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus found in milk and milk products within Sabon Gari and Zaria local government areas have a high resistance to the antibiotics tested. It is imperative that urgent actions are taken to address the growing menace of AMR and prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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259 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Implementation of an Empirical Treatment Protocol for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Social–Health Care Hospital
by Raquel Gracia, Julia Hernández, María Elena Castro, Magdalena Linge, Carlos Gala, Milagritos Margot Vazques, Laura Sesen and Miguel Sánchez
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16395 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adults with significant comorbidities. For this reason, an empirical treatment protocol for CAP was developed in a social–health care hospital. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adults with significant comorbidities. For this reason, an empirical treatment protocol for CAP was developed in a social–health care hospital. The aim of the study was to evaluate compliance with this protocol. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with CAP from September to December 2022 was conducted. Demographic variables: age, sex; pharmacological variables: empirical antibiotic treatment according to protocol, change of antibiotic treatments, mean duration of treatment, compliance with criteria and performance of sequential therapy on the third day and after the third day. Results: 55 patients were included (mean age, 88.9 years (64–103), 58.2% men). A total of 50.9% received empirical antibiotic treatment according to the protocol. The empirical antibiotics prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanate (25.5%), ceftriaxone + levofloxacin(23.6%), piperacillin/tazobactam (18.2%), ceftriaxone (14.5%), levofloxacin (7.3%), meropenem(5.5%), ertapenem (1.8%), imipenem (1.8%) and levofloxacin + azithromyzine (1.8%).Change of antibiotics occurred in 27.3%, and the mean duration of treatment was 8.3 days. Sequential therapy: 56.4% met the criteria on day 3, but this was only among 19.3%. Of the remaining patients, 22.45% were switched to oral in an average of 6 days. Conclusion: compliance with the empirical treatment protocol in CAP occurred in a very low percentage of patients. Moreover, in patients who met the criteria for sequential therapy, it was performed after the third day. Therefore, with the aim of improving these results, new measures and activities have been proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
1254 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multidrug Resistance in Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamase (Esbl)-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Selected Cattle Farms in Ibadan, Oyo State
by Esther Enioto Adesanwo, Victoria Olusola Adetunji, Samuel Oreoluwa Ajulo, Oluwatobi Stephen Fasiku, Oluwadamilola-Deborah Oni, Olayemi Okunlade and Adebayo Adedamola Awoyele
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16397 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been recorded as a fast-growing One Health challenge globally. The major driver of AMR is the inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals. A substantial volume of antimicrobials is consumed by the animal industry for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been recorded as a fast-growing One Health challenge globally. The major driver of AMR is the inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals. A substantial volume of antimicrobials is consumed by the animal industry for the treatment of Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections, which is a challenge; therefore, the understanding of AMR in animals is critical in solving this rising One Health problem. This study assessed the resistance level of some critically important antibiotics to E. coli bacteria isolates from cattle fecal samples. A total of twenty-eight composite (n = 5) fecal samples were collected from farms in four different Local Government Areas (LGAs) within Ibadan: Akinyele LGA:7, Ibadan north LGA:12, Ido LGA:4, and Lagelu LGA:5. Standard microbiological methods were used for isolation, antibiotic sensitivity tests (ASTs), and ESBL production. A total of 22 (78.6%) E. coli isolates were recovered, and the results showed resistance to critically important antibiotics in ascending order; streptomycin (0.00%), meropenem (0.00%), gentamicin (4.55%), ceftazidime (18.8%), sulphamethazole (22.73%), cefotaxime (54.55%), ampicillin (63.64%), pefloxacin (81.82%), and amoxicillin–clavulanate (100%). Of the 22 positive E. coli isolates, 8 (36.4%) were ESBL-producing and 17 (60.7%) were multidrug-resistant. ESBL enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation Cephalosporin, and this makes ESBL-producing E. coli exhibit resistance to antibiotics (especially Cephalosporins). The results show the possibility of AMR becoming a looming pandemic globally. The presence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli in cattle in Ibadan was established. Resistance to third-generation Cephalosporin antibiotics is of public health significance. Ensuring antimicrobial stewardship and prescription-based medication, alternative therapies to antibiotics, and the adoption of a collaborative approach are measures to preventing an AMR pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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4361 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Novel Natural and Synthetic Anticandidal Therapeutic Peptides to Combat Drug-Resistant Infections
by Deepika Sharma
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16385 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Candida species are considered as common flora of the healthy human mycobiome and occur on skin, mucosal surfaces of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracks. Pathogenic Candida spp., reported to cause skin, vaginal and oral infections. Extensive use of antifungal agents has increased the drug [...] Read more.
Candida species are considered as common flora of the healthy human mycobiome and occur on skin, mucosal surfaces of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracks. Pathogenic Candida spp., reported to cause skin, vaginal and oral infections. Extensive use of antifungal agents has increased the drug resistance among pathogenic strains of Candida. To this effect, recently naturally occurring AMPs and synthetically modified peptides, are effectively being used as promising antifungal agents. Short peptides display better permeability to cross the yeast membrane, thus short antifungal peptide were designed using sequences from APD database. Natural peptides are potential source of antifungal agents. Considering above facts, we studied anticandidal potential of synthetic and natural peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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10 pages, 629 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prevalence of Self-Medicated Use of Antibiotics among the Population in Ernakulam District in Kerala, India
by Divya Nair, Padinchare Veettil Gayathri and Girish Gopinath
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16478 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Self-medication (SM) of antibiotics has become a prevalent reason for the development of antibiotic resistance. This study aims to assess the use of self-medication practices with antibiotics and related factors among the population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Sore throat (34%) and cough (26%) [...] Read more.
Self-medication (SM) of antibiotics has become a prevalent reason for the development of antibiotic resistance. This study aims to assess the use of self-medication practices with antibiotics and related factors among the population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Sore throat (34%) and cough (26%) are found to be the major reasons for the self-usage of antibiotics among people. Various antibiotics commonly used for self-medication were amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. Reasons for the use of antibiotic self-medication were previous successful experiences (7.7%), convenience (11.5%), and to save costs (3.8%). Improper antibiotic use may lead to drug overuse and thereby antibiotic resistance. Hence, it should be taken only under strict supervision by an expert. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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277 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Management of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Mastectomy and Mammoplasty Procedures
by Yahanna da Costa Anacleto Estrela, Igor de Sousa Oliveira and Sávio Benvindo Ferreira
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16396 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Antibiotic prophylaxis is used to prevent infections related to surgery from the administration of antimicrobials before, during and after the procedure. Its practice is mainly recommended in surgeries classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated. Its use should also be considered in clean surgeries [...] Read more.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is used to prevent infections related to surgery from the administration of antimicrobials before, during and after the procedure. Its practice is mainly recommended in surgeries classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated. Its use should also be considered in clean surgeries in which the occurrence of infections brings serious consequences, such as mastectomy and mammoplasty. Thus, the present study aims to discuss the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in mammoplasty and mastectomy surgeries. This is a narrative literature review, in which the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) “mammoplasty”, “mastectomy” and “antibiotic prophylaxis” were used to search the MedLine and LILACS databases, included in the Virtual Library in Health (BVS). It was observed that the occurrence of infections after mammoplasties or mastectomies can cause damage, such as delay in recovery, in adjuvant therapy, and loss of the reconstructed breast or impaired cosmesis, when applicable, which corroborates the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in these procedures. Patients are screened for methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The main antibiotics used in prophylaxis were cephalosporins (cefazolin, cefadroxil and cefuroxime), isoxazolylpenicillins (flucloxacillin), aminoglycosides (gentamicin) and glycopeptides (vancomycin) in associations. In the studies found, antimicrobial prophylaxis proved to be promising, therefore, the research ratified the importance of using antibiotic prophylaxis in mammoplasty and mastectomy surgeries to prevent infections, also associated with adequate skin preparation practices, with 2% chlorhexidine and 70% isopropyl alcohol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
653 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Challenges and Obstacles for Veterinary Antimicrobial Agents’ Data Collection for an “One Health” European Goal to Address Antimicrobial Resistances
by Marcelo Leitão, Jorge Sarraguça, Myriam Taghouti and Ana Cristina Gonçalves Monteiro
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16430 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 300
Abstract
According to the 2021 European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption (ESVAC) report on sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, the data collected for the 2010–2021 period points to a significative sales reduction in over 2/3 of the countries included. Until now, a reduction in [...] Read more.
According to the 2021 European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption (ESVAC) report on sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, the data collected for the 2010–2021 period points to a significative sales reduction in over 2/3 of the countries included. Until now, a reduction in consumption to an average value of 96.6 mg/PCU was achieved in a premise that the average value of 59.2 mg/PCU can be reached by 2030, urging new political strategies for the next years. However, when exploring data from countries individually for the same decade, several shortcomings in data collection are noticed. In fact, mandatory data reporting was not on equal ground between countries, with different data aggregation strategies used and several countries in multiple years recognizing underreporting values. Access to similar tools and methodologies for data collection is crucial for all European members, especially to collect and report consistent, correct, and uniform data. Simultaneously, some gaps are observed in the PCU unit system, excluding some animals such as livestock goats and pets, and being unclear in others like in aquaculture, requiring revision to help it implement the “One Health” approach. Preventive or mitigation actions require a standardized data system allowing trustworthy conclusions and projections. Platforms like the ESVAC database are interesting tools which can be improved and replicated, allowing for the analysis of the different elements of the “One Health” approach such as human and environmental data, as well as data about resistance to antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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1268 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Epidemiological Study of the Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of a Suspected Urinary Tract Infection in a Super Surgical, Super Specialty Hospital in Northern India
by Narayan Ahirwar, Tapan Kumar Singha, Malvika Srivastava and Manisha Pal
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16468 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance profiles of urinary tract infection (UTI) collected from individuals of various age groups, both male and female. Methods: This study analyzed 266 urine samples from diverse individuals. Midstream urine samples were collected, transported, and [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance profiles of urinary tract infection (UTI) collected from individuals of various age groups, both male and female. Methods: This study analyzed 266 urine samples from diverse individuals. Midstream urine samples were collected, transported, and processed on a CLED medium within two hours. Bacterial identification was performed based on colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical characteristics. The VITEK 2 Compact system (Biomerieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ESBL detection, and Carbapenemase detection. Results: Out of 61 significant UTIs in both the male and female patients, 78.69% were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, 11.48% were caused by Gram-positive bacteria, and 9.84% were caused by Candida species. Escherichia coli (37.70%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.22%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.47%) were the most common uropathogens. Tetracycline (88.89%) and ceftriaxone (77.14%) were met with high resistance, while amikacin (89.36%) and colistin (97.30%) were the most effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens. Colistin susceptibility was exclusively observed in cases of multidrug resistance (MDR) and pan-drug resistance (PDR). Conclusions: This study indicates that Gram-negative bacteria, particularly E. coli, are responsible for a higher number of UTIs compared to Gram-positive uropathogens. Amikacin and colistin were identified as the most effective antibiotics against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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Proceeding Paper
Rapid Detection of Foodborne ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
by Ángel Alegría, Alberto Pintor-Cora, Daniela C. S. Ribeiro, Teresa M. López-Díaz and Jose M. Rodríguez-Calleja
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16400 - 30 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The proliferation of enterobacteria that produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become an important public health concern. The objective of this work was to optimize a phenotypic method for straightforward and rapid ESBL detection in strains obtained from food environments, employing MALDI-TOF mass [...] Read more.
The proliferation of enterobacteria that produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become an important public health concern. The objective of this work was to optimize a phenotypic method for straightforward and rapid ESBL detection in strains obtained from food environments, employing MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A collection of 162 enterobacterial isolates, including ESBL producers, AmpC producers, ESBL-AmpC coproducers and sensitive strains was analyzed using a quick method based on cefotaxime hydrolysis. Statistical analysis showed that although the presence of constitutive AmpC hyperproducers could reduce its specificity, this MALDI-TOF assay is an excellent tool for quickly classifying ESBL-producing strains of foodborne Enterobacteriaceae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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Proceeding Paper
Nanoemulsions: A Promising Strategy in the Fight against Bacterial Infections
by Thais Mariana Bezerra Tavares, Hélida Maravilha Dantas e Sousa Almeida, Marina Victória Moura Lage, Renata de Carvalho Feitosa and Arnóbio Antônio da Silva Júnior
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16402 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 361
Abstract
In recent years, bacterial infections have become a major global concern, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the development and commercialization of new antibacterial drugs have been slow, while pathogens continue to rapidly adapt and evolve. To address this challenge, nanotechnology offers a [...] Read more.
In recent years, bacterial infections have become a major global concern, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the development and commercialization of new antibacterial drugs have been slow, while pathogens continue to rapidly adapt and evolve. To address this challenge, nanotechnology offers a promising strategy by protecting, targeting, and releasing active compounds to fight against these emerging strains. The aim of this study was to explore the antibacterial potential of nanoemulsions (NEs), as reported in the scientific literature. A literature review was carried out utilizing the keywords “nanoemulsion”, “antibiotic activity”, “antibacterial activity”, and “antimicrobial activity”. All of the scientific articles that were related to the area of health and published in the last 5 years were included. All of the studies indicated that oil-based NEs with inherent antibacterial activity, even without the presence of drugs, had superior action against strains compared to non-emulsified oil, as well as other systems incorporating drugs or actives. Although the results are promising, further investigations and testing of formulations against resistant bacterial strains are necessary. This review aims to provide valuable insights for researchers and contribute to future advancements in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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Proceeding Paper
Antibiotics in a Changing World: Resistance, Ecology, and Public Health Conundrums
by Md. Mehedi Hasan, Md. Milon Rana and Tajkuruna Akter Tithy
Med. Sci. Forum 2024, 24(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECA2023-16389 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The world of antibiotics is undergoing a significant transformation, driven by the dual challenges of antimicrobial resistance and ecological ramifications associated with their use. This thesis provides a comprehensive examination of the intricate relationship between antibiotics, public health, and the environment, shedding light [...] Read more.
The world of antibiotics is undergoing a significant transformation, driven by the dual challenges of antimicrobial resistance and ecological ramifications associated with their use. This thesis provides a comprehensive examination of the intricate relationship between antibiotics, public health, and the environment, shedding light on the multifaceted problems that this interplay creates. The research scrutinizes the global crisis of antibiotic resistance, investigating its origins, underlying mechanisms, and its alarming proliferation. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to the effectiveness of these crucial drugs in the fight against infectious diseases. This necessitates a re-evaluation of antibiotic use and the development of innovative strategies to curb resistance, while also focusing on the ecological consequences of antibiotic utilization. While antibiotics are designed to target specific pathogens, their impact extends to the broader microbial communities they encounter. This research delves into the effects of antibiotics on ecosystem balance, with a particular emphasis on their contribution to the growing problem of environmental antibiotic resistance. This thesis offers a holistic perspective on the evolving landscape of antibiotics through a comprehensive analysis of these interconnected aspects. It emphasizes the urgent need for a global response to address resistance, advocates for a balanced approach to antibiotic usage, and underscores the pivotal role of public health strategies in managing these intricate challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics)
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