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Phycology, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2021) – 6 articles

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Article
Chemical Characterisation of Sargassum Inundation from the Turks and Caicos: Seasonal and Post Stranding Changes
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 143-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020011 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) have been affected by sargassum inundations, with impacts on the economy and environment. Sargassum removal can be costly, but sargassum use and valorisation may generate income and offset environmental damage. A significant barrier to the valorisation of [...] Read more.
The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) have been affected by sargassum inundations, with impacts on the economy and environment. Sargassum removal can be costly, but sargassum use and valorisation may generate income and offset environmental damage. A significant barrier to the valorisation of sargassum is insufficient knowledge of its chemical makeup, as well as its seasonal variation and decay after stranding. The chemical characterisation of mixed sargassum and its constituent species and morphotypes (S. natans I, S.natans VIII and S. fluitans) collected from TCI between September 2020 and May 2021 and changes in the composition of sargassum decaying (over 147 days) were studied. High ash (24.61–51.10% dry weight (DW)) and arsenic (49–217 mg kg−1) could severely hamper the use of this seaweed for food or feed purposes. Although there was some reduction in arsenic levels in decaying sargassum, levels remained high (>49 mg kg−1). Biomethane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a potential option. Nevertheless, the exploitation of sargassum for biogas, either fresh or as it decays on the beach, is challenging due to low methane yields (<42% of theoretical potential). Pre-treatment or co-digestion with other waste may be options to improve yield. The metal sorption ability of sargassum, which can be problematic, makes biosorption of pollutants an option for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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Article
Extending the Cultivation Period of Undaria pinnatifida by Using Regional Strains with Phenotypic Differentiation along the Sanriku Coast in Northern Japan
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 129-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020010 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The Sanriku district is one of the largest Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) cultivation areas in Japan. However, the production has steadily declined in recent years due to the high retirement rate among fishers. Extending the cultivation period is a potential way to improve productivity [...] Read more.
The Sanriku district is one of the largest Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) cultivation areas in Japan. However, the production has steadily declined in recent years due to the high retirement rate among fishers. Extending the cultivation period is a potential way to improve productivity by decentralizing the workforce through the production process. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic differentiation between regional strains of U. pinnatifida collected from Matsushima Bay (MAT) and Hirota Bay (HRT) in the Sanriku district through a cultivation trial to verify the application for the purpose of extending the cultivation period. The growth of MAT was better than that of HRT when the cultivation started earlier (i.e., 9 and 19 October 2014); in contrast, HRT outperformed MAT when the cultivation started later (6 November and 12 December 2014). The yield of MAT reached over the standard amount in the Sanriku district in February. On the other hand, the yield of HRT reached over this value in April. Furthermore, the photosynthetic performance and nutrient uptake rates differed between MAT and HRT, indicating that the differences may result in maturation characteristics. According to these results, the combined use of MAT and HRT would be a valuable strategy by which to extend the cultivation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Phycology)
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Article
Monthly Variation and Ultraviolet Stability of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Red Alga Dulse Palmaria palmata in Japan
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 119-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020009 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are the natural ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds from micro- and macro-algae. The MAAs in algae change with the environmental conditions and seasons. We previously determined an efficient extraction method of MAAs from red alga dulse in Usujiri (Hokkaido, Japan) and [...] Read more.
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are the natural ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds from micro- and macro-algae. The MAAs in algae change with the environmental conditions and seasons. We previously determined an efficient extraction method of MAAs from red alga dulse in Usujiri (Hokkaido, Japan) and revealed monthly variation of MAA in 2019. Dulse samples in 2019 for MAA preparation were suitable from late February to April. In this study, to confirm the suitable timings to extract MAAs from Usujiri dulse, we also investigated the monthly (from January to May) variation of MAA content in 2020. There were the most MAAs in the sample on 18 March (6.696 µmol g−1 dry weight) among the samples from January to May 2020. From two years of investigation, we deduce that samples of Usujiri dulse from late February to early April were suitable for MAA preparation. The UV stability of the two major purified MAAs in Usujiri dulse—palythine and porphyra-334—was tested. The two MAAs and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone were stable for up to 12 h under a 312 nm lamp at 200 µW cm−2, but 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate formed a cis/trans-mixture in a short time. The data in this study show the suitable sampling period for Usujiri dulse and the possible application for UV protection from food and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Phycology)
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Review
Algae Biomass as a Potential Source of Liquid Fuels
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 105-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020008 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Algae biomass is perceived as a prospective source of many types of biofuels, including biogas and biomethane produced in the anaerobic digestion process, ethanol from alcoholic fermentation, biodiesel synthesized from lipid reserve substances, and biohydrogen generated in photobiological transformations. Environmental and economic analyses [...] Read more.
Algae biomass is perceived as a prospective source of many types of biofuels, including biogas and biomethane produced in the anaerobic digestion process, ethanol from alcoholic fermentation, biodiesel synthesized from lipid reserve substances, and biohydrogen generated in photobiological transformations. Environmental and economic analyses as well as technological considerations indicate that methane fermentation integrated with bio-oil recovery is one of the most justified directions of energy use of microalgae biomass for energy purposes. A promising direction in the development of bioenergy systems based on the use of microalgae is their integration with waste and pollution neutralization technologies. The use of wastewater, another liquid waste, or flue gases can reduce the costs of biofuel production while having a measurable environmental effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Phycology)
Article
The Impact of Sargassum Inundations on the Turks and Caicos Islands
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 83-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020007 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Since 2011, holopelagic Sargassum fluitans and natans have been arriving en masse to the wider Caribbean region and West Africa, impacting near-shore habitats and coastal communities. We examined the impacts of the Sargassum influx on tourism-related businesses through face-to-face interviews and focus groups [...] Read more.
Since 2011, holopelagic Sargassum fluitans and natans have been arriving en masse to the wider Caribbean region and West Africa, impacting near-shore habitats and coastal communities. We examined the impacts of the Sargassum influx on tourism-related businesses through face-to-face interviews and focus groups and on near-shore seagrass beds through in-water surveys in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Substantial accumulations of sargassum were found on the beaches of South Caicos and Middle Creek Cay in 2018 and 2019, including a Sargassum brown tide in 2018. A variety of different approaches to removing sargassum from the beaches were mentioned and a desire from local businesses as well as local authorities to find a sustainable, cost-effective solution to what is viewed by many as a serious problem. The brown tide and sargassum accumulating as a layer on the benthos inside the seagrass beds caused significant loss of Thalassia testudinum. Halodule wrightii, macroalgae and sand plains were found in the areas lost by T. testudinum. This finding suggests that, if a cost-effective end use for sargassum could be identified, harvesting material in inshore waters rather than when it has arrived on the beach would have dual benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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Opinion
Perspectives on the Use of Algae in Agriculture and Animal Production
Phycology 2021, 1(2), 79-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1020006 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Algae have been used in agriculture as fertilizers for a long time. Recently, they have also been applied to crops as biostimulants that target plant growth promotion and tolerance to biotic (herbivores, fungi, bacteria, viruses) or abiotic stresses. In addition, algae contain bioactive [...] Read more.
Algae have been used in agriculture as fertilizers for a long time. Recently, they have also been applied to crops as biostimulants that target plant growth promotion and tolerance to biotic (herbivores, fungi, bacteria, viruses) or abiotic stresses. In addition, algae contain bioactive compounds that have been shown to maintain the health of domestic animals or aquaculture species. This opinion piece highlights different aspects of the present use of algae in agriculture and animal production and their future perspectives. Full article
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