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Eng. Proc., 2024, ICPPM 2023

The International Conference on Processing and Performance of Materials (ICPPM 2023)

Chennai, India | 2–3 March 2023

Volume Editors:

K. Babu, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India
Anirudh Venkatraman Krishnan, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India
K. Jayakumar, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India
M. Dhananchezian, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India

Number of Papers: 49
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Cover Story (view full-size image): After the remarkable success of the first edition (ICPPM 2022), the second edition of the International Conference on Processing and Performance of Materials (ICPPM 2023) was held on the 2nd and 3rd [...] Read more.
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5 pages, 5810 KiB  
Editorial
Preface: International Conference on Processing and Performance of Materials (ICPPM 2023)
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061001 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The International Conference on Processing and Performance of Materials (ICPPM 2023) was held on the 2nd and 3rd of March 2023 at the Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering (SSNCE), Kalavakkam, Chennai [...] Full article
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9 pages, 2289 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improvement in the Machining Processes by Micro-Textured Tools during the Turning Process
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061002 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 234
Abstract
The cutting fluid’s lubrication affects a workpiece’s surface finish and cutting tool lifespan during turning. To optimize machine performance, appropriate lubrication is needed. Empirical experiments examined how machining factors affected a redesigned single-point cutting tool. Texturing the tool’s rake surface without altering its [...] Read more.
The cutting fluid’s lubrication affects a workpiece’s surface finish and cutting tool lifespan during turning. To optimize machine performance, appropriate lubrication is needed. Empirical experiments examined how machining factors affected a redesigned single-point cutting tool. Texturing the tool’s rake surface without altering its physical qualities was achieved utilizing super-drilling and laser engraving technologies. The goal was to build a surface junction that would keep cutting fluid in contact with the tool longer, improving lubrication and cooling. Both standard and customized tools were used to compare cutting force, temperature, power usage, and surface polish. Magnified pictures from the scanning electron microscope were utilized to analyze tool wear in different places. The improved tool dramatically lowered mean cutting force, heat output, and power consumption in experiments. The textured tool produced continuous chips instead of discontinuous/burnt chips due to increased friction at the tool–chip interface. The updated tool improved lubrication and cooling with cutting fluid. Full article
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4 pages, 1233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Experimental Study on the Influence of Micrographite on the Improvement of Mechanical Characteristics of A356 Microcomposites Processed via the Stir Casting Route
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061003 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 168
Abstract
A composite is a combination of two or more insoluble materials that have greater characteristics than all of their individual constituents. The current study focuses on manufacturing and testing the mechanical characteristics of A356 alloy composites reinforced with micrographite particles at different weight [...] Read more.
A composite is a combination of two or more insoluble materials that have greater characteristics than all of their individual constituents. The current study focuses on manufacturing and testing the mechanical characteristics of A356 alloy composites reinforced with micrographite particles at different weight fractions of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. According to the findings, including micrographite particles up to 10% wt. increases the bulk hardness, tensile strength, and compression strength of the A356 alloy matrix. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to inspect the tensile-fractured surfaces of the fabricated composites. Full article
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8 pages, 514 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Applications of Nanomaterials on a Food Packaging System—A Review
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061004 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 315
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a significant focus on replacing non-biodegradable materials with eco-friendly biodegradable food packaging materials. The use of biopolymers in packaged foods has been adopted to address environmental issues, given their ability to decompose naturally and being non-hazardous. Despite [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a significant focus on replacing non-biodegradable materials with eco-friendly biodegradable food packaging materials. The use of biopolymers in packaged foods has been adopted to address environmental issues, given their ability to decompose naturally and being non-hazardous. Despite these benefits, biopolymers present notable drawbacks such as inadequate mechanical strength and restricted ability to withstand water. Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has been increasingly investigated for use in food packaging due to its remarkable qualities. This review article aims to give a summary of the most recent research on the new advancement of nanomaterials for food packaging. Full article
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5 pages, 2059 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Taguchi Analysis of Hardness and Strength of Hot Compressed Duplex Steel Using Gleeble Thermomechanical System
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061005 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Duplex stainless steels, well known for their excellent mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, are used in high concentration chloride environments. However, the formation of intermetallic phases when they are exposed to high temperatures for extended periods limits their application in such scenarios. [...] Read more.
Duplex stainless steels, well known for their excellent mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, are used in high concentration chloride environments. However, the formation of intermetallic phases when they are exposed to high temperatures for extended periods limits their application in such scenarios. Hence, to determine their mechanical behavior, a study was conducted to determine the optimum parameters for obtaining good strength and hardness in duplex stainless steel. The Gleeble Physical testing system was used to test 2002 duplex stainless steel under hot compression while varying strain, strain rate, and temperature. Using an L9 orthogonal array, the optimal parameters for achieving high strength and hardness were arrived at using Taguchi techniques. It was identified that, at 1000 °C, a 10 s−1 strain rate in samples strained to 60% provided the best results. Lastly, the microstructure was analyzed and correlated with the experimental results. Full article
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6 pages, 831 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recent Trends in PCM-Integrated Solar Dryers
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061006 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Solar dryers utilize solar thermal energy to dry products by removing the moisture in the product, and the extend the shelf life of the product. Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used as a storage medium as they offer the benefits of isothermal [...] Read more.
Solar dryers utilize solar thermal energy to dry products by removing the moisture in the product, and the extend the shelf life of the product. Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used as a storage medium as they offer the benefits of isothermal characteristics and allow for use during non-sunshine hours. Various researchers have indicated the benefits of PCMs in increasing the flexibility of the operation, efficiency, and quality of the dried product. The present paper reviews the recent trends, factors, and performance of PCM-integrated solar dryers. Issues involved in drier operation and recommendations for energy-efficient and cost-effective drying are also discussed. Full article
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4 pages, 478 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Water-Based Nano-Fluid Emulsions on Pollutant Emissions Using an Internet-of-Things-Based Emission Monitoring System
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061007 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 165
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of employing water nano-emulsion technology in mitigating pollutants in diesel engines and controlling emissions. The diesel used in this experiment was prepared by blending it with a water-based nano-emulsion, comprising 8% of the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of employing water nano-emulsion technology in mitigating pollutants in diesel engines and controlling emissions. The diesel used in this experiment was prepared by blending it with a water-based nano-emulsion, comprising 8% of the total mixture. The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) facilitated the implementation of a multi-user remote management system for diesel engines, enabling real-time monitoring of emissions. An 8% combination of water-based nano-emulsion (WBNE) reduces oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons better than diesel, according to trials using an IoT kit and gas analysers. Full article
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7 pages, 2351 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Instantaneous Braking System for Rotating Members
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061008 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Brakes are essential parts of any system that involves motion. A few seconds are spent applying the brake, accumulating enough force to retard a system. In case of emergency stops, we need an efficient braking system that acts quickly and safely to avoid [...] Read more.
Brakes are essential parts of any system that involves motion. A few seconds are spent applying the brake, accumulating enough force to retard a system. In case of emergency stops, we need an efficient braking system that acts quickly and safely to avoid any mishaps. This work aims to develop a prototype of an instantaneous braking system, which can stop the motion of a rotating member. The operating principle of the device is the electromagnetic actuation of a solenoid. The actuation of a solenoid is simple and instantaneous. As a result, we could achieve immediate braking of a rotating member. Full article
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8 pages, 1079 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation on the Drilling Characteristics of Kenaf/PLA-Based Laminates
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061009 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Natural fiber composites are gaining popularity in manufacturing due to their cost-effectiveness, sustainability, reusability, and eco-friendly nature. Kenaf fiber is increasingly used as a reinforcing component in organic fiber-strengthened polymers for engineering purposes. Drilling is a crucial machining process used to create holes [...] Read more.
Natural fiber composites are gaining popularity in manufacturing due to their cost-effectiveness, sustainability, reusability, and eco-friendly nature. Kenaf fiber is increasingly used as a reinforcing component in organic fiber-strengthened polymers for engineering purposes. Drilling is a crucial machining process used to create holes in composite constructions for the easier assembly of complex parts. Limited research has focused on drilling organic fiber-strengthened materials, as indicated by literature surveys. Consequently, this study investigates the drilling of weaved kenaf fiber-augmented polymeric composites. The study assesses the impact of drill bit varieties and cutting settings on delamination size and thrust force in poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites supplemented with kenaf fibers. The investigation revealed that drill bit selection significantly influences surface finish and delamination index. Feed is the cutting variable that, when drilling kenaf fiber-reinforced materials, has the most impact on the thrust force for every drill bit. When using an HSS twisting drill with the Coro Drill-856 (CD-856), the thrust force produced is less than when using the Coro Drill (CD-854) design. Full article
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4 pages, 1325 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Decisive Effect of Gas Metal Arc Welding-Based Additive Manufacturing on the Bead Profile, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Ni-Cr-Mo Components
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061010 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 117
Abstract
This study focuses on metal inert gas welding for nickel alloy additive manufacturing using both cold metal transfer (CMT) and pulse multi control (PMT). For both single- and dual-bead deposition, the key parameters (current, travel speed, feed, weave, and height offset) were tuned. [...] Read more.
This study focuses on metal inert gas welding for nickel alloy additive manufacturing using both cold metal transfer (CMT) and pulse multi control (PMT). For both single- and dual-bead deposition, the key parameters (current, travel speed, feed, weave, and height offset) were tuned. A hollow square component of 20 mm in height, 60 mm side length, and 16 mm width was created using these measurements. A macrostructural study demonstrated that flawless accuracy in geometry was attained by both PMT and CMT. In comparison to PMT, CMT specimens showed increased interlayer hardness but decreased hardness in the deposited layers. These changes were explained by modifications in eutectic phase size, distribution, and partial dissolution at the contact. For the wire arc additive manufacturing of nickel alloy components, pulse multi control is preferred over cold metal transfer. Full article
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8 pages, 1821 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical, Moisture Absorption and Thermal Stability of Banana Fiber/Egg Shell Powder-Based Epoxy Composites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061011 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
This study aims to explore the viability of adding a hybrid blend of eggshell and banana fibers treated with NaOH to improve the structural characteristics of epoxy composites. In order to determine their appropriateness for different applications, the study includes assessments of mechanical [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the viability of adding a hybrid blend of eggshell and banana fibers treated with NaOH to improve the structural characteristics of epoxy composites. In order to determine their appropriateness for different applications, the study includes assessments of mechanical performance, water permeability, and heat transfer properties. Chicken eggshell was used to make calcined eggshell particulate (CEP), and bananas were used to obtain processed banana fibers (TBF). For the creation of bio-composites, NaOH-treated banana fiber (30 wt.%) was integrated into an epoxy matrix with different weight percentages of CEP (like 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wt.%) through the hand layup with a vacuum backing technique. Examination of the data revealed that, in comparison to epoxy with no reinforcement, the addition of bio-fillers improved the thermal insulation (4 wt.% of CEP exhibits 0.052 W/mk), water absorption (4 wt.% of CEP produced 5.31%), flexural strength (20 wt.% of CEP exhibit 36.57 MPa), and modulus (12 wt.% of CEP exhibit 300.12 MPa) of the hybrids. This suggests that by lowering the conductivity of the bio-based composites, the inclusion of these bio-based reinforcements improved their thermal insulation ability. The resistance to temperature fluctuations is stronger when there is less thermal conductivity. Full article
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5 pages, 551 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of Friction Stir Welding Effects on the Corrosion Behaviour of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061012 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 192
Abstract
This study used the salt spray test (SST) method to analyze the corrosion reaction of friction stir welded (FSW) alloys that are different from each other, including AA5052-H32 and AA6061-T6. To understand the overall and specific corrosion behaviour of the parent metals (PMs) [...] Read more.
This study used the salt spray test (SST) method to analyze the corrosion reaction of friction stir welded (FSW) alloys that are different from each other, including AA5052-H32 and AA6061-T6. To understand the overall and specific corrosion behaviour of the parent metals (PMs) and the FSW joints, the SST was carried out. The findings demonstrate that the microstructure of the various zones of the FSW joint varied noticeably, which in part influenced how each zone corroded in NaCl solution. The study determined the weight reduction and degradation rate of the stir zone relative to the PMs in the welded sample. Full article
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8 pages, 1286 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Coir Powder-Filled Epoxy Composites for Industrial Application
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061013 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Creating environmentally friendly and renewable resources for various industrial uses has attracted increasing attention over the past few years. The thermal and mechanical features of epoxy-based composites filled with coir powder, an organic and sustainable fiber made from coconut husks, are examined in [...] Read more.
Creating environmentally friendly and renewable resources for various industrial uses has attracted increasing attention over the past few years. The thermal and mechanical features of epoxy-based composites filled with coir powder, an organic and sustainable fiber made from coconut husks, are examined in this work. The current study focuses on the thermo-mechanical performance of epoxy matrix composites with coir filler in the micrometer range. Tension, flexural, and dynamic mechanical analysis were all carried out to characterize and forecast the thermal behavior of the micro-composites and pure polymers. According to the findings of this study, 8 and 6 wt.% of coir filler-based composites exhibit the highest tensile and flexural strengths of 41.36 MPa and 171.24 MPa, respectively. In the case of dynamic mechanical analysis, 8 wt.% filler had the highest storage modulus of 1214.98 MPa. The results demonstrate that the damping factor increases dramatically as the temperature rises and reaches its maximum value after the glass transition section. Additionally, including coir powder improves the composites’ thermal insulation capabilities, indicating their promise in demanding thermal resistance and insulation. Full article
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4 pages, 194 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Review of the Machining Process Parameters for Natural-Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061014 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 123
Abstract
The important properties of natural composites include but are not limited to their strength-to-weight ratio, durability and biodegradability. Natural composites are inhomogeneous by nature; drilling operations are difficult because the drill bit must alternately pierce through the layers of the matrix and fibers. [...] Read more.
The important properties of natural composites include but are not limited to their strength-to-weight ratio, durability and biodegradability. Natural composites are inhomogeneous by nature; drilling operations are difficult because the drill bit must alternately pierce through the layers of the matrix and fibers. This may cause delamination, fibers are pulled out and the matrix breaks, etc. In numerous types of research, it is seen that the spindle speed, drill diameter and drill geometry greatly influence the delamination factor and feed rate, affecting the surface roughness. In this review, the impact of the drilling and milling parameters on various natural-fiber-reinforced composites are taken into account and assessed. Full article
8 pages, 1158 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Wear and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Fabrics for Women’s Summer Clothing
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061015 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Recyclable yarn has become increasingly significant because of growing environmental consciousness and the necessity to acquire or enhance the qualities of woven materials in the years to come. A cotton yarn’s tensile strength, rip strength, and permeability to air were examined to obtain [...] Read more.
Recyclable yarn has become increasingly significant because of growing environmental consciousness and the necessity to acquire or enhance the qualities of woven materials in the years to come. A cotton yarn’s tensile strength, rip strength, and permeability to air were examined to obtain the intended outcomes. The experiment was carried out on specimens with almost identical structures, and the impact of the weaving and various weft materials was evaluated. This endeavor aims to find the right blend or blends of regenerated fibers to substitute 100% cotton garments. The mechanical strength and physiological characteristics of Tencel textiles mixed with other regenerate cellulose yarns were compared to those of 100% cotton to attain the same or possibly superior end qualities. Thus, cotton fibers, viscosity, Tencel, modal, and hemp were used. Standard thread counts of 20 tex were used to make mixed plain woven textiles made of 100% cotton and 50:50 mixes of Tencel with other regenerating materials. The ergonomic qualities, such as air permeability, and mechanical characteristics (tension and tearing assets, pilling, abrasion resistance, and warp- and weft-wise) were assessed. It has been discovered that textiles combined with Tencel perform better than cotton ones. Consequently, it may be said that 100% cotton textiles can be replaced with a Tencel combination, using these regenerating fibers. Full article
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5 pages, 403 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improvement in Manufacturing of Aluminium-Based Functionally Graded Materials through Centrifugal Casting—A Review
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061016 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The global demand for functionally graded materials (FGMs) has grown rapidly. This research reviews FGMs and the production technologies that affect their physical, structural, and manufacturing properties. We discuss the aluminium alloys and ceramics used in the fabrication process based on their engineering [...] Read more.
The global demand for functionally graded materials (FGMs) has grown rapidly. This research reviews FGMs and the production technologies that affect their physical, structural, and manufacturing properties. We discuss the aluminium alloys and ceramics used in the fabrication process based on their engineering uses in many industries. Centrifugal casting is the versatile and commercial viable method to manufacture FGMs. These FGMs possess a variety of applications in automobile and aerospace industries owing to their enhanced mechanical strength and thermal and corrosion resistance. Full article
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6 pages, 218 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Revolutionizing Biomedicine: A Comprehensive Review of Polymer Composite Materials
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061017 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Polymer composites have been increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their unique combination of mechanical, chemical, and biological properties. These materials have shown promising results in various fields such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and implant design. In this review, we examine [...] Read more.
Polymer composites have been increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their unique combination of mechanical, chemical, and biological properties. These materials have shown promising results in various fields such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and implant design. In this review, we examine the current state of polymer composites for biomedical applications, including the materials used, their properties, and processing methods. The advantages and limitations of these materials are also discussed, along with future perspectives and challenges that need to be addressed to fully realize their potential. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of this field, highlight recent advances, and encourage further research on the development of polymer composites for biomedical applications. Full article
8 pages, 2172 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Banana Fibre/Eggshell Powder-Reinforced Hybrid Epoxy Composite
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061018 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Natural fibre–polymer composites are widely used because they are economical and ecologically beneficial in a variety of applications. In order to improve its performance, this study focuses on examining the mechanical characteristics of an epoxy composite material that has been reinforced with banana [...] Read more.
Natural fibre–polymer composites are widely used because they are economical and ecologically beneficial in a variety of applications. In order to improve its performance, this study focuses on examining the mechanical characteristics of an epoxy composite material that has been reinforced with banana fibre mats that have undergone NaOH treatment. Additionally, using various configurations both with and without eggshell powder (ESP), the compression moulding method was used to fabricate and investigate the impact of ESP on these mechanical qualities. The results showed that the composite with 25 weight percent banana fibre and 2.5 weight percent ESP had the maximum tensile strength (31.21 MPa), bending strength (33.69 MPa), and impact strength (2.84 kJ/m2). Strong interfacial adhesion between the banana and eggshell components was discovered via the microscopic examination of shattered surfaces. Notably, compared to untreated banana composites, the alkaline-treated banana materials showed fewer occurrences of pull-outs and fractures, leading to noticeably better mechanical performance. Full article
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7 pages, 209 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Review on the Corrosion Performance of Magnesium Alloys in Biomedical Applications
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061019 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Magnesium alloys have shown great potential for applications as both structural and biomedical materials due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, as well as their good biodegradability and biocompatibility, respectively. These properties make magnesium alloys suitable for structural and biomedical applications. This article offers [...] Read more.
Magnesium alloys have shown great potential for applications as both structural and biomedical materials due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, as well as their good biodegradability and biocompatibility, respectively. These properties make magnesium alloys suitable for structural and biomedical applications. This article offers an overview of the corrosion behaviour of various magnesium alloys being considered for applications involving biodegradable implants. There have been several studies that have provided multiple strategies for increasing the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. These studies aimed to enhance the possibility that magnesium alloys may be employed in biological environments. This article covers the strategies for tailoring corrosion resistance and the various approaches for enhancing corrosion resistance. Full article
8 pages, 2600 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Centrifugal Compressor with Influence on Partial Vaned Diffuser
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061020 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Partial vaned diffusers (PVDs) play a pivotal role in optimizing the performance of turbomachinery systems by efficiently managing fluid flow and pressure differentials. This study delves into the geometric configurations of partial vaned diffusers, examining how variations in vane positioning impact performance. In [...] Read more.
Partial vaned diffusers (PVDs) play a pivotal role in optimizing the performance of turbomachinery systems by efficiently managing fluid flow and pressure differentials. This study delves into the geometric configurations of partial vaned diffusers, examining how variations in vane positioning impact performance. In this study, a PVD is attached either along the hub side (PHVD) or shroud side (PSVD), and a comparison is made between these configurations. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are carried out using ANSYS CFX to elucidate the complex flow patterns within these diffusers for two different mass flow rates, namely 0.30 kg/s and 0.90 kg/s. Flow parameters like pressure, total pressure in the stationary frame, meridional velocity, and velocity are measured. The flow in PSVD is observed to be uniform and the rise in pressure in PSVD is observed to improve by around 4.5% with respect to PHVD. Other flow parameters such as meridional velocity and total pressure are in favor of PSVD. Full article
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5 pages, 1293 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Three-Dimensional Design and Prediction of Temperature Distribution of a Partially Ceramic Coated Piston Used in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061021 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The goal of this research is to analyze the effects of a partial thermal barrier coating on piston temperature distribution in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, which are investigated using La2Zr2O7 nanocoating with 1 mm thickness for [...] Read more.
The goal of this research is to analyze the effects of a partial thermal barrier coating on piston temperature distribution in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, which are investigated using La2Zr2O7 nanocoating with 1 mm thickness for numerical analysis. The thermal assessments of both conventional and coated pistons were performed using ANSYS V16. Engine testing was conducted on a single-cylinder, water-cooled CI engine for both the coated and conventional casings. According to the analytical results, the coated piston component’s surface temperature increased to 53 °C, which increased the temperature of the air–fuel mixture in the crevice and wall quenching zones. As a result, cold start HC emissions dramatically drop without impacting engine performance compared to normal engines. The maximum HC emission reduction over the standard engine was 43.2%. Full article
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4 pages, 572 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Insight into Harvesting Sustainable Electrical Energy from Sound Hazards Using Piezoelectric Materials
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061022 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 145
Abstract
The rapid growth of urban cities and industries has resulted in huge amounts of potentially harmful waste being released into the atmosphere. One form of hazard is noise/sound. Noise cannot be controlled in automobile industries and urban areas, which include traffic, railway stations, [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of urban cities and industries has resulted in huge amounts of potentially harmful waste being released into the atmosphere. One form of hazard is noise/sound. Noise cannot be controlled in automobile industries and urban areas, which include traffic, railway stations, and markets. But it can be converted into a useful form through advanced material usage. One of the materials is piezoelectric material. Strain can be produced through vibration caused by sound, which, in turn, produces electrical energy. Hence, the objective of this research was to harvest electrical energy from hazardous sounds released from industries. Electrical energy was generated through systematic experiments using piezoelectric sensors. The experimental results revealed that the magnitude of 90 dB sound produced up to 2 volts through a single piezoelectric sensor. We can generate more energy by increasing the number of sensors as this material is cost effective. The numerical model was also effectively replicated and good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical frequency sound curves. Full article
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8 pages, 3690 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber and Silica Nano Particles Using Artificial Neural Network
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061023 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 150
Abstract
This study explores the impact of silica nanoparticles on jute fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy resin matrices. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized at three concentrations (3%, 6%, and 9%) and incorporated into composites at varying fiber–resin weight ratios. The composites were subjected to tests for [...] Read more.
This study explores the impact of silica nanoparticles on jute fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy resin matrices. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized at three concentrations (3%, 6%, and 9%) and incorporated into composites at varying fiber–resin weight ratios. The composites were subjected to tests for tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness. The Taguchi signal-to-noise ratio method was employed for optimization. Results indicate that a 9% addition of silica nanoparticles significantly enhances the mechanical properties of jute fiber-reinforced composites. Tensile and flexural strength increased with higher silica nanoparticle content, while impact strength and hardness also improved. Notably, a 9% silica addition achieved a maximum tensile strength of 72 MPa, resulting in a 10% increase over that yielded by the 3% addition. Flexural and impact strengths improved by 23% and 20%, respectively, when compared to the 3% silica addition. Furthermore, a neural network model accurately predicted the composite’s mechanical characteristics with 100% accuracy. These findings hold promise for the automobile and aircraft industries, as they require high-performance materials. The integration of jute fibers and silica nanoparticles into composites offers a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative to conventional materials. The enhancement strategy employed in this analysis can be applied to enhance the mechanical properties of other composite materials. Full article
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7 pages, 218 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Powering the Future: A Comprehensive Review of Polymer Composite Energy Storage Applications
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061024 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
This review provides an overview of polymer composite materials and their application in energy storage. Polymer composites are an attractive option for energy storage owing to their light weight, low cost, and high flexibility. We discuss the different types of polymer composites used [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of polymer composite materials and their application in energy storage. Polymer composites are an attractive option for energy storage owing to their light weight, low cost, and high flexibility. We discuss the different types of polymer composites used for energy storage, including carbon-based, metal oxide, and conductive polymer composites. We also discuss the various energy storage mechanisms employed by polymer composites, including supercapacitors, batteries, and hybrid systems. In addition to discussing the materials and mechanisms, we review recent advancements in the energy storage applications of polymer composites, including their use in electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and portable electronics. We also examined the challenges associated with polymer composite energy storage, such as limited energy density and long-term durability. Overall, this review highlights the potential of polymer composite materials for energy storage applications and emphasizes the need for further research and development to fully exploit their advantages and overcome their limitations. Full article
8 pages, 2728 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Experimental Study on the Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Various Blends of Camelina Sativa Biodiesel
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061025 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Recently, the utilization and research of biodiesel has become increasingly popular due to its reduced emissions, lower cost, and potential for achieving energy independence. A promising application of biodiesel is in diesel engines, where it can be used as a substitute for traditional [...] Read more.
Recently, the utilization and research of biodiesel has become increasingly popular due to its reduced emissions, lower cost, and potential for achieving energy independence. A promising application of biodiesel is in diesel engines, where it can be used as a substitute for traditional petroleum-based diesel fuel. Camelina sativa is an oil seed crop with prospective uses in biodiesel extraction due to its high crop harvest in a year, good net energy ratio, the considerable oil content in its seed, and lower oil extraction expenses. Biodiesel derived from camelina sativa L. is prepared via transesterification. In this study, the prepared biodiesel is blended with diesel at various proportions and is used in an engine to investigate its combustion performance and emission characteristics. From the results, it is evident that the CMB 20 blend (20% of camelina biodiesel and 80% of diesel) shows the better performance among all of the blends used. The brake thermal efficiency of CMB 20 is 23.45%, its specific fuel consumption is 0.355 kW/kg hr, and it also produced less emissions when compared to other blends. Full article
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7 pages, 1844 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Applications of Schiff-Base Metal Complexes
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061026 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The ligand named 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-(pyridine-2-yl)methanimine Schiff base was obtained with the method of mixing 2-amino pyridine with 3-chloro benzaldehyde in methanol as an initial material. Transition metals, like Cu(II), were added to the prepared ligand as a dopant. The molecular structure was characterized by [...] Read more.
The ligand named 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-(pyridine-2-yl)methanimine Schiff base was obtained with the method of mixing 2-amino pyridine with 3-chloro benzaldehyde in methanol as an initial material. Transition metals, like Cu(II), were added to the prepared ligand as a dopant. The molecular structure was characterized by elemental analysis, electronic methods (UV-Visible), Vibrational methods (FT-IR), and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The catalytic activities of the complex were studied using Claisen–Schmidt condensation for the synthesis of chalcone derivatives employed using three different catalysts by an ultrasonication method. The results reveal that the Cu(II) complex showed remarkable catalytic activity and good yield compared to the other catalysts. Full article
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4 pages, 1131 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wire EDM Process of AISI 431 Martensitic Stainless Steel: A Machinability Investigation
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061027 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The wire EDM process for AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel involves meticulously investigating its machinability. This study explores the intricate details of the machining process, considering factors such as material characteristics and cutting conditions. A steep increase of 51.59% in pulse on time [...] Read more.
The wire EDM process for AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel involves meticulously investigating its machinability. This study explores the intricate details of the machining process, considering factors such as material characteristics and cutting conditions. A steep increase of 51.59% in pulse on time was observed following enhanced material removal. As servo voltage and pulse-off decreased, surface roughness decreased by 24.31%. The aim was to increase the efficiency and precision of the wire EDM process for this AISI 431 stainless steel grade. The investigation shows valuable insights for manufacturing applications, especially in surgical instruments, orthopedic implants, and medical casing. The findings will enhance the performance and quality of AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel components. Full article
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5 pages, 4100 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Studies on In Situ Alloy Formation Using Mild Steel–Inconel 625 Twin Filler Wire Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Deposition
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061028 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 138
Abstract
This work explored the possibility of producing a compositional functionally graded material (FGM) between mild steel and Inconel 625. An in-house fabricated, dual filler wire tungsten inert gas welding set up was used to deposit weld beads on a mild steel substrate. Filler [...] Read more.
This work explored the possibility of producing a compositional functionally graded material (FGM) between mild steel and Inconel 625. An in-house fabricated, dual filler wire tungsten inert gas welding set up was used to deposit weld beads on a mild steel substrate. Filler wire feed rates were controlled independently and the combinations of filler material volumes, i.e., mild steel–Inconel 625 of (100:0), (75:25), (50:50), (25:75), and (0:100) were fed into the arc simultaneously and individual weld beads deposited. Preliminary studies revealed that defect free completely fused new alloys were formed and intermetallic phases rich in Nb observed. Compositional analysis showed that the content of each element changed from one alloy to the other gradually, smoothly indicating the feasibility of a mild steel–Inconel 625 functionally graded material. Full article
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5 pages, 2229 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Performance Studies of Up- and Down-Milling on AA7075 Plate
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061029 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The monitoring of machining has been the focus of widespread research in recent years because of its substantial contribution to manufacturing process automation. To maximise productivity, the spindle speed and feed have been increased, which has increased noise and temperature generation in the [...] Read more.
The monitoring of machining has been the focus of widespread research in recent years because of its substantial contribution to manufacturing process automation. To maximise productivity, the spindle speed and feed have been increased, which has increased noise and temperature generation in the workpiece and tool. Such loud noise levels are uncomfortable for the operators, create stress, and have negative health effects, which reduces productivity. Controlling the temperature and noise produced during milling is crucial. Among its several series, the aluminium alloy 7075 (AA7075) is one of the strong alloys utilised in aircraft structural components. Hence, the present work examines the effect of spindle speed, feed, and depth of cut on noise and temperature generation during the end-milling of an AA7075 plate with 0.25-inch thickness. The sound and temperature were measured for both up- and down-milling processes and compared. In up-milling, the temperature and noise varied from 32.9 to 50.6 °C and 87.5 to 95 dB and the same were varied from 30.6 to 36.2 °C and 89.6 to 93.9 dB for down-milling. Finally, it was recommended that down-milling is the best process with low noise and temperature generation. Full article
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5 pages, 1944 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-Based Bioplastics: A Promising Alternative for a Sustainable Future
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061030 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
With over 9 million additional tons of plastic waste entering the oceans each year, 165 million tons of plastic waste have already defiled our oceans. Considering that just 9% of plastic is recycled, the rest of the waste contaminates the environment or is [...] Read more.
With over 9 million additional tons of plastic waste entering the oceans each year, 165 million tons of plastic waste have already defiled our oceans. Considering that just 9% of plastic is recycled, the rest of the waste contaminates the environment or is dumped in landfills, where it can take up to 500 years to degrade while releasing hazardous chemicals into the soil. The bioplastics prepared in this study were obtained from tapioca and sweet potato using plasticizers like glycerol in various combinations. The biodegradability and mechanical and physical properties were analyzed. The tensile strengths of the prepared bioplastic films were 4.25 and 2.35 MPa with elongation at break (EAB) of 39.5% and 25.4% for tapioca and sweet potato bioplastics, respectively. The biodegradability of the films was examined, and thus, the obtained bioplastics in the study are shown to be a good alternative to the existing plastics. Full article
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8 pages, 1487 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Transforming Agricultural Waste into Sustainable Composite Materials: Mechanical Properties of Tamarindus Fruit Fiber (TFF)-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061032 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 127
Abstract
Natural fiber-based polymer composite has great potential and is in high demand due to its high specific strength, low carcinogenic nature and economic market value. Tamarindus Fruit Fiber (TFF) has low density, high tensile strength and is easily available. It is one of [...] Read more.
Natural fiber-based polymer composite has great potential and is in high demand due to its high specific strength, low carcinogenic nature and economic market value. Tamarindus Fruit Fiber (TFF) has low density, high tensile strength and is easily available. It is one of the industrial waste materials. Polylactic acid (PLA) possesses an entangled coherence with fiber, since it is more compatible. A sample was prepared by integrating TFF as fiber and PLA as the binding agent. The fiber variations in all samples were 10 to 50 wt.% step by 10 wt.%. A pure PLA sample was also fabricated for the purpose of comparison. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, impact and hardness have been evaluated. It was revealed that TFF reinforcement increased the mechanical properties of the samples. The highest mechanical properties were observed in Sample S5, which had 40 wt.% TFF and 60 wt.% PLA. Fracture failure was found using fractographic analysis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of utilizing TFF as an agricultural waste product for enhancing the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymer composites. These sustainable compositions of materials have been used for many applications in various industries, including packaging, automotive, and construction, while also providing an environmentally friendly solution for agricultural waste products. Full article
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7 pages, 3158 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation into the End-Milling Parameters of Mg/B4C Metal Matrix Composites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061033 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 145
Abstract
The automotive, biomedical, and aerospace industries are attracted towards magnesium-based alloys and composites because they are among the lightest structural materials available and have significantly enhanced mechanical and physical characteristics. When it comes to precision and functional requirements, such materials need to be [...] Read more.
The automotive, biomedical, and aerospace industries are attracted towards magnesium-based alloys and composites because they are among the lightest structural materials available and have significantly enhanced mechanical and physical characteristics. When it comes to precision and functional requirements, such materials need to be machined. The aim of this study was to investigate the machinability behavior of Mg/B4C metal matrix composite (MMC) through end-milling experiments. Different deformation behaviors of the composite were studied by varying the volume percentage of B4C reinforcement between 5% and 10%. Using a milling tool dynamometer, the cutting forces on the tool were examined for various milling parameters. Moreover, Talysurf roughness was used to analyze the machined surface under each cutting parameter, and scanning electron microscopy was used to study the chips produced under different cutting conditions. Full article
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4 pages, 794 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Parameter Optimization of Wire-Cut EDM on Inconel Alloy for Maximizing Material Removal Rate
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061034 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 122
Abstract
In the existing investigation, the influence of wire-cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM) input factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire tension, and taper angle on the material removal rate (MRR) on Inconel 825 was investigated. Experimental trials were performed according to the [...] Read more.
In the existing investigation, the influence of wire-cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM) input factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire tension, and taper angle on the material removal rate (MRR) on Inconel 825 was investigated. Experimental trials were performed according to the central composite design (CCD). An ANOVA test was conducted to evaluate the influence of the most significant WEDM process input parameter. The optimization of the response was achieved using the desirability approach to attain the maximum MRR. The optimum setting conditions were obtained as Ton of 0.8 µs, Toff of 38 µs, wire tension of 14 N, and taper angle of 2° for the MRR value of 2.98 g/min with a desirability of 1. Finally, the 3D surface plots were used to illustrate the variations of the output response with respect to input parameters. Full article
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10 pages, 2205 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation on the Effect of Turning of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Using MQL Technique with Corn Oil as Cutting Fluid and Comparison with Dry Condition
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061035 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 117
Abstract
This study’s objective is to turn AISI 304 stainless steel (304 SS) utilizing the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique while comparing the outcomes to dry turning. Based on the responses, cutting force, surface roughness, and temperature, three process parameters, speed, feed, and depth [...] Read more.
This study’s objective is to turn AISI 304 stainless steel (304 SS) utilizing the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique while comparing the outcomes to dry turning. Based on the responses, cutting force, surface roughness, and temperature, three process parameters, speed, feed, and depth of cut (doc), were optimized and regressed for both dry and wet conditions. Dry turning and wet turning are carried out, and the responses are noted. Later, the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined component under both conditions is tested with the help of a surface roughness measuring instrument. The surface roughness of the component under wet turning is reduced to 0.5958 μm from 0.7425 μm with dry turning. The cutting temperature was controlled very well in wet turning with a value of 61.21 °C than with a value of 84.16 °C in the case of dry turning. The cutting force developed during dry turning is reduced by applying a mist of oil, which lubricates the surface, thereby reducing the cutting force to a value of 4.987 Kgf from 5.254 kgf. Corn oil produces better results and can be used as an alternate cutting fluid. Full article
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4 pages, 1140 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Experimental Evaluation of the Cutting Capability of SS 431 Steel Using Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM)
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061036 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 134
Abstract
The study begins with a comprehensive experimental investigation into the cutting capability of SS 431 steel using abrasive water jet machining (AWJM), focusing on optimizing the process through a response surface methodology (RSM-BBD) approach. Parametric analysis of the AWJM process identified the key [...] Read more.
The study begins with a comprehensive experimental investigation into the cutting capability of SS 431 steel using abrasive water jet machining (AWJM), focusing on optimizing the process through a response surface methodology (RSM-BBD) approach. Parametric analysis of the AWJM process identified the key factors affecting the cutting performance, such as the abrasive water pressure, standoff distance, and traverse speed. An increase in the water jet pressure and standoff distance which improves the material removal rate by 42.25%. As the standoff distance decreased, surface quality was improved by 7.89%. The surface characteristics and material removal rate results correlated with the optimized machining parameters, providing insights into the trade-off machining efficiency. Full article
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8 pages, 944 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fundamental Study on Influence of Independent Factors on Response Variable Using Response Surface Methodology and Taguchi Method
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061037 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Optimization approaches provide a strong foundation for analyzing and forecasting actions within a selected domain. This approach may be used to assess the extent of the effect of input variables on responses. There are several optimization tools and methodologies available, but each has [...] Read more.
Optimization approaches provide a strong foundation for analyzing and forecasting actions within a selected domain. This approach may be used to assess the extent of the effect of input variables on responses. There are several optimization tools and methodologies available, but each has its numerical approach and degree of accuracy with experimental data. As a result, several optimization methods are constantly evolving, and many new studies have focused on them. This study analyzes new optimization approaches employed to handle the issue of the location and size of distributed generating units for diverse applications, particularly focusing on tribological aspects. In addition, this work examines the modern technological, technical, economic, and regulatory factors that have created interest in distributed generation integration, as well as an overview of the challenges that must be overcome. Finally, it evaluates all relevant strategies for integrating dispersed generation from renewable energy sources using optimization techniques. The main methods of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Taguchi optimization technique were chosen because they have been used in many technical investigations and provide more significant predictions. Full article
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5 pages, 1450 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fiber Laser Cutting of AISI 431 Martensitic Stainless Steel: An Experimental Investigation
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061038 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 133
Abstract
This work explores the fiber laser cutting of AISI 431 martensitic steel using an optimized technique of RSM-BBD. A significant increase in gas pressure, power, and cutting speed improved material removal by 62.4%. Surface roughness was reduced by 56.7 percent with decreasing cutting [...] Read more.
This work explores the fiber laser cutting of AISI 431 martensitic steel using an optimized technique of RSM-BBD. A significant increase in gas pressure, power, and cutting speed improved material removal by 62.4%. Surface roughness was reduced by 56.7 percent with decreasing cutting speed, gas pressure, and laser power. The microhardness of the ablated surface was increased due to the resolidification of the molten layer. Surface topography analysis confirmed the machined samples’ surface roughness and quality. The research aims to understand AISI 431’s machinability and contribute to the improvement of component quality, especially in orthopedic implants and automotive component applications. Full article
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8 pages, 7368 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Jute Fiber Composites with Nano-Sized Al2O3 Ceramic Particle Reinforcement
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061039 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Jute fiber, a sustainable and abundant material, has garnered attention as a potential reinforcement in composites. This study focuses on enhancing the jute fiber composite strength through the inclusion of Al2O3 nanoparticles at varying levels. Mechanical properties were rigorously examined [...] Read more.
Jute fiber, a sustainable and abundant material, has garnered attention as a potential reinforcement in composites. This study focuses on enhancing the jute fiber composite strength through the inclusion of Al2O3 nanoparticles at varying levels. Mechanical properties were rigorously examined to evaluate their suitability for high-stress applications. This research encompassed assessments of hardness, flexural strength, tensile strength, and impact resistance. The results indicate that the incorporation of Al2O3 nanoparticles significantly improves the composite mechanical properties. Increasing the Al2O3 content elevates hardness, enhancing resistance to indentation. Flexural strength tests highlight the increased stiffness and deformation resistance, rendering the composites suitable for structural use. Additionally, tensile tests reveal an enhanced load-bearing capacity under tension with higher Al2O3 percentages. An improved impact resistance confirms the durability and the ability to withstand sudden shocks. These findings present promising opportunities for utilizing Al2O3-reinforced jute fiber composites in industries requiring high-strength materials, such as the automotive, aerospace, construction, and sports equipment manufacturing industries, combining sustainability with enhanced mechanical properties. Full article
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8 pages, 2027 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Tungsten Carbide Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties of Sisal-Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061040 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 112
Abstract
Sisal-fiber-reinforced composites have garnered significant attention across various industries owing to their favorable attributes, including cost-effectiveness, biodegradability, and lightweight characteristics. Nevertheless, the need to enhance their mechanical and tribological properties has become imperative to meet the growing demand for high-performance materials. This study [...] Read more.
Sisal-fiber-reinforced composites have garnered significant attention across various industries owing to their favorable attributes, including cost-effectiveness, biodegradability, and lightweight characteristics. Nevertheless, the need to enhance their mechanical and tribological properties has become imperative to meet the growing demand for high-performance materials. This study explores the impact of tungsten carbide (WC) particle reinforcement on the mechanical and tribological properties of sisal fiber composites. Composites were prepared by incorporating varying WC percentages (3%, 6%, and 9%) into the sisal-fiber–epoxy matrix. Flexural tests revealed a notable increase in flexural strength as WC content increased. Izod impact tests demonstrated superior impact resistance with higher WC content. Furthermore, pin-on-disc wear testing identified enhanced wear resistance in composites containing 9% WC reinforcement. These findings illustrate the potential of WC-reinforced composites for applications necessitating improved strength, impact resistance, and wear resistance, positioning them as promising materials for diverse industries. Full article
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5 pages, 1092 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Characterization Study of the ZE41 Magnesium Alloy Using Abrasive Waterjet Cutting
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061041 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 107
Abstract
ZE41 is a magnesium alloy used in heat exchangers, condensers, reactors, and pressure vessels where good surface qualities are required. This current research focuses on the investigation of the striation angle (SA), surface roughness (SR), and striation zone (SZ) in ZE41, using abrasive [...] Read more.
ZE41 is a magnesium alloy used in heat exchangers, condensers, reactors, and pressure vessels where good surface qualities are required. This current research focuses on the investigation of the striation angle (SA), surface roughness (SR), and striation zone (SZ) in ZE41, using abrasive waterjet cutting. Significant variables in the investigation were jet pressure, traverse speed, mass flow rate, and stand-off distance. In accordance with Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array, the responses for each cut test were studied. In addition, the principal component-based grey incidence (PGI) technique successfully combined the strengths of the optimization tool to identify the ideal parameter condition. The confirmation results revealed that the PGI technique improved SR by 4.02%, SZ by 6.67%, and 1.48% in the SA. Full article
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480 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The 3D Taper Profile Machining of Superalloys and Composites Using WEDM: A Review
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061042 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 86
Abstract
Wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) is a process used popularly in microsystems, tool and die industries, medicine, transportation, and spacecrafts to create intricate portions with high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. It is employed to process superalloys and materials made of composites which [...] Read more.
Wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) is a process used popularly in microsystems, tool and die industries, medicine, transportation, and spacecrafts to create intricate portions with high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. It is employed to process superalloys and materials made of composites which are conductive and strong materials. From the literature, an analysis of the WEDM process on different materials revealed that there were many variables involved and that each process parameter influences the different response variables. The removal process of a spark discharge for an inclined angle during the cutting of 3D profiles has different applications. Also, types of dielectric fluid, and the influence of wire material, diameter and pressure, wire tension, feed, Ton, Toff, current, and voltage on machining characteristics—like kerf, MRR, wire wear, surface finish and its characteristics, dimensional deviations, and corner errors—and on a variety of materials like Inconel, nickel, titanium, WC, steels, and other superalloys and composites (MMCs and CMCs) during taper WEDM were reviewed. Full article
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8 pages, 2637 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Texture Thickness and Angles on Performance Output of a Solar Cell
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061043 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 152
Abstract
The utilization of conventional fossil fuel-based energy for power generation is associated with various issues, such as greenhouse gas emissions, rising costs, and scarcity of resources. Renewable energy sources offer a solution to these problems. Although solar photovoltaic technologies have been leading the [...] Read more.
The utilization of conventional fossil fuel-based energy for power generation is associated with various issues, such as greenhouse gas emissions, rising costs, and scarcity of resources. Renewable energy sources offer a solution to these problems. Although solar photovoltaic technologies have been leading the way in this area, the output of solar cells is constrained by optical losses. Surface texturing reduces reflectance, increasing the absorbance of solar cells. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain proper values of texturing parameters before fabricating the solar cell. Software simulation tools can help to do this. In the present work, the PC1D 5.0 tool is used to obtain an optimum texture thickness and angle for a solar cell of a 100 cm2 cross-sectional area. For the texture angle of 65°, the optimum texture was found to be 4 µm. Full article
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7 pages, 964 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Overview on 3D Printing of Ceramics Using Binder Jetting Process
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061044 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Binder jetting is a promising 3D printing technology that employs a liquid binder to selectively attach the particles of a pulverised material to form three-dimensional objects. It is also a popular technique for fabricating ceramics, as it permits the creation of intricate geometries [...] Read more.
Binder jetting is a promising 3D printing technology that employs a liquid binder to selectively attach the particles of a pulverised material to form three-dimensional objects. It is also a popular technique for fabricating ceramics, as it permits the creation of intricate geometries and customised shapes that would be hard or impossible to achieve using conventional ceramic manufacturing techniques. This study focuses on the capabilities of some of the most essential ceramic materials, such as alumina, SiC, and calcium phosphate, to construct complicated geometries with a high level of accuracy and precision when using a process called binder jetting. These ceramic components find widespread usage in a broad variety of applications, including those relating to aircraft, biomedical, and industry. Full article
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0 pages, 2015 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reinforcement of SiC Particles on Friction Stir Processing of Aluminium AA7050
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061045 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state processing technique used to refine the microstructures of metallic alloys. It involves inserting a rotating tool into the material, which generates heat and plastic deformation, leading to the recrystallization and refinement of the microstructure. The aluminium [...] Read more.
Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state processing technique used to refine the microstructures of metallic alloys. It involves inserting a rotating tool into the material, which generates heat and plastic deformation, leading to the recrystallization and refinement of the microstructure. The aluminium alloy 7050 is a high-strength alloy possessing good corrosion resistance, and is commonly used in aerospace applications. By incorporating SiC particles into the alloy with different percentiles of 0 to 1%, the resulting composite can have improved mechanical properties, such as higher strength and stiffness, as well as increased wear resistance. Mechanical testing and optical metallographic characterization were conducted. The test results showed that weldments have improved mechanical properties compared to the base material, making them suitable for high-strength and low-weight applications. Full article
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0 pages, 1987 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Tribology and Mechanical Properties on Silicon Carbide and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Nanocomposites
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061046 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 65
Abstract
This study aims to enhance the mechanical and wear properties of hybrid nanocomposites by incorporating SiC nanoparticles and glass fibers into an epoxy resin matrix, utilizing a neural network for optimization. The mechanical properties were evaluated via flexural, impact, and wear tests. SiC [...] Read more.
This study aims to enhance the mechanical and wear properties of hybrid nanocomposites by incorporating SiC nanoparticles and glass fibers into an epoxy resin matrix, utilizing a neural network for optimization. The mechanical properties were evaluated via flexural, impact, and wear tests. SiC nanoparticle concentrations were varied at three levels using the Taguchi technique. The results were optimized with the Taguchi signal-to-noise ratio approach. Regression analysis was used to determine the wear rate, flexural strength, and impact properties of the composites. SiC reinforcement significantly influenced the flexural and impact strength, along with wear resistance. The composition with 2% SiC showed a flexural strength of 95 MPa, while 4% and 6% SiC compositions exhibited strengths of 110.5 MPa and 125 MPa, respectively. The impact strength followed a similar trend. The wear test results demonstrated a decrease in the specific wear rate (Swr) and coefficient of friction (CoF) with an increasing SiC nanoparticle percentage. The optimal parameters were identified as 6% SiC nanoparticle loading, 15 N load, 160 RPM rotation speed, and a 40.2 mm sliding distance. The enhancement in impact strength is attributed to SiC nanoparticle reinforcement. The results were further refined using an artificial neural network for improved predictability. This research underscores the effectiveness of hybrid nanocomposites with SiC nanoparticles and glass fibers, as well as the potential of neural networks for process optimization, benefiting industries requiring high-performance materials. Full article
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8 pages, 755 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Worker Exposure to Hand-Arm Vibration in Fettling Shop: An Experimental Study in Foundry
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061047 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 111
Abstract
Hand-arm vibration is a significant occupational hazard commonly faced by industrial workers, particularly those in foundries engaged in fettling activities. The vibration exposure can result in various health problems, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), carpal tunnel syndrome, and other musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Hand-arm vibration is a significant occupational hazard commonly faced by industrial workers, particularly those in foundries engaged in fettling activities. The vibration exposure can result in various health problems, such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), carpal tunnel syndrome, and other musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate workers’ vibration environment and exposure levels to prevent such health issues. At first, the present study explored a different type of vibration exposure followed by vibration syndrome and vibration measurement methods. A case study was considered wherein the comparative analysis between pneumatic and swing grinders was performed between vibration magnitude, particularly in the fettling shop. The results revealed that the pneumatic hand grinder worker experienced a vibration magnitude of 3.6 m/s2 at 208 exposure points. In comparison, the swing grinder had a magnitude of 6.5 m/s2 at 668 exposure points for an 8 h workday. It can be noted that regulatory bodies such as ISO 5349 recommend an exposure vibration magnitude of 5 m/s2 for an 8 h workday and in the present context, these exposure levels were found to be higher than the standard limits. Accordingly, proper recommendations to sustain these levels within the limits are suggested. Such recommendations will protect workers from health hazards and help employers avoid costly compensation claims and legal liabilities. This study emphasizes the importance of addressing hand-arm vibration in the workplace for a safe working environment. Full article
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8 pages, 2906 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Study on the Effect of Tool Wear on Turning Mild Steel and Stainless Steel with a Ceramic Tool Insert Using Taguchi Method
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061048 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 67
Abstract
Machining is a critical aspect of metalworking since it is used to cut metal. Machine tools, particularly cutting tools, are critical in metalworking for successful metal cutting. They have a significant role in developing distinct shapes and forms. Machining has become more crucial [...] Read more.
Machining is a critical aspect of metalworking since it is used to cut metal. Machine tools, particularly cutting tools, are critical in metalworking for successful metal cutting. They have a significant role in developing distinct shapes and forms. Machining has become more crucial in modern automated manufacturing systems because of the massive upsurge in production time and the necessity to offset the high capital cost. Specifically, the Taguchi approach is used in this experiment because it uses an orthogonal array to investigate the parameters through a fixed number of experiments. In this case, three parameters (speed, depth of cut, and feed) were combined to produce nine possible result combinations. Stainless steel and mild steel are machined with the help of a ceramic tool insert with certain combinations. This is performed to estimate tool wear and surface roughness. The comparative study was conducted for two different materials: stainless steel (SS) and mild steel (MS). Full article
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5 pages, 769 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Process Parameters of Aluminium 7075/TiCnp MMC Fabricated Using Powder Metallurgy Route
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061049 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 55
Abstract
Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs) havewidespread application due to their exceptional properties. This study reinforced aluminum alloy 7075 with nano-titanium carbide across varying weight percentages using powder metallurgy. Optimization by TAGUCHI and ANOVA techniques which was carried out consideringthe following key parameters: sintering [...] Read more.
Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs) havewidespread application due to their exceptional properties. This study reinforced aluminum alloy 7075 with nano-titanium carbide across varying weight percentages using powder metallurgy. Optimization by TAGUCHI and ANOVA techniques which was carried out consideringthe following key parameters: sintering temperature (250–400 °C), sintering time (30–120 min), compacting pressure (300–450 MPa), and TiCnp content. Microhardness, evaluated with a Vickers tester and an L16 orthogonal array, led to optimal conditions: 15 wt.% TiCnp, 120 min sintering, 450 MPa pressure, and 400 °C temperature. Confirmation tests validated the resulting enhanced microhardness. Full article
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4 pages, 1281 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Shape-Memory-Alloy-Based Overheating Protection System
Eng. Proc. 2024, 61(1), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2024061031 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are a class of metallic alloys that have the ability to return to their original shape after being deformed. NiTi (nickel–titanium) alloy a type of shape memory alloy that possesses unique properties such as remembering its shape, biocompatibility, and [...] Read more.
Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are a class of metallic alloys that have the ability to return to their original shape after being deformed. NiTi (nickel–titanium) alloy a type of shape memory alloy that possesses unique properties such as remembering its shape, biocompatibility, and super-elasticity. These SMAs have the ability to deform when heated and regain their original shape when allowed to cool. The disadvantage of a fuse is that it can only be used once. By replacing a wire that melts with a NiTi shape memory alloy, we can turn it into a switch that opens when an excessive current (which leads to an increase in temperature of the wire) is applied. Magnets keep the circuit closed. When the wire heats up, the spring-shaped coil shrinks, which opens the circuit. The circuit can then be closed manually once the problems are rectified. Full article
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