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CivilEng, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Hydraulic models were used in practice to predict the effect of human intervention during extreme conditions. However, the accuracy of such predictions remains untested. In this study, we compare simulated water level changes with a thirty-year observational record. The results show that the observed water levels display a linearly decreasing trend attributed to bed erosion. A deviation from this trend, a possible indication of the effect of human intervention, was not observed. We propose that this effect is likely hidden in the uncertainties. We argue that model uncertainty should be considered in intervention design. View this paper
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Article
Restriction of RAP% in HMA Based on Aggregate Gradation and Binder Properties
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 811-822; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030044 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 146
Abstract
The use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in pavement construction reduces the project cost and helps in conserving the naturally occurring aggregates. To incorporate RAP in hot mix asphalt, it is vital to know the amount and quality of the reclaimed binder. Three [...] Read more.
The use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in pavement construction reduces the project cost and helps in conserving the naturally occurring aggregates. To incorporate RAP in hot mix asphalt, it is vital to know the amount and quality of the reclaimed binder. Three new asphalt binders were selected for this investigation. RAP material from one source was blended in different proportions with VG-10 and VG-30. Penetration, softening point, G */sin δ, G * sin δ and binder fatigue life Nf (from Linear Amplitude Sweep test) values of different blends were compared. The milled RAP aggregate gradation varied from source to source due to factors such as the gradation of the mix used in the existing layer, milling method and processing of RAP material. This variability controls the use of higher proportions of RAP in new mixes. To investigate the effect of RAP gradation on the proportion of RAP that can be used in the new mix, RAP sources with different gradation (three dense and two gap gradations) were selected. The proportion of RAP that can be used for preparing mixes with these gradations varied significantly with the source of RAP, and the target gradation. In most cases, it was found that allowable RAP percentages are smaller for the gap gradations compared to those permitted for dense gradations. The proportion of RAP in a mix can be increased by selecting an appropriate gradation for a RAP source or by using a suitable RAP source for a given gradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reclaimed Asphalt Materials for Pavement Layers)
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Article
The Effect of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Aggregates on the Reaction, Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Alkali-Activated Slag
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 794-810; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030043 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a recyclable aggregate produced during the demolition of old flexible pavements and consists of natural aggregates (NA) coated with aged bitumen. The detrimental effect caused by the bitumen coating on strength and porosity has limited the use of [...] Read more.
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a recyclable aggregate produced during the demolition of old flexible pavements and consists of natural aggregates (NA) coated with aged bitumen. The detrimental effect caused by the bitumen coating on strength and porosity has limited the use of RAP on traditional cementitious systems. This study investigates the potential use of fine RAP to substitute NA in the production of alkali-activated slag mortars (AAM). The effect of different activator dosages was assessed, i.e., either 4% or 6% Na2O (wt. slag) combined with a modulus of silica equal to 0, 0.5 and 1.0. The characterisation of 100% RAP-AAM consisted of hydration kinetics (Isothermal Calorimetry), pore size distribution (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry), mechanical performance (Compressive and Flexural strength), and microstructure analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy). The results show that RAP aggregates do not compromise the reaction of the matrices; however, it causes a significant strength loss (compressive strength of RAP-mortars 54% lower than reference NA-mortar at 28 days). The higher porosity at the interface transition zone of RAP-AAM is the main responsible for the lower strength performance. Increasing silicate dosages improves alkaline activation, but it has little impact on the adhesion between aggregate and bitumen. Despite the poorer mechanical performance, 100% RAP-AAM still yields enough strength to promote this recycled material in engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Review
Building Information Modelling in Structural Engineering: A Qualitative Literature Review
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 765-793; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030042 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Over the past decade, the fields of civil engineering, i.e., structural engineering, have increasingly used the building information modelling (BIM) approach in both professional practice and as the focus of research. However, the field of structural engineering, which can be seen as a [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, the fields of civil engineering, i.e., structural engineering, have increasingly used the building information modelling (BIM) approach in both professional practice and as the focus of research. However, the field of structural engineering, which can be seen as a sub-discipline of civil engineering, misses, as far as the authors are aware, a real state-of-the-art on the use of BIM in this regard. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to start bridging that gap. In particular, the authors have conducted a traditional literature review on the utilisation of BIM in structural engineering, enabling them to perform a detailed content analysis of publications. The qualitative investigation of the literature that the authors have conducted has highlighted six main BIM uses in structural engineering: (1) structural analyses; (2) production of shop drawings; (3) optimized structural design, early identification of constructability issues, and a comparison of different structural solutions; (4) seismic risk assessments; (5) existing-condition modelling and retrofitting of structures; and (6) structural health monitoring. Each of these is discussed in relation to their reference workflows; use of information models; information exchanges; and main limitations. In the conclusions, the authors identify current gaps in knowledge, as well as likely developments and improvements in the utilization of BIM in structural engineering. The authors also outline the possible significance of this work more broadly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
An Adaptive Hybrid Model for Determining Subjective Causal Relationships in Fuzzy System Dynamics Models for Analyzing Construction Risks
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 747-764; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030041 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Modeling risk management systems in construction projects is a complex process because of various internal and external factors and their interrelationships. Fuzzy system dynamics (FSD) have been commonly employed to model and analyze construction risk management systems. To run FSD simulation models, all [...] Read more.
Modeling risk management systems in construction projects is a complex process because of various internal and external factors and their interrelationships. Fuzzy system dynamics (FSD) have been commonly employed to model and analyze construction risk management systems. To run FSD simulation models, all hard (objective) and soft (subjective) causal relationships between variables must be quantified. However, a research gap exists regarding structured methods for constructing soft causal relationships in FSD models. This paper proposes an adaptive hybrid model consisting of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, weighted principle of justifiable granularity, and fuzzy aggregation operators to determine crisp values of causality degree for soft (subjective) causal relationships in FSD modeling of construction risk analysis. The proposed model is implemented in analyzing construction risks of a windfarm project to illustrate its applicability. The proposed model generates two results: (1) optimized membership functions for linguistic terms representing the causality degree of soft relationships and (2) the crisp value for the causality degree of soft relationships. The contribution of study is to propose a structured model to improve efficiency and effectiveness of developing FSD quantitative modeling by addressing soft causal relationships between different variables in FSD models and considering multiple risk expertise of heterogeneous experts in construction risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Structural Contribution of Cold In-Place Recycling Base Layer
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 736-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030040 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Cold in-place recycling (CIR) of asphalt pavements is a process that has successfully been used for many years. The use of CIR for rehabilitation offers many advantages over traditional overlays due to its excellent resistance to reflective cracking and its environmentally friendly impacts. [...] Read more.
Cold in-place recycling (CIR) of asphalt pavements is a process that has successfully been used for many years. The use of CIR for rehabilitation offers many advantages over traditional overlays due to its excellent resistance to reflective cracking and its environmentally friendly impacts. Despite the good performance and positive sustainability aspects of CIR, the structural contribution of the CIR base layer has not been well defined. In this research, CIR mixtures were designed with different asphalt emulsions. The mixtures were then subjected to dynamic modulus, repeated load triaxial, and flexural beam fatigue testing over a range of temperature and loading conditions. The performance test data generated were then used to develop CIR rutting and fatigue performance models used in the mechanistic analysis of flexible pavements. The technique used to develop the performance models leveraged the fact that the rutting and fatigue models for individual CIR mixtures were all within the 95 percent confidence interval of each other. A mechanistic analysis was conducted using the 3D-Move Mechanistic Analysis model. With the laboratory-developed performance models, the structural layer coefficient for the CIR base layer were developed for use in the 1993 AASHTO Guide for the Design of Pavement Structures. This analysis led to the determination of an average structural coefficient of the CIR base layer of 0.25. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reclaimed Asphalt Materials for Pavement Layers)
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Article
Site-Specific Response Spectra: Guidelines for Engineering Practice
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 712-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030039 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Code response spectrum models, which are used widely in the earthquake-resistant design of buildings, are simple to apply but they do not necessarily represent the real behavior of an earthquake. A code response spectrum model typically incorporates ground motion behavior in a diversity [...] Read more.
Code response spectrum models, which are used widely in the earthquake-resistant design of buildings, are simple to apply but they do not necessarily represent the real behavior of an earthquake. A code response spectrum model typically incorporates ground motion behavior in a diversity of earthquake scenarios affecting the site and does not represent any specific earthquake scenario. The soil amplification phenomenon is also poorly represented, as the current site classification scheme contains little information over the potential dynamic response behavior of the soil sediments. Site-specific response spectra have the merit of much more accurately representing real behavior. The improvement in accuracy can be translated into significant potential cost savings. Despite all the potential merits of adopting site-specific response spectra, few design engineers make use of these code provisions that have been around for a long time. This lack of uptake of the procedure by structural designers is related to the absence of a coherent set of detailed guidelines to facilitate practical applications. To fill in this knowledge gap, this paper aims at explaining the procedure in detail for generating site-specific response spectra for the seismic design or assessment of buildings. Surface ground motion accelerograms generated from the procedure can also be employed for nonlinear time-history analyses where necessary. A case study is presented to illustrate the procedure in a step-by-step manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Numerical Investigations on Non-Rectangular Anchor Groups under Shear Loads Applied Perpendicular or Parallel to an Edge
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 692-711; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030038 - 28 Aug 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Anchorages of non-rectangular configuration, though not covered by current design codes, are often used in practice due to functional or architectural needs. Frequently, such anchor groups are placed close to a concrete edge and are subjected to shear loads. The design of such [...] Read more.
Anchorages of non-rectangular configuration, though not covered by current design codes, are often used in practice due to functional or architectural needs. Frequently, such anchor groups are placed close to a concrete edge and are subjected to shear loads. The design of such anchorages requires engineering judgement and no clear rules are given in the codes and standards. In this work, numerical investigations using a nonlinear 3D FE analysis code are carried out on anchor groups with triangular and hexagonal anchor patterns to understand their behavior under shear loads. A microplane model with relaxed kinematic constraint is utilized as the constitutive law for concrete. Two different orientations are considered for both triangular and hexagonal anchor groups while no hole clearance is considered in the analysis. Two loading scenarios are investigated: (i) shear loading applied perpendicular and towards the edge; and (ii) shear loading applied parallel to the edge. The results of the analyses are evaluated in terms of the load-displacement behavior and failure modes. A comparison is made between the results of the numerical simulations and the analytical calculations according to the current approaches. It is found that, similar to the rectangular anchorages, and also for such non-rectangular anchorages without hole clearance, it may be reasonable to calculate the concrete edge breakout capacity by assuming a failure crack from the back anchor row. Furthermore, the failure load of the investigated groups loaded in shear parallel to the edge may be considered as twice the failure load of the corresponding groups loaded in shear perpendicular to the edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connections in Concrete Volume 2)
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Article
Lateral Deformation Capacity and Plastic Hinge Length of RC Columns Confined with Textile Reinforced Mortar Jackets
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 670-691; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030037 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of textiles reinforced mortars (TRM)-confined reinforced concrete (RC) columns through jacketing, under combined axial and cyclic loadings. The FEA models were validated with an experimental study in the literature that was conducted on full-scale [...] Read more.
This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) of textiles reinforced mortars (TRM)-confined reinforced concrete (RC) columns through jacketing, under combined axial and cyclic loadings. The FEA models were validated with an experimental study in the literature that was conducted on full-scale square columns reinforced with continuous steel bars (no lap splices). Subsequently, parametric study was performed on the validated FEA models. The parameters considered include various jacket’s lengths and mortar strengths. Moreover, semiempirical models were developed to evaluate the plastic hinge length (LP) and the ultimate drift ratio of RC columns confined with TRM and FRP jackets, while considering the jacket length effect. The FEA models and experimental results were in good agreement. The finite element results revealed that the increase in the jacket length improved the lateral deformation capacity and increased the plastic hinge length linearly up to a confinement ratio of 0.2. Beyond this point, the plastic hinge length shortened as the confinement ratio raised. Moreover, mortars with higher flexural strength resulted in a slightly higher deformation capacity. However, the difference in the mortar compressive strength did not affect the ultimate lateral deformation capacity. The semiempirical models show that the average difference in the predicted LP and the ultimate drift ratio values as compared to the experimental and simulated columns was 3.19 and 16.06%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Fiber Reinforced Polymer as Wood Roof-to-Wall Connections to Withstand Hurricane Wind Loads
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 652-669; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030036 - 08 Aug 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Light wood roof-to-wall connections are vulnerable when subjected to high-speed winds. In lieu of traditional metal connections, the present finite element analysis (FEA) study focuses on the use of epoxy and easy-to-apply, noncorrosive FRP ties to connect the roof and the walls in [...] Read more.
Light wood roof-to-wall connections are vulnerable when subjected to high-speed winds. In lieu of traditional metal connections, the present finite element analysis (FEA) study focuses on the use of epoxy and easy-to-apply, noncorrosive FRP ties to connect the roof and the walls in wood frames. The FEA models of the wood roof-to-wall GFRP connection were validated with an experimental study in the literature. Subsequently parametric study was performed on the validated FEA models. Parameters considered were the addition of anchorages to secure the GFRP ties for FEA models of shear and uplift tests, and various FRP types. Wood roof-to-wall connection uplift model was subjected to monotonic cyclic loading to simulate the effect of wind load. In addition, carbon and basalt FRP ties were also examined under monotonic cyclic loading. To evaluate the efficiency of GFRP ties with and without anchorages, the shear and uplift design loads specified in ASCE 7-16 were calculated. Finally, a formula was proposed to approximate the shear strength of GFRP connection in comparison with double shear bolted metal plate connections. The FEA models and experimental results were in good agreement. The finite element results revealed that anchorage increased the uplift load capacity by 15% but the increase in shear capacity was insignificant. Comparing glass, carbon, and basalt FRP ties, BFRP was superior in deformation capacity and CFRP provided more stiffness on uplift test simulation. GFRP ties were found to be approximately nine times stronger in shear and two times stronger in uplift resistance than hurricane clips. Finally, the proposed formula could predict the shear strength of GFRP tie connection which in turns contributes to the design and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Numerical Modelling and Design of Aluminium Alloy Angles under Uniform Compression
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 632-651; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030035 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Research studies have been reported on aluminium alloy tubular and doubly symmetric open cross-sections, whilst studies on angle cross-sections remain limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of aluminium alloy angle stub columns. Finite element models are developed following [...] Read more.
Research studies have been reported on aluminium alloy tubular and doubly symmetric open cross-sections, whilst studies on angle cross-sections remain limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of aluminium alloy angle stub columns. Finite element models are developed following a series of modelling assumptions. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analyses with imperfections included are executed, and the obtained results are validated against experimental data available in the literature. Subsequently, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the local buckling behaviour of aluminium alloy angles. For this purpose, a broad range of cross-sectional aspect ratios, slenderness and two types of structural aluminium alloys are considered. Their effect on the cross-sectional behaviour and strength is discussed. Moreover, the numerically obtained ultimate strengths together with literature test data are utilised to assess the applicability of the European design standards, the American Aluminium Design Manual and the Continuous Strength Method to aluminium alloy angles. The suitability of the Direct Strength Method is also evaluated and a modified method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the strength predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Review
A Review of Accelerated Pavement Testing Applications in Non-Pavement Research
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 612-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030034 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Accelerated pavement testing (APT) facilities has been demonstrated for years as a multi-purpose solution for pavement and non-pavement research. Even though APTs are widely known in the pavement industry, little has been publicized about their successful applications in non-pavement research. This paper provides [...] Read more.
Accelerated pavement testing (APT) facilities has been demonstrated for years as a multi-purpose solution for pavement and non-pavement research. Even though APTs are widely known in the pavement industry, little has been publicized about their successful applications in non-pavement research. This paper provides a survey of APT applications in non-pavement research. The purpose of the survey is to review and encourage APT owners and agencies to explore the opportunities that APT facilities can present to promote non-pavement research initiatives. The survey demonstrates the ability of APTs to conduct research for bridges, transportation technology, drainage, geotechnical engineering, automobiles, environmental engineering, highway safety, among others. Non-pavement research can be incorporated into APT programs to diversify funding sources for research operations and promote cooperation with other agencies. Finally, suggestions for future and current APTs are made in this paper, including evaluating connected vehicles, work zone applications, smart infrastructure, truck platooning effects on bridge performance, sustainable drainage systems, bridges, advancement in geotechnical methods, sustainable fuels, and unmanned aerial systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Review
Bituminous Pavement Reinforcement with Fiber: A Review
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 599-611; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030033 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
This paper attempts to display, analyze and discuss the literature affiliated to the previous research data on road surfacing in pavement engineering reinforcement. In this paper, a review of the background and present status of road surfacing is also provided for supportive explanation [...] Read more.
This paper attempts to display, analyze and discuss the literature affiliated to the previous research data on road surfacing in pavement engineering reinforcement. In this paper, a review of the background and present status of road surfacing is also provided for supportive explanation of the significance of fiber-reinforced asphalt pavement HMA and its role in providing effective and durable surfacing for heavy-trafficked roads. The paper attempts to clarify some of the terms and notions related to the discussions to give the readers the needed background, to be able to actively understand the experiments and discussions. Results from many studies confirm that fiber specifically enhances the optimum bitumen content in the design of the mixture and halts the bitumen leakage due to its asphalt absorbing susceptibility. Fiber modifies the visco-elastic response, susceptibility against moisture, increase resistance to rutting, as well as lowers the pavement fatigue cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Multidecadal Analysis of an Engineered River System Reveals Challenges for Model-Based Design of Human Interventions
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 580-598; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030032 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Hydraulic models were used in practice to predict the effect of human intervention during extreme conditions. However, the accuracy of such predictions remains untested. In this study, we compare a simulated trend in water levels covering a twenty-year period of large-scale human intervention [...] Read more.
Hydraulic models were used in practice to predict the effect of human intervention during extreme conditions. However, the accuracy of such predictions remains untested. In this study, we compare a simulated trend in water levels covering a twenty-year period of large-scale human intervention with a thirty-year observational record. The results show that the observed water levels display a linearly decreasing trend attributed to channel bed erosion. A deviation from this trend, which would be an indication of the effect of human intervention, was not observed. We propose that the most likely explanation for this is that any effect observable at lower discharge is hidden in the uncertainty of the rating curve. Given the inherent uncertainties associated with making predictions about a changing system for conditions with a low period of return, we argue that model uncertainty should be considered in intervention design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources and Coastal Engineering)
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Article
Influence of Different Fiber Dosages on the Behaviour of Façade Anchors in High-Performance Concrete
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 556-579; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030031 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
The behaviour of façade anchors in high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) has not been investigated in sufficient detail in recent years. The regulations in the European Technical Approvals also do not fully describe the load-bearing capacity of anchor systems. Due to the [...] Read more.
The behaviour of façade anchors in high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) has not been investigated in sufficient detail in recent years. The regulations in the European Technical Approvals also do not fully describe the load-bearing capacity of anchor systems. Due to the increase in the production of HPFRC elements, it is necessary to analyse the impact of added fibers in the concrete composition on the behaviour of anchors. In particular, the behaviour of anchors in filigree façade elements, which is one of the main application areas of the programme of polypropylene (PP) fiber-reinforced concrete, is therefore analysed. With a sufficient content of PP fibers surrounding the steel anchors oriented in an optimal direction, the fibers may enhance both the load-bearing capacity of anchors and the ductility of concrete. However, unfavourable effects on the installation process or even on the load-bearing capacity may also occur due to unfavourable fiber orientation. Therefore, tensile and punching tests were carried out in uncracked concrete with different types of anchor systems containing a tension anchor and an adjustable spacer bolt. The PP fiber content of the concrete component varied during the tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connections in Concrete)
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Article
Discrete Rigid Block Analysis to Assess Settlement Induced Damage in Unreinforced Masonry Façades
CivilEng 2021, 2(3), 541-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng2030030 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
In this study, a system of discontinuous rigid blocks is employed to simulate the possible damage mechanisms in unreinforced masonry (URM) façades and load-bearing frame systems subjected to settlement using the discrete element method (DEM). First, the employed modeling strategy is validated utilizing [...] Read more.
In this study, a system of discontinuous rigid blocks is employed to simulate the possible damage mechanisms in unreinforced masonry (URM) façades and load-bearing frame systems subjected to settlement using the discrete element method (DEM). First, the employed modeling strategy is validated utilizing the available experimental results presented in the literature. Once there is a good agreement between the computational models and experimental findings, a sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the influence of the input parameters defined in the DEM-based numerical model. Finally, the proposed modeling strategy is further utilized to assess the damage pattern that may develop in a URM façade due to uniform and non-uniform settlement profiles. The results of this study clearly show that the discrete rigid block analysis (D-RBA) provides robust numerical solutions that can be employed to visualize and assess the possible damage patterns and related collapse mechanisms of URM masonry systems as an alternative modeling strategy to standard continuum-based solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Detection, Quantification and Modelling in Masonry Structures)
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