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Acoustics, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 5 articles

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13 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Silent Neonatal Incubators, Prototype Nica+
by Ricardo Hernández-Molina, Virginia Puyana-Romero, Juan Luis Beira-Jiménez, Arturo Morgado-Estévez, Rafael Bienvenido-Bárcena and Francisco Fernández-Zacarías
Acoustics 2024, 6(3), 638-650; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics6030035 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the noise levels in current incubator models and a prototype designed to improve acoustic comfort in neonatal incubators. Methods: Tests were carried out on three different models of incubators and a prototype [...] Read more.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the noise levels in current incubator models and a prototype designed to improve acoustic comfort in neonatal incubators. Methods: Tests were carried out on three different models of incubators and a prototype called Neonatal Incubator Acoustic Comfort Class (NICA). The tests measured both internal and external sound pressure levels under laboratory conditions. The noise index has been taken as the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq,T) for a time interval of 1 min. Results: The results obtained show variations between the different models of incubators, although, overall, they are high values (around 56/60 dBA). The results prove that premature newborns under normal conditions of using these incubators are exposed to noise levels above international recommendations. The new incubator design minimizes noise generation and generates noise levels lower than international recommendations. Conclusions: The results obtained from the prototype (NICA+) show the effectiveness of the proposed design in improving acoustic comfort in neonatal incubators. The data show that the noise levels generated by the prototype under normal operating conditions are significantly lower than international recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise (2nd Edition))
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18 pages, 4133 KiB  
Article
Measurement and Simulation of the Propagation of Impulsive Acoustic Emission Sources in Pipes
by Chika Judith Abolle-Okoyeagu, Samuel Fatukasi and Bob Reuben
Acoustics 2024, 6(3), 620-637; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics6030034 - 30 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Acoustic Emission (AE) testing is a non-destructive evaluation technique that has gained significant attention in pipeline monitoring. Pencil-lead breaks (PLBs) are commonly used in reproducing and characterising sensors used in AE applications and have emerged as a valuable tool for calibration processes. This [...] Read more.
Acoustic Emission (AE) testing is a non-destructive evaluation technique that has gained significant attention in pipeline monitoring. Pencil-lead breaks (PLBs) are commonly used in reproducing and characterising sensors used in AE applications and have emerged as a valuable tool for calibration processes. This technique involves breaking a pencil lead by pressing it on the surface of the test structure and applying a bending moment at a given angle on a surface. The applied force produces a local deformation on the test surface, which is released when the lead breaks. The fracture in these PLBs is assumed to be a step unload; however, this is not the case. In this work, a series of PLB source experiments complemented with parallel numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the actual unload rate by correlating the relationship between AE speed, frequency, and power from PLBs. This was achieved by varying the simulation unload rates recorded over a duration of 2 s on a steel pipe and comparing to the experiment. Analysis of the investigated results from the experimental and numerical models suggests that although the AE line structure of a PLB can be reproduced by simulation for short times only (1 µs), the actual unload rate for PLBs is in the region of 10–8 s. It is concluded that FEA has the potential to help in the recovery of the temporal structure from real AE structures. The establishment of this model will provide a theoretical basis for future studies on the monitoring of non-impulsive AE sources such as impact on pipelines using finite element analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Duct Acoustics)
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10 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
On the Applicability of Kramers–Kronig Dispersion Relations to Guided and Surface Waves
by Victor V. Krylov
Acoustics 2024, 6(3), 610-619; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics6030033 - 29 Jun 2024
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Abstract
In unbounded media, the acoustic attenuation as function of frequency is related to the frequency-dependent sound velocity (dispersion) via Kramers–Kronig dispersion relations. These relations are fundamentally important for better understanding of the nature of attenuation and dispersion and as a tool in physical [...] Read more.
In unbounded media, the acoustic attenuation as function of frequency is related to the frequency-dependent sound velocity (dispersion) via Kramers–Kronig dispersion relations. These relations are fundamentally important for better understanding of the nature of attenuation and dispersion and as a tool in physical acoustics measurements, where they can be used for control purposes. However, physical acoustic measurements are frequently carried out not in unbounded media but in acoustic waveguides, e.g., inside liquid-filled pipes. Surface acoustic waves are also often used for physical acoustics measurements. In the present work, the applicability of Kramers–Kronig relations to guided and surface waves is investigated using the approach based on the theory of functions of complex variables. It is demonstrated that Kramers–Kronig relations have limited applicability to guided and surface waves. In particular, they are not applicable to waves propagating in waveguides characterised by the possibility of wave energy leakage from the waveguides into the surrounding medium. For waveguides without leakages, e.g., those formed by rigid walls, Kramers–Kronig relations remain valid for both ideal and viscous liquids. Examples of numerical calculations of wave dispersion and attenuation using Kramers–Kronig relations, where applicable, are presented for unbounded media and for waveguides formed by two rigid walls. Full article
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17 pages, 11766 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Study of Longitudinal Critically Refracted and Bulk Waves of the Heat-Affected Zone of a Low-Carbon Steel Welded Joint under Fatigue
by Alexander Gonchar, Alexander Solovyov and Vyacheslav Klyushnikov
Acoustics 2024, 6(3), 593-609; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics6030032 - 29 Jun 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Currently, ultrasonic methods for assessing the fatigue lifetime of various structural materials are being actively developed. Many steel constructions are made by welding. The weld heat-affected zone is the weak point of the construction, as it is most susceptible to destruction. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Currently, ultrasonic methods for assessing the fatigue lifetime of various structural materials are being actively developed. Many steel constructions are made by welding. The weld heat-affected zone is the weak point of the construction, as it is most susceptible to destruction. Therefore, it is actually important to search for acoustic parameters that uniquely characterize the structural damage accumulation in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint in order to predict failure. In this work, the specimens were made from the base metal and the welded joint’s heat-affected zone. The specimens were subjected to uniaxial tension–compression under a symmetrical cycle in the region of low-cycle fatigue with control of the strain amplitude. The propagation bulk velocities of longitudinal, shear waves and subsurface longitudinal critically refracted (LCR) waves during cyclic loading were studied. The acoustic birefringence of shear waves was calculated, and a similar parameter was proposed for longitudinal and LCR waves. The dependence of the elastic modulus ratio on the cycle ratio was obtained. It was shown that the acoustic parameters change most intensively in the heat-affected zone. According to the data of the C33/C55 ratio changes measured through the ultrasonic method, a formula for calculating the remaining fatigue life in the heat-affected zone was proposed. Full article
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14 pages, 7165 KiB  
Article
A New CPX Drum Test to Obtain Sound Pressure Levels of Tyre Noise for Type Approval
by David Clar-Garcia, Hector Campello-Vicente, Nuria Campillo-Davo, Miguel Sanchez-Lozano and Emilio Velasco-Sanchez
Acoustics 2024, 6(3), 579-592; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics6030031 - 28 Jun 2024
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The primary cause of noise from vehicular traffic while travelling at speeds over 30 km/h is tyre/road interaction. To reduce this noise source, tyre/road sound emissions research has been carried out using different approaches. Most of this research has been centred around track [...] Read more.
The primary cause of noise from vehicular traffic while travelling at speeds over 30 km/h is tyre/road interaction. To reduce this noise source, tyre/road sound emissions research has been carried out using different approaches. Most of this research has been centred around track tests, leading to the development of various track and road-based methods for evaluating tyre/road noise emissions. The CPX (Close-Proximity), along with the CPB (Controlled Pass-By), the CB (Coast-By) and the SPB (Statistical Pass-By), methods are the most common ones. Nevertheless, since Reg. (EC) 1222/2009 came into force, only the CB method, defined in Reg. (EC) 117/2007, can be used to obtain tyre/road noise emission type approval values in Europe. However, current track test methods have important limitations, such as the variability of the results depending on the test track or the test vehicle, the repeatability, the influence of environmental variables or, the main aspect, the limitation of the registered magnitude in these tests, which is the sound pressure level. The Alternative Drum test method (A-DR) was developed in 2015 in order to avoid these disadvantages. However, it involves a complex and time-consuming microphone array for each test. With the purpose of improving the A-DR test method, a new methodology based on drum tests, the ISO 11819-2 and the ISO 3744 standards, was developed. This paper describes the new Alternative CPX Drum test method (A-CPX-DR) and validates it by testing several tyres according to the CB, the A-DR and the A-CPX-DR test methods and comparing their results. This research has demonstrated that all three methods have equivalent sound spectra and obtain close equivalent sound pressure levels for type approval of tyres in the EU, while drum tests have shown greater accuracy. For both reasons, the new A-CPX-DR methodology could be used for tyre/road noise emission type approval in a more precise and cheaper way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise (2nd Edition))
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