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Acoustics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle A High-Frequency Model of a Circular Beam with a T-Shaped Cross Section
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 295-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010017
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper derives an analytical model of a circular beam with a T-shaped cross section for use in the high-frequency range, defined here as approximately 1 to 50 kHz. The T-shaped cross section is composed of an outer web and an inner flange. [...] Read more.
This paper derives an analytical model of a circular beam with a T-shaped cross section for use in the high-frequency range, defined here as approximately 1 to 50 kHz. The T-shaped cross section is composed of an outer web and an inner flange. The web in-plane motion is modeled with two-dimensional elasticity equations of motion, and the left portion and right portion of the flange are modeled separately with Timoshenko shell equations. The differential equations are solved with unknown wave propagation coefficients multiplied by Bessel and exponential spatial domain functions. These are inserted into constraint and equilibrium equations at the intersection of the web and flange and into boundary conditions at the edges of the system. Two separate cases are formulated: structural axisymmetric motion and structural non-axisymmetric motion and these results are added together for the total solution. The axisymmetric case produces 14 linear algebraic equations and the non-axisymmetric case produces 24 linear algebraic equations. These are solved to yield the wave propagation coefficients, and this gives a corresponding solution to the displacement field in the radial and tangential directions. The dynamics of the longitudinal direction are discussed but are not solved in this paper. An example problem is formulated and compared to solutions from fully elastic finite element modeling. It is shown that the accurate frequency range of this new model compares very favorably to finite element analysis up to 47 kHz. This new analytical model is about four magnitudes faster in computation time than the corresponding finite element models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heat Transfer Enhancement due to Acoustic Fields: A Methodological Analysis
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 281-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010016
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as for efficiency increases, [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as for efficiency increases, heat transfer rate control and cleanliness action. However, a clear description and comprehension of how vibrations may alter the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger has still not been reached due to the complexity of the involved physical mechanisms. For this reason, after a presentation and a schematization of the analyzed thermodynamic system, the fundamental alterations of the thermo-fluid dynamics fields are described. Then, the main involved physical phenomena are exposed for the three cases of gaseous, monophasic liquid and boiling liquid mediums. Finally, on the basis of the characteristics of these described phenomena, some considerations and indications of general validity are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards Italian Opera Houses: A Review of Acoustic Design in Pre-Sabine Scholars
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 252-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010015
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
The foundation of architectural acoustics as an independent science is generally referred to Sabine’s early studies and their application. Nevertheless, since the 16th Century, a great number of authors wrote essays and treatises on the design of acoustic spaces, with a growing attention [...] Read more.
The foundation of architectural acoustics as an independent science is generally referred to Sabine’s early studies and their application. Nevertheless, since the 16th Century, a great number of authors wrote essays and treatises on the design of acoustic spaces, with a growing attention to the newborn typology of the Opera house, whose evolution is strongly connected to the cultural background of the Italian peninsula. With roots in the Renaissance rediscovery of Vitruvius’s treatise and his acoustic theory, 16th- to 19th-Century Italian authors tackled several issues concerning the construction of theatres—among them, architectural and structural features, the choice of the materials, the social meanings of performances. Thanks to this literature, the consolidation of this body of knowledge led to a standardisation of the forms of the Italian Opera house throughout the 19th Century. Therefore, the scope of this review paper is to focus on the treatises, essays and publications regarding theatre design, written by pre-Sabinian Italian scholars. The analysis of such literature aims at highlighting the consistencies in some 19th-Century minor Italian Opera houses, in order to understand to what extent this scientific and experimental background was part of the building tradition during the golden age of the Italian Opera. Full article
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Open AccessReview Acoustic Black Holes in Structural Design for Vibration and Noise Control
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 220-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010014
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
It is known that in the design of quieter mechanical systems, vibration and noise control play important roles. Recently, acoustic black holes have been effectively used for structural design in controlling vibration and noise. An acoustic black hole is a power-law tapered profile [...] Read more.
It is known that in the design of quieter mechanical systems, vibration and noise control play important roles. Recently, acoustic black holes have been effectively used for structural design in controlling vibration and noise. An acoustic black hole is a power-law tapered profile to reduce phase and group velocities of wave propagation to zero. Additionally, the vibration energy at the location of acoustic black hole increases due to the gradual reduction of its thickness. The vibration damping, sound reduction, and vibration energy harvesting are the major applications in structural design with acoustic black holes. In this paper, a review of basic theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies on the applications of acoustic black holes is presented. In addition, the influences of the various geometrical parameters and the configuration of acoustic black holes are presented. The studies show that the use of acoustic black holes results in an effective control of vibration and noise. It is seen that the acoustic black holes have a great potential for quiet design of complex structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time-Domain Output Data Identification Model for Pipeline Flaw Detection Using Blind Source Separation Technique Complexity Pursuit
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 199-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010013
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Vital defect information present in the magnetic field data of oil and gas pipelines can be perceived by developing such non-parametric algorithms that can extract modal features and performs structural assessment directly from the recorded signal data. This paper discusses such output-only modal [...] Read more.
Vital defect information present in the magnetic field data of oil and gas pipelines can be perceived by developing such non-parametric algorithms that can extract modal features and performs structural assessment directly from the recorded signal data. This paper discusses such output-only modal identification method Complexity Pursuit (CP) based on blind signal separation. An application to the pipeline flaw detection is presented and it is shown that the complexity pursuit algorithm blindly estimates the modal parameters from the measured magnetic field signals. Numerical simulations for multi-degree of freedom systems show that the method can precisely identify the structural parameters. Experiments are performed first in a controlled laboratory environment secondly in real world, on pipeline magnetic field data, recorded using high precision magnetic field sensors. The measured structural responses are given as input to the blind source separation model where the complexity pursuit algorithm blindly extracted the least complex signals from the observed mixtures that were guaranteed to be source signals. The output power spectral densities calculated from the estimated modal responses exhibit rich physical interpretation of the pipeline structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Prediction of Far-Field Combustion Noise from Aeronautical Engines
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 174-198; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010012
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
A hybrid methodology combining a detailed Large Eddy Simulation of a combustion chamber sector, an analytical propagation model of the extracted acoustic and entropy waves at the combustor exit through the turbine stages, and a far-field acoustic propagation through a variable exhaust temperature [...] Read more.
A hybrid methodology combining a detailed Large Eddy Simulation of a combustion chamber sector, an analytical propagation model of the extracted acoustic and entropy waves at the combustor exit through the turbine stages, and a far-field acoustic propagation through a variable exhaust temperature field was shown to predict far-field combustion noise from helicopter and aircraft propulsion systems accurately for the first time. For the single-stream turboshaft engine, the validation was achieved from engine core to the turbine exit. Propagation to the far field was then performed through a modeled axisymmetric jet. Its temperature modified the acoustic propagation of combustion noise significantly and a simple analytical model based on the Snell–Descarte law was shown to predict the directivity for axisymmetric single jet exhaust accurately. Good agreement with measured far-field spectra for all turboshaft-engine regimes below 2 kHz stresses that combustion noise is most likely the dominant noise source at low frequencies in such engines. For the more complex dual-stream turbofan engine, two regime computations showed that direct noise is mostly generated by the unsteady flame dynamics and the indirect combustion noise by the temperature stratification induced by the dilution holes in the combustion chamber, as found previously in the turboshaft case. However, in the turboengine, direct noise was found dominant at the combustor exit for the low power case and equivalent contributions of both combustion noise sources for the high power case. The propagation to the far-field was achieved through the temperature field provided by a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulation. Good agreement with measured spectra was also found at low frequencies for the low power turboengine case. At high power, however, turboengine jet noise overcomes combustion noise at low frequencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Frequency Up-Conversion Mechanism in Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 156-173; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010011
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Conventional acoustic absorbers like foams, fiberglass or liners are used commonly in structures for industrial, infrastructural, automotive and aerospace applications to mitigate noise. However, these have limited effectiveness for low-frequencies (LF, <~500 Hz) due to impractically large mass or volume requirements. LF content [...] Read more.
Conventional acoustic absorbers like foams, fiberglass or liners are used commonly in structures for industrial, infrastructural, automotive and aerospace applications to mitigate noise. However, these have limited effectiveness for low-frequencies (LF, <~500 Hz) due to impractically large mass or volume requirements. LF content being less evanescent is a major contributor to environmental noise pollution and induces undesirable structural responses causing diminished efficiency, comfort, payload integrity and mission capabilities. There is, therefore a need to develop lightweight, compact, structurally-integrated solutions to mitigate LF noise in several applications. Inspired by metamaterials, tuned mass-loaded membranes as vibro-impact attachments on a baseline structure are considered to investigate their performance as an LF acoustic barrier. LF incident waves are up-converted via impact to higher modes in the baseline structure which may then be effectively mitigated using conventional means. Such Metamaterials-Inspired Vibro-Impact Structures (MIVIS) could be tuned to match the dominant frequency content of LF acoustic sources. Prototype MIVIS unit cells were designed and tested to study energy transfer mechanism via impact-induced frequency up-conversion and sound transmission loss. Structural acoustic simulations were done to predict responses using models based on normal incidence transmission loss tests. Simulations were validated using experiments and utilized to optimize the energy up-conversion mechanism using parametric studies. Up to 36 dB of sound transmission loss increase is observed at the anti-resonance frequency (326 Hz) within a tunable LF bandwidth of about 300 Hz for the MIVS under white noise excitation. Whereas, it is found that under monotonic excitations, the impact-induced up-conversion redistributes the incident LF monotone to the back plate’s first mode in the transmitted spectrum. This up-conversion could enable further broadband transmission loss via subsequent dissipation in conventional absorbers. Moreover, this approach while minimizing parasitic mass addition retains or could conceivably augment primary functionalities of the baseline structure. Successful transition to applications could enable new mission capabilities for aerospace and military vehicles and help create quieter built environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Basic Complete Numerical Toolbox for Picosecond Ultrasonics
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 137-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010010
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
A complete numerical complete toolbox is proposed concerning the simulation of photo-induced propagative mechanical wave, and concerning the optical reflectometric measured response of the material, which is initially exposed to a first pump laser beam that photo-induces the acoustic wavefronts. The deformation field [...] Read more.
A complete numerical complete toolbox is proposed concerning the simulation of photo-induced propagative mechanical wave, and concerning the optical reflectometric measured response of the material, which is initially exposed to a first pump laser beam that photo-induces the acoustic wavefronts. The deformation field and its propagation into a bulk material are simulated. Based on this field expression, the complex transient reflectivity is given for a medium considered as homogeneous. The real part of this quantity permits afterwards to propose a numerical simulation of the transient reflectivity, which corresponds to the optical signal measured during experimental works. The frequency acoustic spectrum is simulated and successfully compared to the measured frequency spectrum. For the first time, numerical complete developments are explicitly proposed and fully-developed under the SciLab ® environment, related to the simulation of laser-induced picosecond acoustic wavefront photogenerated through an opto-acoustic transduction process (ultrasonics and pretersonics). Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Expectation–Maximization-Based IVA Algorithm for Speech Source Separation Using Student’s t Mixture Model Based Source Priors
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 117-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010009
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The performance of the independent vector analysis (IVA) algorithm depends on the choice of the source prior to better model the speech signals as it employs a multivariate source prior to retain the dependency between frequency bins of each source. Identical source priors [...] Read more.
The performance of the independent vector analysis (IVA) algorithm depends on the choice of the source prior to better model the speech signals as it employs a multivariate source prior to retain the dependency between frequency bins of each source. Identical source priors are frequently used for the IVA methods; however, different speech sources will generally have different statistical properties. In this work, instead of identical source priors, a novel Student’s t mixture model based source prior is introduced for the IVA algorithm that can adapt to the statistical properties of different speech sources and thereby enhance the separation performance of the IVA algorithm. The unknown parameters of the source prior and unmixing matrices are estimated together by deriving an efficient expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Useful improvement in the separation performance in different realistic scenarios is confirmed by experimental studies on real datasets. Full article
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Open AccessReview Turbomachinery Noise Predictions: Present and Future
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 92-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010008
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
In future Ultra-High By-Pass Ratio turboengines, the turbomachinery noise (fan and turbine stages mainly) is expected to increase significantly. A review of analytical models and numerical methods to yield both tonal and broadband contributions of such noise sources is presented. The former rely [...] Read more.
In future Ultra-High By-Pass Ratio turboengines, the turbomachinery noise (fan and turbine stages mainly) is expected to increase significantly. A review of analytical models and numerical methods to yield both tonal and broadband contributions of such noise sources is presented. The former rely on hybrid methods coupling gust response over very thin flat plates of finite chord length, either isolated or in cascade, and acoustic analogies in free-field and in a duct. The latter yields tonal noise with unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (u-RANS) simulations, and broadband noise with Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The analytical models are shown to provide good and fast first sound estimates at pre-design stages, and to easily separate the different noise sources. The u-RANS simulations are now able to give accurate estimates of tonal noise of the most complex asymmetric, heterogeneous fan-Outlet Guiding Vane (OGV) configurations. Wall-modeled LES on rescaled stage configurations have now been achieved on all components: a low-pressure compressor stage, a transonic high-pressure turbine stage and a fan-OGV configuration with good overall sound power level predictions for the latter. In this case, hybrid Lattice–Boltzmann/very large-eddy simulations also appear to be an excellent alternative to yield both contributions accurately at once. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Space, Political Theater, and Audibility in Downtown Chaco
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 78-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010007
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract
Chaco Canyon, NM, USA, was the center of an Ancestral Puebloan polity from approximately 850–1140 CE, and home to a dozen palatial structures known as “great houses” and scores of ritual structures called “great kivas”. It is hypothesized that the 2.5 km2 [...] Read more.
Chaco Canyon, NM, USA, was the center of an Ancestral Puebloan polity from approximately 850–1140 CE, and home to a dozen palatial structures known as “great houses” and scores of ritual structures called “great kivas”. It is hypothesized that the 2.5 km2 centered on the largest great house, Pueblo Bonito (i.e., “Downtown Chaco”), served as an open-air performance space for both political theater and sacred ritual. The authors used soundshed modeling tools within the Archaeoacoustics Toolbox to illustrate the extent of this performance space and the interaudibility between various locations within Downtown Chaco. Architecture placed at liminal locations may have inscribed sound in the landscape, physically marking the boundary of the open-air performance space. Finally, the implications of considering sound within political theater will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Applicability of Acoustic Concentration Measurements in Suspensions of Artificial and Natural Sediments Using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 59-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010006
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
For the investigation of turbulence and particles, interaction measurement systems are required, which are able to measure velocity and concentration fluctuations simultaneously. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) are widely used for velocity and turbulence measurements in natural and artificial flows. Based on the acoustic [...] Read more.
For the investigation of turbulence and particles, interaction measurement systems are required, which are able to measure velocity and concentration fluctuations simultaneously. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) are widely used for velocity and turbulence measurements in natural and artificial flows. Based on the acoustic sonar theory, a model is presented that correlates the ADV’s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the suspended solids concentration of several natural (Ems Estuary, Lake Eixendorf, Lake Altmühl) and artificial sediments (Chinafill, quartz powder, bentonite, metakaolin) for the range 0.001 g/L–50 g/L. Within the presented method, the sound absorption in water and on particles is considered in a continuous approach for sampling frequencies up to 100 Hz. The widely-used log-linear relation between the SNR and the concentration, which is only valid for low concentrations, was extended for the high concentration regime. Measurement results show a similar behavior of the SNR with respect to varying suspended solid concentrations for different sediments. However, the analysis of the fit parameters shows systematic differences depending on the type of sediment. It is concluded that the proposed model is applicable as well for laboratory use as for measurements in rivers and estuaries. Finally, we discuss the reliability of the results and the methodology with regard to measurements in rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Positive Position Feedback Control of a Galloping Structure
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 47-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010005
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the suppression of wind-induced oscillations of a D-shaped prism mounted on a cantilever beam by means of a positive position feedback (PPF) controller is investigated. The assumed mode method is applied to determine the stiffness, mass and non-linear force matrixes [...] Read more.
In this study, the suppression of wind-induced oscillations of a D-shaped prism mounted on a cantilever beam by means of a positive position feedback (PPF) controller is investigated. The assumed mode method is applied to determine the stiffness, mass and non-linear force matrixes of a second order ordinary differential equation system. The positive position feedback control by use of a sensor-actuator piezoelectric is implemented on the galloping system to suppress the mechanical oscillations. The results show that the PPF controller is a powerful method to decrease the galloping amplitude of the D-shaped prism. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Acoustics of the Choir in Spanish Cathedrals
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 35-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010004
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
One of the most significant enclosures in worship spaces is that of the choir. Generally, from a historical point of view, the choir is a semi-enclosed and privileged area reserved for the clergy, whose position and configuration gives it a private character. Regarding [...] Read more.
One of the most significant enclosures in worship spaces is that of the choir. Generally, from a historical point of view, the choir is a semi-enclosed and privileged area reserved for the clergy, whose position and configuration gives it a private character. Regarding the generation and transformation of ecclesial interior spaces, the choir commands a role of the first magnitude. Its shape and location produce, on occasions, major modifications that significantly affect the acoustics of these indoor spaces. In the case of Spanish cathedrals, whose design responds to the so-called “Spanish type”, the central position of the choir, enclosed by high stonework walls on three of its sides and with numerous wooden stalls inside, breaks up the space in the main nave, thereby generating other new spaces, such as the trascoro. The aim of this work was to analyse the acoustic evolution of the choir as one of the main elements that configure the sound space of Spanish cathedrals. By means of in situ measurements and simulation models, the main acoustic parameters were evaluated, both in their current state and in their original configurations that have since disappeared. This analysis enabled the various acoustic conditions existing between the choir itself and the area of the faithful to be verified, and the significant improvement of the acoustic quality in the choir space to become apparent. The effect on the acoustic parameters is highly significant, with slight differences in the choir, where the values are appropriate for Gregorian chants, and suitable intelligibility of sung text. High values are also obtained in the area of the faithful, which lacked specific acoustic requirements at the time of construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nonlinear Propagation of Focused Ultrasound on the Stable Cavitation of a Single Bubble
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 14-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010003
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Many biomedical applications such as ultrasonic targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, and molecular imaging entail the problems of manipulating microbubbles by means of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) pressure field; namely stable cavitation. In high-intensity acoustic field, bubbles demonstrate translational instability, the well-known [...] Read more.
Many biomedical applications such as ultrasonic targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, and molecular imaging entail the problems of manipulating microbubbles by means of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) pressure field; namely stable cavitation. In high-intensity acoustic field, bubbles demonstrate translational instability, the well-known erratic dancing motion, which is caused by shape oscillations of the bubbles that are excited by their volume oscillations. The literature of bubble dynamics in the HIFU field is mainly centered on experiments, lacking a systematic study to determine the threshold for shape oscillations and translational motion. In this work, we extend the existing multiphysics mathematical modeling platform on bubble dynamics for taking account of (1) the liquid compressibility which allows us to apply a high-intensity acoustic field; (2) the mutual interactions of volume pulsation, shape modes, and translational motion; as well as (3) the effects of nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption of HIFU to incorporate the acoustic nonlinearity due to wave kinematics or medium—all in one model. The effects of acoustic nonlinearity on the radial pulsations, axisymmetric modes of shape oscillations, and translational motion of a bubble, subjected to resonance and off-resonance excitation and various acoustic pressure, are examined. The results reveal the importance of considering all the involved harmonics and wave distortion in the bubble dynamics, to accurately predict the oscillations, translational trajectories, and the threshold for inertial (unstable) cavitation. This result is of interest for understanding the bubble dynamical behaviors observed experimentally in the HIFU field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Simulation of Julius Caesar’s Battlefield Speeches
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 3-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010002
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
History contains many accounts of speeches given by civic and military leaders before large crowds prior to the invention of electronic amplification. Historians have debated the historical accuracy of these accounts, often making some reference to acoustics, either supporting or refuting the accounts, [...] Read more.
History contains many accounts of speeches given by civic and military leaders before large crowds prior to the invention of electronic amplification. Historians have debated the historical accuracy of these accounts, often making some reference to acoustics, either supporting or refuting the accounts, but without any numerical justification. The field of digital humanities, and more specifically archaeoacoustics, seeks to use computational techniques to provide empirical data to improve historical analysis. Julius Caesar recalled giving speeches to 14,000 men after the battle of Dyrrachium and another to 22,000 men before the battle of Pharsalus during the Roman Civil War. Caesar’s background and education are discussed, including his training in rhetoric and oratory, which would have affected his articulation and effective sound pressure level while addressing his troops. Based on subjective reports about Caesar’s oratorical abilities, his effective Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is assumed to be 80 dBA, about 6 dB above the average loud speaking voice but lower than that of the loudest trained actors and singers. Simulations show that for reasonable background noise conditions Caesar could have been heard intelligibly by 14,000 soldiers in a quiet, controlled environment as in the speech at Dyrrachium. In contrast, even granting generous acoustic and geometric conditions, Caesar could not have been heard by more than about 700 soldiers while his army was on the march before the battle of Pharsalus. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Welcome to Acoustics—A New Open Access Journal for the Growing Multidisciplinary Scientific and Engineering Community and Beyond
Acoustics 2019, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010001
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Acoustics is a new open access journal, among about 200 diverse, peer-reviewed, open access MDPI journals, supported by over 35,500 academic editors. [...] Full article
Acoustics EISSN 2624-599X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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