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Acoustics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle The Acoustics of the Choir in Spanish Cathedrals
Acoustics 2018, 1(1), 35-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010004
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
One of the most significant enclosures in worship spaces is that of the choir. Generally, from a historical point of view, the choir is a semi-enclosed and privileged area reserved for the clergy, whose position and configuration gives it a private character. Regarding
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One of the most significant enclosures in worship spaces is that of the choir. Generally, from a historical point of view, the choir is a semi-enclosed and privileged area reserved for the clergy, whose position and configuration gives it a private character. Regarding the generation and transformation of ecclesial interior spaces, the choir commands a role of the first magnitude. Its shape and location produce, on occasions, major modifications that significantly affect the acoustics of these indoor spaces. In the case of Spanish cathedrals, whose design responds to the so-called “Spanish type”, the central position of the choir, enclosed by high stonework walls on three of its sides and with numerous wooden stalls inside, breaks up the space in the main nave, thereby generating other new spaces, such as the trascoro. The aim of this work was to analyse the acoustic evolution of the choir as one of the main elements that configure the sound space of Spanish cathedrals. By means of in situ measurements and simulation models, the main acoustic parameters were evaluated, both in their current state and in their original configurations that have since disappeared. This analysis enabled the various acoustic conditions existing between the choir itself and the area of the faithful to be verified, and the significant improvement of the acoustic quality in the choir space to become apparent. The effect on the acoustic parameters is highly significant, with slight differences in the choir, where the values are appropriate for Gregorian chants, and suitable intelligibility of sung text. High values are also obtained in the area of the faithful, which lacked specific acoustic requirements at the time of construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical Acoustics: Relationships between Man and Sound over Time)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nonlinear Propagation of Focused Ultrasound on the Stable Cavitation of a Single Bubble
Acoustics 2018, 1(1), 14-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010003
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Many biomedical applications such as ultrasonic targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, and molecular imaging entail the problems of manipulating microbubbles by means of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) pressure field; namely stable cavitation. In high-intensity acoustic field, bubbles demonstrate translational instability, the well-known
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Many biomedical applications such as ultrasonic targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, and molecular imaging entail the problems of manipulating microbubbles by means of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) pressure field; namely stable cavitation. In high-intensity acoustic field, bubbles demonstrate translational instability, the well-known erratic dancing motion, which is caused by shape oscillations of the bubbles that are excited by their volume oscillations. The literature of bubble dynamics in the HIFU field is mainly centered on experiments, lacking a systematic study to determine the threshold for shape oscillations and translational motion. In this work, we extend the existing multiphysics mathematical modeling platform on bubble dynamics for taking account of (1) the liquid compressibility which allows us to apply a high-intensity acoustic field; (2) the mutual interactions of volume pulsation, shape modes, and translational motion; as well as (3) the effects of nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption of HIFU to incorporate the acoustic nonlinearity due to wave kinematics or medium—all in one model. The effects of acoustic nonlinearity on the radial pulsations, axisymmetric modes of shape oscillations, and translational motion of a bubble, subjected to resonance and off-resonance excitation and various acoustic pressure, are examined. The results reveal the importance of considering all the involved harmonics and wave distortion in the bubble dynamics, to accurately predict the oscillations, translational trajectories, and the threshold for inertial (unstable) cavitation. This result is of interest for understanding the bubble dynamical behaviors observed experimentally in the HIFU field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Simulation of Julius Caesar’s Battlefield Speeches
Acoustics 2018, 1(1), 3-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010002
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
History contains many accounts of speeches given by civic and military leaders before large crowds prior to the invention of electronic amplification. Historians have debated the historical accuracy of these accounts, often making some reference to acoustics, either supporting or refuting the accounts,
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History contains many accounts of speeches given by civic and military leaders before large crowds prior to the invention of electronic amplification. Historians have debated the historical accuracy of these accounts, often making some reference to acoustics, either supporting or refuting the accounts, but without any numerical justification. The field of digital humanities, and more specifically archaeoacoustics, seeks to use computational techniques to provide empirical data to improve historical analysis. Julius Caesar recalled giving speeches to 14,000 men after the battle of Dyrrachium and another to 22,000 men before the battle of Pharsalus during the Roman Civil War. Caesar’s background and education are discussed, including his training in rhetoric and oratory, which would have affected his articulation and effective sound pressure level while addressing his troops. Based on subjective reports about Caesar’s oratorical abilities, his effective Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is assumed to be 80 dBA, about 6 dB above the average loud speaking voice but lower than that of the loudest trained actors and singers. Simulations show that for reasonable background noise conditions Caesar could have been heard intelligibly by 14,000 soldiers in a quiet, controlled environment as in the speech at Dyrrachium. In contrast, even granting generous acoustic and geometric conditions, Caesar could not have been heard by more than about 700 soldiers while his army was on the march before the battle of Pharsalus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical Acoustics: Relationships between Man and Sound over Time)
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Open AccessEditorial Welcome to Acoustics—A New Open Access Journal for the Growing Multidisciplinary Scientific and Engineering Community and Beyond
Acoustics 2018, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics1010001
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Acoustics is a new open access journal, among about 200 diverse, peer-reviewed, open access
MDPI journals, supported by over 35,500 academic editors[...] Full article
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