For the investigation of turbulence and particles, interaction measurement systems are required, which are able to measure velocity and concentration fluctuations simultaneously. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) are widely used for velocity and turbulence measurements in natural and artificial flows. Based on the acoustic sonar theory, a model is presented that correlates the ADV’s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the suspended solids concentration of several natural (Ems Estuary, Lake Eixendorf, Lake Altmühl) and artificial sediments (Chinafill, quartz powder, bentonite, metakaolin) for the range 0.001 g/L–50 g/L. Within the presented method, the sound absorption in water and on particles is considered in a continuous approach for sampling frequencies up to 100 Hz. The widely-used log-linear relation between the SNR and the concentration, which is only valid for low concentrations, was extended for the high concentration regime. Measurement results show a similar behavior of the SNR with respect to varying suspended solid concentrations for different sediments. However, the analysis of the fit parameters shows systematic differences depending on the type of sediment. It is concluded that the proposed model is applicable as well for laboratory use as for measurements in rivers and estuaries. Finally, we discuss the reliability of the results and the methodology with regard to measurements in rivers, lakes, and estuaries.
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