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Clocks & Sleep, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Shift Work and Poor Sleep on Self-Reported Skin Conditions: A Survey of Call Center Agents in the Philippines
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 273-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020023
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Night shift workers may have a disrupted circadian rhythm, which may contribute to the development of skin disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence and severity of self-reported skin disease between “regular” [...] Read more.
Night shift workers may have a disrupted circadian rhythm, which may contribute to the development of skin disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence and severity of self-reported skin disease between “regular” day shift workers compared to “graveyard” night shift workers. We conducted surveys from 630 call center agents in Manila, the Philippines, and they were analyzed regarding demographics, medical history, dermatologic history, lifestyle, and sleep. No difference was found in the prevalence of skin disease between shifts. However, night shift workers were worse sleepers. When compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers had a higher prevalence of skin disease with worse severity. Graveyard shift workers with poor sleep may have increased skin disease severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Psychological Components of Skin Health)
Open AccessArticle
Considering Sleep, Mood, and Stress in a Family Context: A Preliminary Study
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 259-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020022
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: During the first years of life, parental sleep strongly depends on child’s sleep quality. Poor parental sleep may relate to increased stress and negative mood. However, there is a lack of sleep studies focusing on all family members. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: During the first years of life, parental sleep strongly depends on child’s sleep quality. Poor parental sleep may relate to increased stress and negative mood. However, there is a lack of sleep studies focusing on all family members. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep, mood, and stress in mothers, fathers and children. Methods: Data were obtained from 65 parental couples and 65 children (2 to 36 months). Data on sleep for all family members and stress of parents were completed by both mothers and fathers through questionnaires and sleep diaries. Results: Toddlers’ positive mood before nocturnal sleep was significantly associated with reduced wake times after sleep onset. Mothers reported worse sleep quality compared to fathers. Shorter sleep onset latency in fathers and better sleep efficiency in mothers were linked with better self-reported mood upon awakening. In mothers, but not in fathers, poor sleep quality was associated with higher perceived stress. Conclusion: Results suggest bidirectional relationships between sleep and mood in children, mothers and fathers. Moreover, results evidence poorer sleep in mothers, compared to fathers, which was linked with increased parenting stress. This gender gap should be further considered in studies with larger samples and in clinical contexts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Steady-State Pupil Size Varies with Circadian Phase and Sleep Homeostasis in Healthy Young Men
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 240-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020021
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Pupil size informs about sympathovagal balance as well as cognitive and affective processes, and perception. It is also directly linked to phasic activity of the brainstem locus coeruleus, so that pupil measures have gained recent attention. Steady-state pupil size and its variability have [...] Read more.
Pupil size informs about sympathovagal balance as well as cognitive and affective processes, and perception. It is also directly linked to phasic activity of the brainstem locus coeruleus, so that pupil measures have gained recent attention. Steady-state pupil size and its variability have been directly linked to sleep homeostasis and circadian phase, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we report robust changes in steady-state pupil size during 29 h of continuous wakefulness in healthy young men (N = 20; 18–30 years old) maintained in dim-light in strictly controlled constant routine conditions. These variations were associated with variations in motivation and sustained attention performance. Pupil size variability did not significantly change during the protocol. Yet, pupil size variability was linearly associated with subjective fatigue, sociability, and anguish. No associations were found between neither steady-state pupil size nor pupil size variability, and objective EEG measure of alertness and subjective sleepiness. Our data support therefore the notion that, compared with its variability, steady-state pupil size is strongly influenced by the concomitant changes in sleep need and circadian phase. In addition, steady-state pupil size appears to be related to motivation and attention, while its variability may be related to separate affective dimensions and subjective fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnout, Sleep, and Sleepiness during Day and Night Shifts in Transition from 8- to 12-Hour Shift Rosters among Airline Ground Crew Managers
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 226-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020020
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Organizational changes in shift scheduling provide rare opportunities for field studies aimed at investigating the effects of such changes on health and wellbeing. We studied the effects of a transition from 8-hour (8-h) to 12-hour (12-h) shift rosters in 39 airline ground crew [...] Read more.
Organizational changes in shift scheduling provide rare opportunities for field studies aimed at investigating the effects of such changes on health and wellbeing. We studied the effects of a transition from 8-hour (8-h) to 12-hour (12-h) shift rosters in 39 airline ground crew managers on burnout, sleep quality, and sleepiness. Assessments were collected during the 8-h and were repeated three months after the transition to 12-h shift rosters. These assessments included the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), actigraphy, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) completed hourly during one day and two night shifts, and caffeine intake. Findings demonstrated lower burnout, improved sleep quality, improved quality of naps, and increased afternoon sleepiness during the 12-h day shift. Napping was reported during 12-h night shifts by 36% of the sample. In nappers, increased night shift sleepiness was associated with increased caffeine intake on 8- and 12-h shifts. In non-nappers, increased night shift sleepiness was associated with decreased caffeine intake on the 8-h shift only. Change in shift length affects other structural and behavioral parameters in the workplace, making it challenging to isolate distinct characteristics of the two rosters and their relative effects on study outcomes. Individual differences in adaptation to shiftwork may also play a role. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Sexual Orientation and Sleep Problems: Are there Racial and Ethnic Differences?
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 220-225; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020019
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Using the 2013–2017 National Health Interview Survey, this study examined whether there were significant sexual orientation differences in sleep problems in specific racial and ethnic populations. The analysis had a large sample size and enough statistical power to evaluate any sexual orientation differences [...] Read more.
Using the 2013–2017 National Health Interview Survey, this study examined whether there were significant sexual orientation differences in sleep problems in specific racial and ethnic populations. The analysis had a large sample size and enough statistical power to evaluate any sexual orientation differences or non-differences in sleep problems in Latinx, non-Latinx Black, non-Latinx Asian and Pacific Islander, and non-Latinx White populations. Consistent with recent studies on sexual orientation and sleep problems, this analysis revealed that, for most racial and ethnic groups, there was no significant sexual orientation difference in non-normal sleep duration. Sexual minority adults were significantly more likely to report not feeling rested, trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and taking medications for sleep than heterosexual adults. There were two notable exceptions in the findings. The first exception was that Latinx sexual minority adults were significantly more likely to report non-normal sleep duration when compared with Latinx heterosexual adults. The second exception was that there was no significant sexual orientation difference in not feeling rested among Asian and Pacific Islander adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Society)
Open AccessReview
Predictors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Medical Students: A Meta-Regression
Clocks & Sleep 2019, 1(2), 209-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1020018
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is highly prevalent among medical students and can have serious negative outcomes for both students and their patients. Little is known about the magnitude and predictors of EDS among medical college students. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to achieve [...] Read more.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is highly prevalent among medical students and can have serious negative outcomes for both students and their patients. Little is known about the magnitude and predictors of EDS among medical college students. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to achieve these two targets. A systematic search was performed for English-language studies that reported the prevalence of EDS among medical students using the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), age, sex, sleep duration and sleep quality as predictive variables. A total of nine observational studies (K = 9, N = 2587) were included in the analyses. Meta-regression analyses were performed using mean age (years), sex (proportion of male subjects), sleep duration (hours/night) and sleep quality index score (continuous scale) as moderators for EDS—with the prevalence of EDS as an outcome variable. An interaction term of sleep duration X sleep quality was created to assess if these two variables simultaneously influenced the outcome variable. Utilizing the ESS, the pooled prevalence of EDS among medical students was 34.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 18.3–50.9%). Meta-regression models of age, sex, sleep duration and sleep quality alone revealed poor predictive capabilities. Meta-regression models of sleep duration–sleep quality interaction revealed results with high statistical significance. The findings from this review contribute supporting evidence for the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality scores (i.e., sleep duration X sleep quality score) in predicting EDS in medical students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
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Clocks & Sleep EISSN 2624-5175 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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