Table of Contents

Clocks & Sleep, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Delayed Sleep in Winter Related to Natural Daylight Exposure among Arctic Day Workers
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 105-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010010
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
Viewed by 150 | PDF Full-text (2053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural daylight exposures in arctic regions vary substantially across seasons. Negative consequences have been observed in self-reports of sleep and daytime functions during the winter but have rarely been studied in detail. The focus of the present study set out to investigate sleep
[...] Read more.
Natural daylight exposures in arctic regions vary substantially across seasons. Negative consequences have been observed in self-reports of sleep and daytime functions during the winter but have rarely been studied in detail. The focus of the present study set out to investigate sleep seasonality among indoor workers using objective and subjective measures. Sleep seasonality among daytime office workers (n = 32) in Kiruna (Sweden, 67.86° N, 20.23° E) was studied by comparing the same group of workers in a winter and summer week, including work and days off at the weekend, using actigraphs (motion loggers) and subjective ratings of alertness and mood. Actigraph analyses showed delayed sleep onset of 39 min in winter compared to the corresponding summer week (p < 0.0001) and shorter weekly sleep duration by 12 min (p = 0.0154). A delay of mid-sleep was present in winter at workdays (25 min, p < 0.0001) and more strongly delayed during days off (46 min, p < 0.0001). Sleepiness levels were higher in winter compared to summer (p < 0.05). Increased morning light exposure was associated with earlier mid-sleep (p < 0.001), while increased evening light exposure was associated with delay (p < 0.01). This study confirms earlier work that suggests that lack of natural daylight delays the sleep/wake cycle in a group of indoor workers, despite having access to electric lighting. Photic stimuli resulted in a general advanced sleep/wake rhythm during summer and increased alertness levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Adult NREM Parasomnias: An Update
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 87-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010009
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Viewed by 165 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our understanding of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias has improved considerably over the last two decades, with research that characterises and explores the causes of these disorders. However, our understanding is far from complete. The aim of this paper is to provide an
[...] Read more.
Our understanding of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias has improved considerably over the last two decades, with research that characterises and explores the causes of these disorders. However, our understanding is far from complete. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated review focusing on adult NREM parasomnias and highlighting new areas in NREM parasomnia research from the recent literature. We outline the prevalence, clinical characteristics, role of onset, pathophysiology, role of predisposing, priming and precipitating factors, diagnostic criteria, treatment options and medico-legal implications of adult NREM parasomnias. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prolonged Waking and Recovery Sleep Affect the Serum MicroRNA Expression Profile in Humans
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 75-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010008
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Viewed by 201 | PDF Full-text (1484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, abundant, non-coding RNA fragments that regulate gene expression and silencing at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNAs each control various downstream targets and play established roles in different biological processes. Given that miRNAs were recently proposed to contribute to the
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, abundant, non-coding RNA fragments that regulate gene expression and silencing at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNAs each control various downstream targets and play established roles in different biological processes. Given that miRNAs were recently proposed to contribute to the molecular control of sleep–wake regulation in animal models and narcoleptic patients, we investigated the impact of acute sleep deprivation on blood miRNA expression in healthy adult men of two different age groups. Twenty-two young (mean age: 24 ± 3 years) and nine older (65 ± 1 years) volunteers completed a controlled in-lab study, consisting of 8 h baseline sleep, followed by 40 h of extended wakefulness, and a 10-h recovery sleep opportunity. At the same circadian time in all three conditions (at 4:23 p.m. ± 23 min), qPCR expression profiling of 86 miRNAs was performed in blood serum. Thirteen different miRNAs could be reliably quantified and were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVAs. It was found that miR-30c and miR-127 were reliably affected by previous sleep and wakefulness, such that expression of these miRNAs was upregulated after extended wakefulness and normalized after recovery sleep. Together with previous findings in narcolepsy patients, our preliminary data indicate that miR-30c and its target proteins may provide a biomarker of elevated sleep debt in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Human Basic Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessProtocol Measuring Food Anticipation in Mice
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 65-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010007
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
Viewed by 216 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interplay between the circadian system and metabolism may give animals an evolutionary advantage by allowing them to anticipate food availability at specific times of the day. Physiological adaptation to feeding time allows investigation of animal parameters and comparison of food anticipation between
[...] Read more.
The interplay between the circadian system and metabolism may give animals an evolutionary advantage by allowing them to anticipate food availability at specific times of the day. Physiological adaptation to feeding time allows investigation of animal parameters and comparison of food anticipation between groups of animals with genetic alterations and/or post pharmacological intervention. Such an approach is vital for understanding gene function and mechanisms underlying the temporal patterns of both food anticipation and feeding. Exploring these mechanisms will allow better understanding of metabolic disorders and might reveal potential new targets for pharmacological intervention. Changes that can be easily monitored and that represent food anticipation on the level of the whole organism are a temporarily restricted increase of activity and internal body temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep in Animal Basic Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Scale-Free Dynamics of the Mouse Wakefulness and Sleep Electroencephalogram Quantified Using Wavelet-Leaders
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 50-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010006
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 240 | PDF Full-text (1803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scale-free analysis of brain activity reveals a complexity of synchronous neuronal firing which is different from that assessed using classic rhythmic quantifications such as spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG). In humans, scale-free activity of the EEG depends on the behavioral state and
[...] Read more.
Scale-free analysis of brain activity reveals a complexity of synchronous neuronal firing which is different from that assessed using classic rhythmic quantifications such as spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG). In humans, scale-free activity of the EEG depends on the behavioral state and reflects cognitive processes. We aimed to verify if fractal patterns of the mouse EEG also show variations with behavioral states and topography, and to identify molecular determinants of brain scale-free activity using the ‘multifractal formalism’ (Wavelet-Leaders). We found that scale-free activity was more anti-persistent (i.e., more different between time scales) during wakefulness, less anti-persistent (i.e., less different between time scales) during non-rapid eye movement sleep, and generally intermediate during rapid eye movement sleep. The scale-invariance of the frontal/motor cerebral cortex was generally more anti-persistent than that of the posterior cortex, and scale-invariance during wakefulness was strongly modulated by time of day and the absence of the synaptic protein Neuroligin-1. Our results expose that the complexity of the scale-free pattern of organized neuronal firing depends on behavioral state in mice, and that patterns expressed during wakefulness are modulated by one synaptic component. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Objective Food Intake in Night and Day Shift Workers: A Laboratory Study
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 42-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010005
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
Viewed by 892 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Night shift work is associated with risk of overweight and obesity. In night shift workers, short sleep duration combined with circadian misalignment may contribute to altered food intake regulation, favoring positive energy balance and weight gain. Prior work investigating food intake in shift
[...] Read more.
Night shift work is associated with risk of overweight and obesity. In night shift workers, short sleep duration combined with circadian misalignment may contribute to altered food intake regulation, favoring positive energy balance and weight gain. Prior work investigating food intake in shift workers has suffered methodologically due to reliance on subjective self-report for dietary assessment. No study has yet been done to examine the impact of night shift work on food intake in real-life shift workers using objective measures. Female day (n = 12) and night (n = 12) shift workers from a hospital setting participated in a laboratory-based objective food intake assessment. Participants entered the laboratory in the fasted state after awakening from the sleep episode following a final work shift, and underwent an ad libitum 14-item test meal buffet to objectively quantify food choice/intake. Sleep duration (measured via wrist-accelerometry) during the sleep episode before laboratory assessment was significantly longer in day vs. night workers (373.9 ± 127.5 vs. 260.6 ± 102.9 min, p = 0.03). No significant group difference was observed in calories consumed during the test meal (943.08 ± 469.55 vs. 878.58 ± 442.68 kcal, p = 0.74). When expressed as percent of energy consumed, day workers had higher protein consumption vs. night workers (16.03 ± 5.69 vs. 11.82 ± 4.05%; p = 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first laboratory-based behavioral assessment of food choice/intake in actual night and day shift workers. Although not studied here, work by others has linked protein intake to satiety. This may be a potential pathway placing shift workers at risk for overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clocks & Sleep and Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Responses to Intermittent Light Stimulation Late in the Night Phase Before Dawn
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 26-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010004
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
Viewed by 234 | PDF Full-text (1809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The circadian clock is comprised of two oscillators that independently track sunset (evening) and sunrise (morning), though little is known about how light responses differ in each. Here, we quantified the morning oscillator’s responses to 19 separate pulse trains, collecting observations from over
[...] Read more.
The circadian clock is comprised of two oscillators that independently track sunset (evening) and sunrise (morning), though little is known about how light responses differ in each. Here, we quantified the morning oscillator’s responses to 19 separate pulse trains, collecting observations from over 1300 Drosophila at ZT23. Our results show that the advances in activity onset produced by these protocols depended on the tempo of light administration even when total exposure was conserved across a 15-min window. Moreover, patterns of stimulation previously shown to optimize the evening oscillator’s delay resetting at ZT13 (an hour after dusk) were equally effective for the M oscillator at ZT23 (an hour before dawn), though the morning oscillator was by comparison more photosensitive and could benefit from a greater number of fractionation strategies that better converted light into phase-shifting drive. These data continue to build the case that the reading frames for the pacemaker’s time-of-day estimates at dusk and dawn are not uniform and suggest that the “photologic” for the evening versus morning oscillator’s resetting might be dissociable. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Incidence of Daytime Sleepiness and Associated Factors in Two First Nations Communities in Saskatchewan, Canada
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 13-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010003
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
Viewed by 362 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is the tendency to sleep at inappropriate times during the day. It can interfere with day-to-day activities and lead to several health issues. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between income, housing conditions, and incidence
[...] Read more.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is the tendency to sleep at inappropriate times during the day. It can interfere with day-to-day activities and lead to several health issues. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between income, housing conditions, and incidence of EDS in adults living in two Cree First Nations communities. The data for this study involved 317 individuals aged 18 years and older who participated in baseline and follow-up evaluations (after four years) of the First Nations Lung Health Project, which was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2012–2013 and 2016. Both at baseline and follow-up survey after four years, an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score >10 was considered to be abnormal. Logistic regression models were used to assess relationships between abnormal ESS and covariates at baseline. In 2016, 7.6% (24/317) of the participants reported an ESS >10 with the mean being 12.8 ± 2.0. For the same group, the mean ESS at baseline was 6.9 ± 2.2. The incidence of subjective EDS based on the ESS >10 was estimated at 7.6% over four years. This study showed an association between incidence of subjective EDS and less money left over at end of the month, having a house in need of repairs, having water or dampness in the past 12 months, and damage caused by dampness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sleep Quality and Chronotype Differences between Elite Athletes and Non-Athlete Controls
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 3-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010002
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
Viewed by 526 | PDF Full-text (851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research has found that elite athletes have insufficient sleep, yet the specific kinds of sleep disturbances occurring as compared to a control group are limited. Here we compare the subjective sleep quality and chronotype of elite athletes to a control group of
[...] Read more.
Previous research has found that elite athletes have insufficient sleep, yet the specific kinds of sleep disturbances occurring as compared to a control group are limited. Here we compare the subjective sleep quality and chronotype of elite athletes to a control group of non-athlete good sleepers. Sixty-three winter Canadian National Team athletes (mean age 26.0 ± 0.0; 32% females) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Athlete Morningness Eveningness Scale. They were compared to 83 healthy, non-athlete, good-sleeper controls (aged 27.3 ± 3.7; 51% females) who completed the PSQI and the Composite Scale of Morningness. The elite athletes reported poorer sleep quality (PSQI global score 5.0 ± 2.6) relative to the controls (PSQI global score 2.6 ± 1.3), despite there being no group difference in self-reported sleep duration (athletes 8.1 ± 1.0 h; controls 8.0 ± 0.7 h). Further, athletes’ chronotype distribution showed a greater skew toward morningness, despite there being no group differences in self-reported usual bedtime and wake time. These results suggest that a misalignment of sleep times with circadian preference could contribute to poorer sleep quality in elite athletes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Clocks & Sleep: A New Open-Access Journal to Publish Your Circadian and Sleep Research Results
Clocks & Sleep 2018, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep1010001
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
Viewed by 2429 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exciting new discoveries in the circadian and sleep field have mushroomed in the past 10 years, culminating in the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine being awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and MichaelW. Young for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms
[...] Read more.
Exciting new discoveries in the circadian and sleep field have mushroomed in the past 10 years, culminating in the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine being awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and MichaelW. Young for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm. [...] Full article
Back to Top