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Heritage, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 31 articles

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22 pages, 11519 KiB  
Article
Modern Muralists in the Spotlight: Technical and Material Characteristics of the 1946–1949 Mural Paintings by Almada Negreiros in Lisbon (Part1)
by Milene Gil, Inês Cardoso, Mafalda Costa and José C. Frade
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3310-3331; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060156 (registering DOI) - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 114
Abstract
This paper presents the first insight into how Almada Negreiros, a key artist of the first generation of modernism in Portugal, created his mural painting masterpiece in the maritime station of Rocha do Conde de Óbidos in Lisbon. This set of six monumental [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first insight into how Almada Negreiros, a key artist of the first generation of modernism in Portugal, created his mural painting masterpiece in the maritime station of Rocha do Conde de Óbidos in Lisbon. This set of six monumental mural paintings dates from 1946 to 1949 and is considered Almada’s artistic epitome. As part of the ALMADA project: Unveiling the mural painting art of Almada Negreiros, the murals are being analyzed from a technical and material perspective to understand his modus operandi and the material used. This is the first study of this nature carried out on site and in the laboratory using standard and more advanced imaging, non-invasive analysis, and microanalysis techniques. This article reports the results obtained with visual examination, technical photography in visible (Vis), visible raking (Vis-Rak), complemented by 2D and 3D optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (µ-FTIR) of the paint layers. The results show the similarities, differences, and technical difficulties that the painter may have had when working on the first, third, and presumably last mural to be painted. Vis-Rak light images were particularly useful in providing a clear idea of how the work progressed from top to bottom through large sections of plaster made with lime mortars. It also revealed an innovative pounced technique used by Almada Negreiros to transfer the drawings in full scale to the walls. Other technical characteristics highlighted by the analytical setup are the use of textured, opaque, and transparent paint layers. The structure of the paintings does not follow a rigid build-up from light to dark, showing that the artist freely adapted according to the motif represented. As far as the colour palette is concerned, Almada masterfully uses primary and complementary colours made with Fe-based pigments and with synthetic ultramarine blue, cadmium pigments, and emerald green. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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19 pages, 2849 KiB  
Article
Exploring Burial and Dietary Patterns at the Copper Age Necropolis of Selvicciola (Viterbo, Italy): New Perspectives from 14C and Stable Isotope Data
by Maria Rosa di Cicco, Simona Altieri, Noemi Mantile, Patrizia Petitti, Carlo Persiani, Anna Maria Conti, Luciana Allegrezza, Claudio Cavazzuti and Carmine Lubritto
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3291-3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060155 (registering DOI) - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The Selvicciola necropolis is a large burial site dated to the Copper Age, located on the mid-Tyrrhenian side of Central Italy, in the Fiora river valley. Despite post-depositional disturbances, 32 prehistoric tombs were found, generally in a good state of preservation, with a [...] Read more.
The Selvicciola necropolis is a large burial site dated to the Copper Age, located on the mid-Tyrrhenian side of Central Italy, in the Fiora river valley. Despite post-depositional disturbances, 32 prehistoric tombs were found, generally in a good state of preservation, with a total number of 119 individuals identified. In the present study, radiocarbon and stable isotope measurements on bone collagen are combined with skeletal data for 71 of these individuals. We aim to investigate possible changes in food practices and burial patterns throughout time. In detail, the results allowed us to define a timeframe for the use of the cemetery of at least 2000 years, with the two most ancient individuals found in tomb 17 and dated to around 3950 cal BC, assigning this a necropolis chronological investigation of the so-called Rinaldone culture. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis confirmed a predominantly agropastoral subsistence strategy for this prehistoric community. Although the plant intake consisted mainly of C3 species, we further discuss the fact that the stable isotope data suggest an increase in the consumption of C4 plants over time. The integration of radiocarbon and isotopic data with the skeletal evidence and material culture provides an interesting insight into the funerary world of this community, highlighting the importance of Selvicciola for the understanding of life in the Mediterranean at the transition between the fourth and the third millennia BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Archaeology and Anthropology of the Ancient World)
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15 pages, 3661 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Threats to Stone Cultural Heritage: State of the Art of Quantitative Damage Functions and New Challenges for a Sustainable Future
by Chiara Coletti
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3276-3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060154 (registering DOI) - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Climate change effects are a warning of the planetary crises threatening our collective future. This is a topic largely considered in the context of the environmental crisis, but we are now aware that climate change represents an increasingly alarming threat also in terms [...] Read more.
Climate change effects are a warning of the planetary crises threatening our collective future. This is a topic largely considered in the context of the environmental crisis, but we are now aware that climate change represents an increasingly alarming threat also in terms of the conservation of cultural heritage sites. Cultural heritage preservation should aim to an active environmental and societal strategy built on a renewed ethics of responsibility on long-term effects. This work provides a review of the current state of the art on the damage functions used for assessing the impacts of climate change on stone heritage surfaces. Within this framework, it introduces new concepts such as (i) the Loss of Details (LoD), in terms of the readability reduction of decorative elements and, subsequently, (ii) the Future Cultural Value (FCV), as the capacity of a cultural heritage to transmit its cultural message in its future appearance. The valorization of the historical legacy is a win–win solution to fix new planning tools and to achieve multiple goals oriented to a sustainable development for future generations. From this point of view, plaster cast galleries and museums play a crucial role in preserving cultural identity since they report a careful documentation of the original artifacts and monuments over the time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Museums for Heritage Preservation and Communication—2nd Edition)
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28 pages, 12830 KiB  
Article
Natural Dyes in Embroideries of Byzantine Tradition, the Collection of Embroidered Aëres and Epitaphioi in the National Museum of Art of Romania
by Irina Petroviciu, Emanuela Cernea, Iolanda Turcu, Silvana Vasilca and Ina Vanden Berghe
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3248-3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060153 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
The medieval textiles collection of the National Museum of Art of Romania (MNAR) has been in place since 1865 and nowadays preserves about 1000 medieval and pre-modern weavings and embroideries. These extremely valuable objects, dated between the 14th and the 19th centuries, are [...] Read more.
The medieval textiles collection of the National Museum of Art of Romania (MNAR) has been in place since 1865 and nowadays preserves about 1000 medieval and pre-modern weavings and embroideries. These extremely valuable objects, dated between the 14th and the 19th centuries, are mainly religious embroidered garments and veils with special significance in the Byzantine li-turgy. Ecclesiastical embroideries of Byzantine tradition are characterized by a complex technique: metallic threads with a silk core, metallic wires and coloured silk threads are couched over padding on layers of silk and cellulosic supports so as to create relief through light reflection. The silk sup-ports and the sewing threads are coloured, mainly in red, blue, green and yellow hues, and analytical investigations of the dyes used in embroideries preserved in the MNAR, in the Putna and Sucevița Monasteries, have been released in previous studies by the corresponding author. The present work continues the approach with research into dyes in about 25 aëres and epitaphioi from the MNAR collection. Considering their privileged function in the liturgical ritual, these luxurious pieces embroidered with silver, gilded silver or coloured silk threads and decorated with pearls, sequins or semi-precious stones are the most faithful description of the stylistic and technological evolution of the art of post-Byzantine embroidery in the Romanian provinces. The data resulting from the present research will improve the knowledge regarding this topic. Dye analysis was performed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection, while fibres were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (with attenuated total reflectance) and optical microscopy. The biological sources identified—carminic acid-based dyes, redwood, dyer’s broom, weld, indigo-based dyes––will be discussed in correspondence with their use in the embroidery technique: support, lining and embroidery threads, together with other sources previously reported on Byzantine embroideries in Romanian collections, and in similar objects preserved at Holy Mount Athos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 42)
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37 pages, 3238 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Long-COVID Impact on Heritage Organisations
by Ari Volanakis, Colin Seymour and Kalliopi Fouseki
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3211-3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060152 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to understand the long-COVID impact on cultural heritage organisations, and future research needed. COVID-19 was disruptive to cultural heritage socioeconomic activities across the world during 2020 and 2021. Whilst government intervention and changes from physical to digital [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to understand the long-COVID impact on cultural heritage organisations, and future research needed. COVID-19 was disruptive to cultural heritage socioeconomic activities across the world during 2020 and 2021. Whilst government intervention and changes from physical to digital engagement generally prevailed, the long-COVID impact on cultural heritage organisations, their people and users, buildings, and collections remains unknown. The extent, also, to which financing, curating, visiting, and volunteering patterns have changed is uncertain. Following the pandemic closures and associated support, cultural heritage organisations are facing continuing economic, social, political, environmental, technological, and organisational culture pressures. This research examines the existing academic literature, sector publications, annual reports and associated visitor information to understand whether cultural heritage organisations have long-COVID, whether they can survive another pandemic, and what further research is needed to be better prepared. Four case studies from the UK look at the visitor and financial impacts of COVID-19 on the British Library, the London Transport Museum, The Theatre Royal Drury Lane, and Kensington Palace. This paper contributes to heritage research by providing a deeper understanding of the impact that COVID-19 had on heritage, and how to proactively plan for similar future disruptions. The impact themes show that change did not result in a new normal but in the need for a new space, consisting of blended space (physical and digital), mixed space (indoors and outdoors), and community of practice space (isolated or cross-sector networking space). The literature highlights the significance of the sector coming together during the pandemic to share knowledge and provide support through its networks. It also highlights how important it is for such unity not to be lost but to be harnessed to support ongoing organisational sustainability and better preparedness for future crises. Finally, future research suggestions are proposed grouped into social, digital, financial, and operational research themes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage under Threat. Endangered Monuments and Heritage Sites)
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17 pages, 13009 KiB  
Article
Structural Analysis of the Sympathetic Restoration and Conservation of the Gopinath Temple, Kathmandu, Nepal
by Andrés Arce, Alejandro Jiménez Rios, Igor Tomic and David Biggs
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3194-3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060151 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The sympathetic restoration and conservation of built cultural heritage play a significant role in the management and preparedness for future climate scenarios by facilitating adaptive reuse, enhancing cultural resilience, preserving traditional knowledge, and boosting tourism. The importance of restoring damaged heritage sites after [...] Read more.
The sympathetic restoration and conservation of built cultural heritage play a significant role in the management and preparedness for future climate scenarios by facilitating adaptive reuse, enhancing cultural resilience, preserving traditional knowledge, and boosting tourism. The importance of restoring damaged heritage sites after an earthquake drew international attention to Nepal after the 2015 Gorka Earthquake. UNESCO established an office in Kathmandu to promote the restoration of tangible and intangible heritage in the area. This included developing structural analyses of buildings with historical and cultural value that, due to their nature, cannot be intervened with the same methodology as modern buildings. In this paper, the case study of the earthquake-damaged Gopinath temple is discussed. First, an initial visual inspection phase and the following diagnosis of the structure are discussed. Then, the results from a series of static and dynamic structural analyses performed to determine the safety level of the structure, together with a sensitivity analysis, are presented. A sympathetic intervention proposal capable of increasing the temple’s safety level, and based on the addition of timber plates, has resulted in substantial improvements in the lateral behavior of the structure. The proposed intervention is deemed sustainable and able to increase the resilience of the temple in the face of future hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Revitalisation of Built Heritage)
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15 pages, 20489 KiB  
Article
Contribution of EBSD for the Microstructural Study of Archaeological Iron Alloy Artefacts from the Archaeological Site of Loiola (Biscay, Northern Spain)
by Céline Rémazeilles, Maria Cruz Zuluaga, Haizea Portillo-Blanco, Egle Conforto, Abdelali Oudriss, Luis Àngel Ortega, Ainhoa Alonso-Olazabal and Juan José Cepeda-Ocampo
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3179-3193; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060150 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Iron palaeometallurgy was carried out on three artefacts, classified as nails and excavated from the archaeological site of Loiola (La Arboleda, Biscay, northern Spain), to investigate Roman manufacturing techniques. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Iron palaeometallurgy was carried out on three artefacts, classified as nails and excavated from the archaeological site of Loiola (La Arboleda, Biscay, northern Spain), to investigate Roman manufacturing techniques. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used to obtain elemental composition and structural characterization of mineral phases. Metallurgical properties and crystallographic texture were studied by combining microscopic methods such as optical microscopy (OM), Electron Backscatter Diffraction realized in environmental mode (EBSD) and measurements of local Vickers microhardness. The three artefacts had different microstructures, distinguished by a large gradient of carbon content, although important segregations (inclusions) were observed in all of them. Two pearlite-rich artefacts showed a high density of structural defects (geometrically necessary dislocations and large crystallographic orientation gradients in pearlitic ferrite, curved pearlitic cementite) resulting from a high level of plastic deformation that occurred during the manufacturing process. The third artefact consisted of pure ferrite without structural defects. This one was clearly manufactured differently from the two others, so it probably had another functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Restoration of Metal Artifacts)
17 pages, 10571 KiB  
Article
The Battle for ‘Authentic’ Heritage: The Case of the Dobbins Restoration
by Sarah Kerr and Laura Patrick
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3162-3178; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060149 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
This paper introduces a recently restored late-medieval tower house called the Dobbins, located in the historic town of Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland. The restoration process transformed what appeared visually as a Georgian house into a medieval-esque tower house. Despite considerable historical and archaeological research [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a recently restored late-medieval tower house called the Dobbins, located in the historic town of Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland. The restoration process transformed what appeared visually as a Georgian house into a medieval-esque tower house. Despite considerable historical and archaeological research prior to the restoration, the responses from the local community were mixed. This ignited a discussion surrounding whether or not the Dobbins is authentic. Multiple understandings of authenticity are used to analyse the restoration results and evaluate whether a desire for authenticity can be detected. It is clear that authenticity is a myriad of complexities and contradictions comprising tangible, intangible, stable and dynamic elements, and when this is a motivation for restoration the complexity is embedded in the result. This is deconstructed to find that tourism and local identities underpinned the motivation for authenticity and their role in influencing the hierarchy of narratives retold through the restored Dobbins will be discussed. By exploring the authenticity craze through the prism of the Dobbins, this paper allows a deeper understanding of the term to be generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
27 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
The Cleaning of Corroded Lacquered Brass with Complexing Agents: A Comparative Study
by Julie Schröter, Miriam Truffa Giachet, Luana Cuvillier, Edith Joseph and Laura Brambilla
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3135-3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060148 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Lacquered brass objects are widely present in scientific and technical heritage collections. Localized atmospheric corrosion occurs on the metal when the coating fails to play its protective role. Although lacquered brass objects are not necessarily endangered by this phenomenon, the presence of dark, [...] Read more.
Lacquered brass objects are widely present in scientific and technical heritage collections. Localized atmospheric corrosion occurs on the metal when the coating fails to play its protective role. Although lacquered brass objects are not necessarily endangered by this phenomenon, the presence of dark, unpleasant corrosion spots alters the surface appearance, affecting the readability of the objects. Conservators are therefore frequently asked to clean these surfaces. We hereby present the results of a study conducted in the framework of the CleanLaB (Cleaning of Lacquered Brass) project at the Haute Ecole Arc of Neuchâtel for the cleaning of lacquered brass. This work investigates the effects of several gelled cleaning systems applied on artificially aged, lacquered brass samples to remove the corrosion products without affecting the integrity of the coating. The performance of complexing agents commonly used in conservation was compared on lacquered brass mock-ups coated with shellac resin by means of multiple non-invasive characterization and imaging techniques. The tests included conventional complexing agents like sodium citrate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, as well as a bio-originated system based on deferoxamine, a microbial metal chelator investigated as a green alternative in cleaning formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Restoration of Metal Artifacts)
15 pages, 21804 KiB  
Article
Polychrome Marbles in Christian Churches: Examples from the Antependium of Baroque Altars in Apulia (Southern Italy)
by Pasquale Acquafredda, Francesca Micheletti and Giovanna Fioretti
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3120-3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060147 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The antependia, realized in polychrome marbles during the Baroque period in two Christian churches of Apulia (Southern Italy), were on-site petrographically investigated by the naked eye to obtain information regarding the types of used rocks; the precision in the making of the [...] Read more.
The antependia, realized in polychrome marbles during the Baroque period in two Christian churches of Apulia (Southern Italy), were on-site petrographically investigated by the naked eye to obtain information regarding the types of used rocks; the precision in the making of the marble tesserae was also assessed. Most of the polychrome marbles recognized were taken from buildings and monuments realized during the Roman imperial period; other marbles quarried during the Baroque period, mainly from Italian geological outcrops, were also identified. The precision in the execution of the tesserae is generally very high and depends not only on the skill of the marble worker but also on the lithotype. Full article
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25 pages, 13635 KiB  
Review
A Historical Landscape under Threat: Contestation and Preservation of Malta’s Pastoral Droveways
by Gianmarco Alberti, Reuben Grima, Nicholas C. Vella, Kurt Xerri and David E. Zammit
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3095-3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060146 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Landscapes have been shaped and reshaped by humans to meet the changing needs of shifting subsistence strategies and demographic patterns. In the Mediterranean region, a widespread subsistence strategy that has left a major imprint is pastoralism, often tied with transhumance. Pastoralism and the [...] Read more.
Landscapes have been shaped and reshaped by humans to meet the changing needs of shifting subsistence strategies and demographic patterns. In the Mediterranean region, a widespread subsistence strategy that has left a major imprint is pastoralism, often tied with transhumance. Pastoralism and the associated tensions between pastoralists and settled agriculturalists have political and legal dimensions which are sometimes overlooked in mainstream accounts of national “patrimony”. The rapid transformations of subsistence strategies witnessed in the twentieth century have changed pastoral landscapes in diverse ways. This paper focusses on the central Mediterranean archipelago of Malta to explore how the values and management of such landscapes require holistic assessment, taking into account the intangible practices and embedded legal rights and obligations that maintained these systems. While in Malta pastoralism has practically disappeared, its physical imprint persists in the form of a network of droveways, which was once a carefully regulated form of commons. Burgeoning demographic growth is erasing large tracts of the historic environment. Against this backdrop of contestation, this paper draws on interdisciplinary approaches to interrogate the shifting legal and historical narratives through which pastoral landscapes have been managed, in the process revealing how dominant epistemological and legal frameworks are also implicated in the erasure of these landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage under Threat. Endangered Monuments and Heritage Sites)
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15 pages, 9031 KiB  
Article
European Smalt in 17th-Century Japan: Porcelain Decoration and Sacred Art
by Riccardo Montanari, Philippe Colomban, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Salvatore Schiavone and Claudia Pelosi
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3080-3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060145 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Japanese art tradition, contrary to the case of China, is characterized by an efficient and continued, although mostly undocumented, use of smalt from the late 16th century onward. Recent studies have successfully identified this pigment, the cobalt-colored glass that spread throughout the Old [...] Read more.
Japanese art tradition, contrary to the case of China, is characterized by an efficient and continued, although mostly undocumented, use of smalt from the late 16th century onward. Recent studies have successfully identified this pigment, the cobalt-colored glass that spread throughout the Old Continent during the Renaissance period, as the coloring agent employed for overglaze-blue enameling on Japanese porcelains produced at the kilns of Arita (the porcelain production center of Japan) from the early 1640s until the 20th century. Fragmentary evidence of the use of smalt in Japanese sacred art has also been reported, yet its earliest incorporation into such a type of traditional art form could not be identified. In order to resolve this crucial issue, portable EDXRF was employed for the non-destructive analyses of Japanese porcelains and sacred images bearing blue decoration. Scientific analysis allowed, for the first time ever, to establish a clear timeline of smalt use. Furthermore, this evidence and the literature data both agree, leading to the identification of the origin of the blue material used on both art productions. Full article
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18 pages, 32643 KiB  
Article
Discovering the Sansalvador Villa through the Superposition of Photogrammetric Point Cloud Surveys and Original Jujol Plans
by Jordi de Gispert Hernández, Sandra Moliner Nuño, Alberto Sánchez Riera, Isabel Crespo Cabillo and Carles Pàmies
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3062-3079; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060144 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The Sansalvador villa, the first project exclusively designed by Josep Maria Jujol in Barcelona, is a unique architectural complex that piques curiosity about its origins and conception. Its incomplete state, limited documentation, and blend of modernist and organic elements contribute to its exceptional [...] Read more.
The Sansalvador villa, the first project exclusively designed by Josep Maria Jujol in Barcelona, is a unique architectural complex that piques curiosity about its origins and conception. Its incomplete state, limited documentation, and blend of modernist and organic elements contribute to its exceptional nature. This article delves into its history and conceptualization by examining original documents and conducting a detailed photogrammetric survey of the built architectural complex as it is today. By overlaying new planimetry derived from fieldwork onto the original plans, certain peculiarities, discrepancies, and unforeseen changes emerge, shedding light on Jujol’s creative process. The Sansalvador villa reveals the profound connection between the project and its surroundings, showcasing Jujol’s keen awareness of the site’s pre-existing conditions. His architecture is defined by a critical approach to these conditions, integrating them as essential elements in defining the project’s character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage and 3D Assets Utilisation)
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14 pages, 15812 KiB  
Article
The Application of Cathodoluminescence (CL) for the Characterization of Blue Pigments
by Eleni Palamara, Stelios Kesidis, Laura Tormo Cifuentes, Partha Pratim Das, Stavros Nicolopoulos and Nikolaos Zacharias
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3048-3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060143 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
The combined application of Cathodoluminescence (CL) with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on paintings and painted surfaces has the potential to identify both organic and inorganic pigments on a micrometre or even nanometre scale. Additionally, the combination with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) allows for a [...] Read more.
The combined application of Cathodoluminescence (CL) with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on paintings and painted surfaces has the potential to identify both organic and inorganic pigments on a micrometre or even nanometre scale. Additionally, the combination with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) allows for a more holistic, elemental, and mineralogical characterization of pigments. In addressing the need for the creation of a robust, open access database of characteristic CL spectra of pigments, a large project has been undertaken, focusing primarily on common organic and inorganic pigments. The present paper focuses on the CL characterization of 10 significant blue pigments in pure powder form: cerulean blue, Egyptian blue, Han blue, indigo, lapis lazuli, Maya blue, phthalo blue, vivianite, ultramarine blue, and zirconium blue. The CL spectra present characteristic bands for most of the pigments, allowing their secure identification, especially when combining the results with the EDS analyses. The effect of binding media and of the mixture of different pigments was also studied, via the analysis of mixtures of pigments with oil painted over canvas. Overall, both the binding medium and the mixture of pigments do not appear to create significant differences in the occurring spectra, thus allowing the identification of individual pigments. EDS and RAMAN spectra are included in order to facilitate comparison with other databases. Full article
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14 pages, 11977 KiB  
Article
The Return of the Warrior: Combining Anthropology, Imaging Advances, and Art in Reconstructing the Face of the Early Medieval Skeleton
by Ana Curić, Ivan Jerković, Fabio Cavalli, Ivana Kružić, Tina Bareša, Andrej Bašić, Marko Mladineo, Robert Jozić, Goran Balić, Duje Matetić, Deni Tojčić, Krešimir Dolić, Ivan Skejić and Željana Bašić
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3034-3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060142 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Reconstructing the face from the skull is important not only for forensic identification but also as a tool that can provide insight into the appearance of individuals from past populations. It requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines anthropological knowledge, advanced imaging methods, and [...] Read more.
Reconstructing the face from the skull is important not only for forensic identification but also as a tool that can provide insight into the appearance of individuals from past populations. It requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines anthropological knowledge, advanced imaging methods, and artistic skills. In the present study, we demonstrate this process on the skull of an early medieval warrior from Croatia. The skeletal remains were prepared and scanned using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and examined using standard anthropological and radiological methods. The analysis revealed that the remains belonged to a 35–45-year-old male individual who had suffered severe cranial trauma, probably causing his death. From MSCT images, we reconstructed a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull, on which we digitally positioned cylinders demarking the soft tissue thickness and created the face with a realistic texture. A 3D model of the face was then optimized, printed, and used to produce a clay model. Sculpturing techniques added skin textures and facial features with scars and trauma manifestations. Finally, after constructing a plaster model, the model was painted and refined by adding fine details like eyes and hair, and it was prepared for presentation in the form of a sculpture. Full article
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21 pages, 8582 KiB  
Article
The Iridescent Painting Palette of Michelino da Besozzo: First Results of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Analyses
by Anna Delle Foglie and Anna Candida Felici
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 3013-3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060141 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 353
Abstract
This study concerns the characterization of the color palette of Michelino da Besozzo, one of the leading painters and illuminators of the Late Gothic period in Northern Italy. The artist’s relationship with the color blue was investigated by considering the recipe for lapis [...] Read more.
This study concerns the characterization of the color palette of Michelino da Besozzo, one of the leading painters and illuminators of the Late Gothic period in Northern Italy. The artist’s relationship with the color blue was investigated by considering the recipe for lapis lazuli given by the artist to Giovanni Alcherio in Venice in 1410 and found in the medieval treatise of Jean Lebegue. The paper highlights this important evidence for the study of painting technique in the first half of the 15th century with an analytical and technical study of two paintings: The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine (Siena, Pinacoteca Nazionale, inv. 171) and The Madonna of the Rose Garden (Verona, Museo di Castelvecchio, inv. 173-1B359). These two case studies were approached through analyses carried out with non-invasive and portable techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy and Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS). The results show a color palette based on ultramarine, azurite, verdigris or copper resinate; earths, cinnabar or vermillion; and lead white, yellow and red ochre and lac. These preliminary results made it possible to clarify certain aspects of the artist’s style and his painting technique and identify common elements between the two works of art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Technologies Applied in Cultural Heritage)
29 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
A Framework for a Hazard Taxonomy to Support Risk Assessment of Tangible Outdoor Heritage
by Alessandra Battisti, Angelo Figliola and Maria Laura Santarelli
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2984-3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060140 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
The variety of hazards with a potential impact on cultural heritage requires a multidisciplinary approach and a preliminary overview of the existing methods for risk assessment in order to define a comprehensive hazard taxonomy. The starting point of the research thus aims to [...] Read more.
The variety of hazards with a potential impact on cultural heritage requires a multidisciplinary approach and a preliminary overview of the existing methods for risk assessment in order to define a comprehensive hazard taxonomy. The starting point of the research thus aims to build a multidisciplinary framework to support the risk assessment process according to the classification of cultural heritage based on the harmonization of European vocabularies’ definitions and protocols. To collect the necessary information, such as hazard classification, indicators, indices and thresholds, a series of methodologies was adopted: analysis of the main international protocols and the EU Research projects related to risk assessment in cultural heritage, expert-based knowledge and a systematic literature review. The research aims to fill a gap in the field of quantitative and indicator-based risk assessment that does not present a unique and all-encompassing framework capable of collecting the main natural and anthropic risks along with the related taxonomy in a single repository. The framework has been set up to be consulted by researchers, professionals and public administrations to support the evaluation process of potential risks on tangible outdoor heritage enabling users to incrementally add exposure and vulnerability data for each specific risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Analysis and Preservation Strategies of Architectural Heritage)
25 pages, 10086 KiB  
Article
Continuity and Innovation in Pottery Technology: The Karst Region (North-East Italy) from Neolithic to Early Bronze Age
by Federico Bernardini, Manuela Montagnari Kokelj, Matteo Velicogna, Nicolò Barago, Davide Lenaz, Angelo De Min and Elena Leghissa
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2959-2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060139 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This paper explores the development of pottery technology in the Trieste Karst region (North-East Italy) from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (EBA). It also seeks to identify cultural links with other areas by examining potentially imported vessels. Archaeometric analyses (X-ray diffraction [...] Read more.
This paper explores the development of pottery technology in the Trieste Karst region (North-East Italy) from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (EBA). It also seeks to identify cultural links with other areas by examining potentially imported vessels. Archaeometric analyses (X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy) reveal significant differences between Neolithic ceramics (Danilo–Vlaška Group) and the majority of Late Copper Age (LCA)/Early Bronze Age (EBA) pottery (primarily associated with the Ljubljana Culture and a few with the Cetina Culture). Neolithic pottery displays consistent characteristics across all vessel types, including coarse grain, prevalent sparry calcite temper, and the absence of grog. In contrast, most LCA and EBA vessels exhibit distinct features such as very fine-grained paste, no sparry calcite, notable use of grog temper, higher quartz, muscovite, and flint content. Notably, from a technological perspective, the analyzed Cetina vessels bear a strong resemblance to the majority of LCA ceramics. The differences between Neolithic and LCA/EBA vessels clearly suggest the use of new raw materials, recipes, and techniques, likely reflecting changes in cultural and social contexts and potential connections with the core area of the Ljubljana Culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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15 pages, 1496 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Stability Assessment of the Rock Cliffs and Xrobb l-Ġħaġin Neolithic Structure in Malta
by George Volanis, Demitrios Galanakis, Nikolaos Bolanakis, Emmanuel Maravelakis, Ruben Paul Borg and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2944-2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060138 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The stability of rock cliffs is a longstanding issue and is of practical significance. This case study demonstrates the application and use of advanced 3D modeling techniques, concentrating on the geological formations of the Xrobb l-Ġħaġin peninsula on the south-east coast of Malta, [...] Read more.
The stability of rock cliffs is a longstanding issue and is of practical significance. This case study demonstrates the application and use of advanced 3D modeling techniques, concentrating on the geological formations of the Xrobb l-Ġħaġin peninsula on the south-east coast of Malta, where the Xrobb l-Ġħaġin Neolithic site is located. In order to utilize a static and dynamic analysis of the investigated scenario, a 3D finite element model (FEM) of the geological formation in which the monument is set had to be created. To this end, 3D scanning, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and oblique photogrammetry were first used with state-of-the-art commercial packages for mesh reconstruction. As a result, a geometric and finite element model (FEM) was created, suitable for both static and dynamic analysis. In the second stage, a parametric investigation of the material properties of the structural system of the geological substrate was sought. The structural response of the system was evaluated for different loading scenarios assuming nonlinear finite element analysis. Collapse case scenarios were investigated for standard and weakened materials, predicting which components would collapse first and under which case of weakened materials the collapse occurs. Among other aspects, the main novelty of this paper lies in the integrated approach and multidisciplinary paradigm that supplement the available historical knowledge for this specific cultural heritage Neolithic site towards its conservation. Full article
20 pages, 18894 KiB  
Article
Multi-Sensor Geomatic Techniques for the 3D Documentation and Virtual Repositioning of Elements of the Church of S. Miguel (Jaén, Spain)
by Antonio Tomás Mozas-Calvache, José Miguel Gómez-López, José Luis Pérez-García, Diego Vico-García, Vicente Barba-Colmenero and Alberto Fernández-Ordóñez
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2924-2943; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060137 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 143
Abstract
This study describes the methodology and main results obtained after applying several geomatic techniques, based on the fusion of data acquired by several sensors, to document the recovery works carried out in an abandoned church. A century ago, the façade was moved to [...] Read more.
This study describes the methodology and main results obtained after applying several geomatic techniques, based on the fusion of data acquired by several sensors, to document the recovery works carried out in an abandoned church. A century ago, the façade was moved to a museum to ensure its preservation. In addition to documentary purposes, a secondary goal is the virtual repositioning of a model of this element on that of the church. The method takes advantage of the potential of each technique, considering the acquisition of geometry based mainly on laser scanning techniques and radiometry on photogrammetry. The results include 3D models and orthoimages, which are used to perform a stratigraphic study. The 3D model of the façade has been repositioned in the general one, considering common geometries previously fitted in both models and repeating part of the photogrammetric process, using masks to define the image areas related to the church and the façade. Therefore, we obtained a 3D model with the façade included in it. This procedure has demonstrated its feasibility despite the existence of different environmental conditions in both areas. Using these results, we have also developed a BIM to allow for the management of future restoration works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage and 3D Assets Utilisation)
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44 pages, 6084 KiB  
Article
Reflections on the Decay Mechanisms of Half-Timbered Walls in Traditional Spanish Architecture: Statistical Analysis of Material and Structural Damage
by Alicia Hueto-Escobar, Fernando Vegas, Camilla Mileto and María Lidón de Miguel
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2880-2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060136 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Knowledge on the state of conservation and vulnerability of traditional techniques when faced with the most common degradation phenomena is vital in order to propose the most suitable conservation and maintenance actions. This article presents the systematic review of 1218 half-timbered walls found [...] Read more.
Knowledge on the state of conservation and vulnerability of traditional techniques when faced with the most common degradation phenomena is vital in order to propose the most suitable conservation and maintenance actions. This article presents the systematic review of 1218 half-timbered walls found throughout Spain, enabling the identification of a total of 27 material lesions, classified by atmospheric, biological or anthropic origin, and 9 structural lesions due to stress or excessive deformation. Their qualitative and quantitative analysis has focused on the frequency of the individual lesions and the possible correlation with different constructive characteristics, such as the materials used, the geometry of the framework and the presence of plinths, eaves and protective rendering. Almost the entire sample presents some degree of material degradation, mostly atmospheric lesions of limited severity, such as superficial atmospheric erosion and chromatic alteration and dehydration of the timber. In terms of structural lesions, half-timbered walls are seen to be more vulnerable to this type of deformation. Considering the risk of loss affecting all traditional architecture, it becomes particularly important to promote the continued maintenance of half-timbered walls in order to reduce the influence of material lesions caused by atmospheric agents. Subsequently, suitable criteria for intervention are established in order to reduce the effect of anthropic lesions and structural degradation phenomena, particularly linked to a lack of maintenance and modifications of anthropic origin. Full article
14 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Chalconatronite: From Its Identification to the Treatment of Copper Alloy Objects
by Charlène Pelé-Meziani, Aymeric Raimon, Jean-Yves Mevellec and Elodie Guilminot
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2866-2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060135 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
On the occasion of the reopening of the Dobrée Museum (Nantes, France), two statuettes of Egyptian origin, representing Harpocrate and Isis, were studied to shed light on the presence of the blue-green efflorescence on their surface. The efflorescence on the Harpocrate statuette was [...] Read more.
On the occasion of the reopening of the Dobrée Museum (Nantes, France), two statuettes of Egyptian origin, representing Harpocrate and Isis, were studied to shed light on the presence of the blue-green efflorescence on their surface. The efflorescence on the Harpocrate statuette was identified as being chalconatronite, while that which was present on the Isis statuette corresponded to sodium copper formate/acetate, probably due to the evolution of chalconatronite in an environment containing VOCs. The efflorescence appeared to be sensitive to the cyclic variation in relative humidity whereas it seemed stable. An experimental curative treatment to halt the reappearance was carried out. A series of pure water baths extracted a significant quantity of sodium. The treatment appeared effective and reduced the risk of a recrudescence of the efflorescence for both statuettes. However, when the efflorescence was dissolved on the Isis statuette, other compounds appeared to react with water, leading to acidification and a potential reaction with the lead in the alloy. A layer of lead carbonate/acetate on the surface appeared. The objects were then dried and protected with a highly concentrated acrylic varnish. They are currently being monitored to identify any new efflorescence that may appear during display. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Restoration of Metal Artifacts)
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32 pages, 53844 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Quality of Architectural Heritage Reuse Projects Using a Well-Being and NEB Approach: The Case Study of IPIM in Turin (Italy)
by Daniele Dabbene, Carla Bartolozzi and Cristina Coscia
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2834-2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060134 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
International conservation approaches recognise architectural heritage as crucial in promoting sustainable development and enhancing human well-being. This has been highlighted by the recent New European Bauhaus (NEB) movement. As for the reuse of architectural heritage, this debate has led to the formulation of [...] Read more.
International conservation approaches recognise architectural heritage as crucial in promoting sustainable development and enhancing human well-being. This has been highlighted by the recent New European Bauhaus (NEB) movement. As for the reuse of architectural heritage, this debate has led to the formulation of new guidelines that aim to maximise the tangible and intangible values of the assets from a long-term and circular economy perspective. In turning theory into operational practice, it is essential to reuse heritage structures while keeping these principles in mind and remaining within the boundaries of conservation objectives. To achieve this, evaluation tools that can aid in the decision-making process need to be identified. This research presents a novel model of indicators that can monitor and evaluate the quality of architectural heritage reuse projects, proposing a perspective that considers both the concept of well-being and the NEB principles. The proposed model is tested on Turin’s IPIM (Provincial Institute for Childhood and Maternity). This structure has been transformed from an uncomfortable heritage into a cultural centre for contemporary art called Flashback Habitat. The case study tests the model’s practical applicability and demonstrates its effectiveness in identifying the most challenging principles to apply in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings)
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23 pages, 9542 KiB  
Article
A Characterisation of the Protrusions on Liu Kang’s Boat scene (1974) from the National Gallery Singapore
by Damian Lizun and Teresa Kurkiewicz
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2811-2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060133 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 293
Abstract
This paper investigates the oil on canvas painting Boat scene (1974) by Liu Kang (1911–2004), belonging to the National Gallery Singapore (NGS). The focus is on disfiguring paint protrusions in a specific area and colour in the composition. Moreover, in search of the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the oil on canvas painting Boat scene (1974) by Liu Kang (1911–2004), belonging to the National Gallery Singapore (NGS). The focus is on disfiguring paint protrusions in a specific area and colour in the composition. Moreover, in search of the possible factors responsible for the creation of the protrusions, the structure and composition of the paint layers were determined. Three possible reasons were put forward to explain this phenomenon: deliberate textural effects, the expansion of metal soaps and unintentional paint contamination during the artistic process. Investigative techniques such as technical photography, digital microscopy, optical microscopy (OM), polarised light microscopy (PLM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM-EDS) and attenuated total reflectance micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR μ-FTIR) were employed to analyse paint layers, including protrusion samples. The analyses revealed that the protrusions resulted from an unintentional contamination of the oil paint during the artistic process by dry fragments of different pigment mixtures bound in drying oil. Zinc soaps were found in significant concentrations within the protrusions and other parts of the painted scene. Nevertheless, the metal soaps do not pose a direct risk to the integrity of the paint layers at the time of this research. The analyses highlight the potential challenges caused by the protrusions that conservators may face while caring for the painting. The research contributes to our ongoing comprehension of the artist’s working process. Full article
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19 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
Virtual Reality Applied to Heritage in Higher Education—Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate Usability, Learning, and Emotions
by Mario Corrales-Serrano, Pilar Merchán, María José Merchán and Emiliano Pérez
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2792-2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060132 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Cultural heritage is one of the areas where Extended Reality is having a significant impact nowadays. Although often associated with entertainment, this technology has enormous educational potential when applied to heritage. Therefore, it is essential to implement monitoring tools in educational practice to [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage is one of the areas where Extended Reality is having a significant impact nowadays. Although often associated with entertainment, this technology has enormous educational potential when applied to heritage. Therefore, it is essential to implement monitoring tools in educational practice to assess its actual effectiveness. This article presents the process of generating and validating a statistical data collection instrument developed to evaluate a virtual reality experience created using the archaeological heritage of the ancient Roman city of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). It can be easily adapted to evaluate similar experiences. The aim is to gauge the effectiveness of these experiences as a didactic resource. The questionnaire was subjected to an evaluation of its three dimensions. Content validity was analyzed through expert judgments, while applicability was tested by students. Finally, a series of statistical tests were conducted to verify construct reliability and internal consistency. Based on the results obtained and cross-referenced with the data provided by the literature, the suitability of this tool for collecting data on usability, learning, and emotions in virtual reality experiences is confirmed. Full article
37 pages, 33981 KiB  
Article
“Codex 4D” Project: Interdisciplinary Investigations on Materials and Colors of De Balneis Puteolanis (Angelica Library, Rome, Ms. 1474)
by Eva Pietroni, Alessandra Botteon, David Buti, Alessandra Chirivì, Chiara Colombo, Claudia Conti, Anna Letizia Di Carlo, Donata Magrini, Fulvio Mercuri, Noemi Orazi and Marco Realini
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2755-2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060131 - 28 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 374
Abstract
This paper sheds light on the manufacturing processes, techniques, and materials used in the splendid illuminations of the oldest surviving copy of De Balneis Puteolanis, preserved at the Angelica Library in Rome (Ms. 1474). The codex is one of the masterpieces of mid-13th-century [...] Read more.
This paper sheds light on the manufacturing processes, techniques, and materials used in the splendid illuminations of the oldest surviving copy of De Balneis Puteolanis, preserved at the Angelica Library in Rome (Ms. 1474). The codex is one of the masterpieces of mid-13th-century Italian-Southern illumination, traditionally referred to as the commission of Manfredi, son of Frederick II. The findings reported in the article result from the interdisciplinary study conducted in 2021–2023 in the framework of “Codex 4D: journey in four dimensions into the manuscript”, a multidisciplinary project involving many competences and dealing with art-historical studies on manuscripts, diagnostic and conservative analyses, scientific dissemination, storytelling, and public engagement. The considerations we present aims at increasing the knowledge of book artefacts while respecting their extraordinary complexity; data from non-invasive diagnostic investigations (X-ray fluorescence, Vis-NIR reflectance and Raman spectroscopies, hyperspectral imaging, and multi-band imaging techniques as ultraviolet, reflectography, and thermography), carried out in situ with portable instruments on the book, have been integrated with observations resulting from the historical-artistic study, and the reading of some ancient treatises on the production and use of the pigments and dyes employed in illumination. Full article
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25 pages, 1786 KiB  
Article
Integrating Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and the Delphi Method in the Conservation of Transhumance Heritage: The Case of Andorra
by Lluís Segura, Rocío Ortiz, Javier Becerra and Pilar Ortiz
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2730-2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060130 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Transhumance and its associated heritage are extremely complex and dynamic systems, and their conservation requires the analysis of interdisciplinary factors. To this end, fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) and Delphi surveys were applied for the first time in the field of heritage conservation. The [...] Read more.
Transhumance and its associated heritage are extremely complex and dynamic systems, and their conservation requires the analysis of interdisciplinary factors. To this end, fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) and Delphi surveys were applied for the first time in the field of heritage conservation. The model was applied to the tangible and intangible transhumance heritage of Andorra to determine its current state of conservation and to evaluate strategies for its preservation. Two panels of experts worked on the development of the model. Five experts with profiles related to conservation and transhumance heritage formed the first panel, which designed the preliminary FCMs, while seven experts in Andorran cultural heritage (panel 2) adapted the preliminary FCM model to Andorran transhumance heritage using Delphi surveys. The FCM model allowed us to analyze the influence of different variables on the conservation of transhumance heritage and to assess policy decisions. Further studies will focus on the implementation of this model in other countries to establish common recommendations for the conservation of the cultural heritage of transhumance. Full article
21 pages, 49374 KiB  
Article
Archaeological and Archaeometric Insights into a Roman Wall Painting Assemblage from the Blanes Dump (Mérida)
by Gonzalo Castillo Alcántara, Daniel Cosano Hidalgo, Alicia Fernández Díaz and José Rafael Ruiz Arrebola
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2709-2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060129 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
In this paper we describe the archaeological and archaeometric analysis of a Third Pompeian Style assemblage from the Blanes dump in Mérida (Spain). Based on the pottery context, the material would have been part of the decoration of a public or private space [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe the archaeological and archaeometric analysis of a Third Pompeian Style assemblage from the Blanes dump in Mérida (Spain). Based on the pottery context, the material would have been part of the decoration of a public or private space remodelled towards the end of the 1st century AD. Several samples from to the middle area of the assemblage, including panels, inter-panels and a frieze, were selected and studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Raman, gas chromatography and petrographic analysis. The results revealed the use of hematite, cinnabar, minium and goethite in different panels, as well as goethite, Egyptian blue, calcite, glauconite and carbon for the decorative motifs. They allowed us to define the painting techniques used and how they have affected the degradation of the pigments. Full article
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27 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of the Impact of the Protection Zone Regime for Cultural Heritage Sites on the Value of Land for Individual Housing Construction in the Context of a Low-Activity Market
by Irina Dyachkova, Elena Bykowa, Vlada Dudina and Tatyana Banikevich
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2682-2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060128 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
The preservation of cultural heritage plays a key role in the development of society. To preserve cultural heritage, protection zones are established, which represent an encumbrance on land plots and, therefore, should be taken into account in the valuation process. Currently, there is [...] Read more.
The preservation of cultural heritage plays a key role in the development of society. To preserve cultural heritage, protection zones are established, which represent an encumbrance on land plots and, therefore, should be taken into account in the valuation process. Currently, there is a problem that mass (cadastral) and individual valuation methods do not necessarily include cultural heritage objects and their zones in cost coefficients. The absence of a mechanism to address their individual characteristics in the real estate valuation system has a significant impact on the value of real estate and leads to unjustifiably inflated market value and, as a consequence, to disputing the results of cadastral valuation. This article is devoted to determining the impact of protection zones of cultural heritage objects on the value of land intended for individual housing construction, using the example of the city of Orenburg. This article considers various methods of identifying patterns of the influence of zones with special conditions of use of the territory on the market value of land and substantiates the use of the method of comparative sales in the conditions of a low-active land market in Orenburg, a statistical analysis of market information, on the basis of which the type of activity of the real estate market in Orenburg was determined. The patterns of the calculation of corrections for the remoteness of the studied land plots from the objects of the transport and social infrastructure of Orenburg were revealed in this work as well. Through the method of paired sales within the framework of an individual assessment of the land plot intended for individual housing construction, the diminishing impact of the zones of protection of cultural heritage objects on the market value of land plots was revealed. This allows for conclusions to be drawn as to whether objects of cultural heritage have an impact on the value of real estate, and as a result, there is a need to modify the applied methods of mass and individual real estate valuation within the boundaries of historical settlements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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14 pages, 25965 KiB  
Article
Technology of Dyeing beyond Text
by Anete Karlsone
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2668-2681; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060127 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
A major source in the research on Baltic cultural history (Latvia, Estonia), including studies dedicated to the clothing of local inhabitants, are the drawings and descriptions of Johann Christoph Brotze (1742–1823), which date back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. [...] Read more.
A major source in the research on Baltic cultural history (Latvia, Estonia), including studies dedicated to the clothing of local inhabitants, are the drawings and descriptions of Johann Christoph Brotze (1742–1823), which date back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. They contain references to dyes and dyeing methods used by local peasants. The information recorded by J. C. Brotze, although fragmentary, is valuable because researchers lack documentary sources about the dyeing methods used in the 18th century in the territory of present-day Latvia. Additional research yields more extensive information about the contents of the descriptions. The current article will describe the experimental method that enabled the establishment of the specific dyeing technique, which, using Bixa orellana L., was employed to obtain the particular orange color referred to in the descriptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 42)
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