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Ceramics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Hundreds of thousands of implants have been implanted yearly in various medical areas. However, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Thermomechanical Characterization of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in a Combustion Facility
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 407-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020032 - 17 Jun 2019
Viewed by 630
Abstract
A combustion facility which includes uniaxial mechanical loading was implemented that enables environmental conditions more akin to jet engine environments compared to conventional static environment tests. Two types of woven SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), melt-infiltrated (MI) and chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI), were [...] Read more.
A combustion facility which includes uniaxial mechanical loading was implemented that enables environmental conditions more akin to jet engine environments compared to conventional static environment tests. Two types of woven SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), melt-infiltrated (MI) and chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI), were subjected to fatigue loading in the combustion facility and under isothermal furnace conditions. Some CVI test coupons were coated with a multilayer environmental barrier coating (EBC) of mullite + ytterbium monosilicate using slurry infiltration process to demonstrate the performance with a coating. Combustion conditions were applied using a high velocity oxy fuel gun on the front side of the specimen and mechanical loading was applied using a horizontal hydraulic MTS machine. All the specimens considered were subjected to tension-tension fatigue loading at 100 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1 and specimen front-side surface temperature of 1200 ± 20 °C. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, such as electrical resistance (ER), was used as an in-situ health monitoring technique. Similar fatigue tests were performed in an isothermal furnace for comparison. A much lower fatigue life was observed for the uncoated specimens tested under combustion conditions in comparison to isothermal furnace condition. This difference in fatigue life was attributed to damage associated with added thermal stress due to the thermal gradient and higher rate of oxidative embrittlement due to the presence of high velocity combustion gases in the combustion environment. EBC coating increased the fatigue life in combustion environment. However, EBC coated specimens experienced spallation in the high-velocity flame due to the presence of micro cracks in the coating surface. Fracture surfaces of the failed specimens were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the extent of oxidation and damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Fatigue Damage and Crack Propagation in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Infrared Thermography
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 393-406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020031 - 10 Jun 2019
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The initiation and propagation of damage in SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites under static and fatigue loads were assessed by infrared thermography (IRT). The proposed thermographic technique, operating in lock-in mode, enabled early prediction of the residual life of composites, and proved vital [...] Read more.
The initiation and propagation of damage in SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites under static and fatigue loads were assessed by infrared thermography (IRT). The proposed thermographic technique, operating in lock-in mode, enabled early prediction of the residual life of composites, and proved vital in the rapid determination of the materials’ fatigue limit requiring testing of a single specimen only. IRT was also utilized for quantification of crack growth in the materials under cyclic loads. The paper highlights the accuracy and versatility of IRT as a state-of-the art damage assessment tool for ceramic composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Behavior of Electric Field-Assisted Pressureless Sintered Ceria-20 mol% Samaria
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 385-392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020030 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 538
Abstract
CeO2:20 mol% Sm2O3 green ceramic pellets were sintered conventionally at 1500 °C/2 h and flash sintered by applying a 200 V cm−1 electric field at 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C. The thickness shrinkage of the [...] Read more.
CeO2:20 mol% Sm2O3 green ceramic pellets were sintered conventionally at 1500 °C/2 h and flash sintered by applying a 200 V cm−1 electric field at 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C. The thickness shrinkage of the pellets was followed bythe specimen being positioned inside a dilatometer adapted with platinum electrodes and terminal leads connected to a power supply for application of the electric voltage. The microstructure of the surfaces of the sintered samples were observed in a scanning electron microscope. The electrical properties were evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy technique in the 5 Hz–13 MHz frequency range from 210 °C to 280 °C. The main results show that (i) the final shrinkage level is nearly independent of the temperature when the electric field is applied and slightly better than that of the 1500 °C sintered pellet, and (ii) the bulk conductivity of the sample flash sintered at 1200 °C is similar to that of the sample sintered at 1500 °C. The availability of a pathway for the electric current pulse derived from the applied electric field is proposed as the reason for the achieved shrinkages. Scavenging of the grain boundaries by Joule heating is proposed as the reason for the improved oxide ion bulk conductivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalization of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics: Raman Mapping Investigation of Silanization
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 372-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020029 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Surface modification of bioceramic materials by covalent immobilization of biomolecules is a promising way to improve their bioactivity. This approach implies the use of organic anchors to introduce functional groups on the inorganic surface on which the biomolecules will be immobilized. In this [...] Read more.
Surface modification of bioceramic materials by covalent immobilization of biomolecules is a promising way to improve their bioactivity. This approach implies the use of organic anchors to introduce functional groups on the inorganic surface on which the biomolecules will be immobilized. In this process, the density and surface distribution of biomolecules, and in turn the final biological properties, are strongly influenced by those of the anchors. We propose a new approach based on Raman 2D mapping to evidence the surface distribution of organosilanes, frequently used as anchors on biomaterial surfaces on hydroxyapatite and silicated hydroxyapatite ceramics. Unmodified and silanized ceramic surfaces were characterized by means of contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman mapping. Contact angle measurements and AFM topographies confirmed the surface modification. Raman mapping highlighted the influence of both the ceramic’s composition and silane functionality (i.e., the number of hydrolysable groups) on the silane surface distribution. The presence of hillocks was shown, evidencing a polymerization and/or an aggregation of the molecules whatever the silane and the substrates were. The substitution of phosphate groups by silicate groups affects the covering, and the spots are more intense on SiHA than on HA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Advances in Damage Monitoring Techniques for the Detection of Failure in SiCf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 347-371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020028 - 15 May 2019
Viewed by 593
Abstract
From a disruptive perspective, silicon carbide (SiC)-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) provide a considerable temperature and weight advantage over existing material systems and are increasingly finding application in aerospace, power generation and high-end automotive industries. The complex structural architecture and inherent processing artefacts [...] Read more.
From a disruptive perspective, silicon carbide (SiC)-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) provide a considerable temperature and weight advantage over existing material systems and are increasingly finding application in aerospace, power generation and high-end automotive industries. The complex structural architecture and inherent processing artefacts within CMCs combine to induce inhomogeneous deformation and damage prior to ultimate failure. Sophisticated mechanical characterisation is vital in support of a fundamental understanding of deformation in CMCs. On the component scale, “damage tolerant” design and lifing philosophies depend upon laboratory assessments of macro-scale specimens, incorporating typical fibre architectures and matrix under representative stress-strain states. This is important if CMCs are to be utilised to their full potential within industrial applications. Bulk measurements of strain via extensometry or even localised strain gauging would fail to characterise the ensuing inhomogeneity when performing conventional mechanical testing on laboratory scaled coupons. The current research has, therefore, applied digital image correlation (DIC), electrical resistance monitoring and acoustic emission techniques to the room and high-temperature assessment of ceramic matrix composites under axial tensile and fatigue loading, with particular attention afforded to a silicon carbide fibre-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) variant. Data from these separate monitoring techniques plus ancillary use of X-ray computed tomography, in-situ scanning electron microscopy and optical inspection were correlated to monitor the onset and progression of damage during mechanical loading. The benefits of employing a concurrent, multi-technique approach to monitoring damage in CMCs are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cyclic Fatigue Loading on Matrix Multiple Fracture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 327-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020027 - 13 May 2019
Viewed by 553
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of cyclic fatigue loading on matrix multiple fracture of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) is investigated using the critical matrix strain energy (CMSE) criterion. The relationships between multiple matrix cracking, cyclic fatigue peak stress, fiber/matrix interface wear, and debonding [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of cyclic fatigue loading on matrix multiple fracture of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) is investigated using the critical matrix strain energy (CMSE) criterion. The relationships between multiple matrix cracking, cyclic fatigue peak stress, fiber/matrix interface wear, and debonding are established. The effects of fiber volume fraction, fiber/matrix interface shear stress, and applied cycle number on matrix multiple fracture and fiber/matrix interface debonding and interface wear are discussed. Comparisons of multiple matrix cracking with/without cyclic fatigue loading are analyzed. The experimental matrix cracking of unidirectional SiC/CAS, SiC/SiC, SiC/Borosilicate, and mini-SiC/SiC composites with/without cyclic fatigue loading are predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Image-Based Numerical Modeling of Self-Healing in a Ceramic-Matrix Minicomposite
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 308-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020026 - 02 May 2019
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Self-healing, obtained by the oxidation of a glass-forming phase, is a crucial phenomenon to ensure the lifetime of new-generation refractory ceramic-matrix composites. The dynamics of oxygen diffusion, glass formation and flow are the basic ingredients of a self-healing model that has been developed [...] Read more.
Self-healing, obtained by the oxidation of a glass-forming phase, is a crucial phenomenon to ensure the lifetime of new-generation refractory ceramic-matrix composites. The dynamics of oxygen diffusion, glass formation and flow are the basic ingredients of a self-healing model that has been developed here in 2D in a transverse crack of a mini-composite. The presented model can work on a realistic image of the material section and is able to simulate the healing process and to quantify the exposure of the material to oxygen: a prerequisite for its lifetime prediction. Crack reopening events are handled satisfactorily, and healing under cyclic loading can be simulated. This paper describes and discusses a typical case in order to show the model capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Process Technology, Applications and Thermal Resistivity of Basalt Fiber Reinforced SiOC Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 298-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020025 - 17 Apr 2019
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Promising lightweight composite materials, bridging the gap between Polymer and Ceramic Matrix Composites, are manufactured as polymer derived ceramics by the use of polysiloxanes and basalt fibers. Such competitive free formable Hybrid Composites are supposed to be capable for lightweight applications in a [...] Read more.
Promising lightweight composite materials, bridging the gap between Polymer and Ceramic Matrix Composites, are manufactured as polymer derived ceramics by the use of polysiloxanes and basalt fibers. Such competitive free formable Hybrid Composites are supposed to be capable for lightweight applications in a temperature range between 300 °C and 850 °C and short time exposure up to over 1000 °C, even in oxidative atmosphere. Cheap raw materials like basalt fibers and siloxane resins in combination with performing manufacturing technologies can establish completely new markets for intermediate temperature composites. These attributes enable the Hybrid Composites as ideal material for fire retardant applications in automotive engineering and public transportation, as well as in fire protection systems in electrical and civil engineering applications. In this study, the most prominent fields of application and engineering solutions for Hybrid-CMC are reviewed and the results of the thermal resistivity analysis effectuated on basalt fiber reinforced SiOC samples are presented. This study consisted of several air exposures between 1 h and 50 h and temperatures in the range of 650 °C to 1100 °C. Remaining mechanical resistance was characterized by Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) tests. Basalt fiber reinforced samples exhibited a decent level of mechanical performance even after the most demanding exposures. Due to the poor oxidation resistance of carbon fibers, Cf/SiOC composites were completely degraded after long-term exposure at 500 °C in air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in the Field of Nanostructured Ceramic Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 296-297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020024 - 15 Apr 2019
Viewed by 628
Abstract
In recent years, the production of ceramic composites having nanosized features is receiving increasing attention, as they demonstrated enhanced mechanical and/or functional performances as respect to conventional micronic materials [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Field of Nanostructured Ceramic Composites)
Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Fly Ash-Based Porous Ceramic with Alumina as the Pore-Forming Agent
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 286-295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020023 - 11 Apr 2019
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Low-cost porous ceramic from fly ash with alumina as the pore-forming agent was produced. The effect of the alumina content on line shrink, bulk density, mechanical strength, porosity, and phase composition of porous ceramic were investigated in detail. The results showed that the [...] Read more.
Low-cost porous ceramic from fly ash with alumina as the pore-forming agent was produced. The effect of the alumina content on line shrink, bulk density, mechanical strength, porosity, and phase composition of porous ceramic were investigated in detail. The results showed that the addition of alumina can help to improve the porosity and then it can change the pore structure of porous ceramic. Meanwhile, the addition of alumina can react with SiO2 in fly ash which can form the mullite. With the increase of alumina content, the content of quartz decreased gradually, while the alumina and mullite increased. Furthermore, the pore size becomes uniform and the permeability increased gradually. After sintering at 1250 °C for 0.5 h, the porous ceramic has been obtained the bending strength of ≥ 35MPa and the porosity of ≥ 28% with the addition content of alumina (25 wt%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence of Phase Transitions and Their Role in the Transient Behavior of Mechanical Properties and Low Temperature Degradation of 3Y-TZP Made from Stabilizer-Coated Powder
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 271-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020022 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
The substance 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) has become a commodity for the manufacture of components in biomedical and engineering applications. Materials made from stabilizer-coated rather than co-precipitated starting powders are known for their superior toughness and low temperature ageing resistance. The [...] Read more.
The substance 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) has become a commodity for the manufacture of components in biomedical and engineering applications. Materials made from stabilizer-coated rather than co-precipitated starting powders are known for their superior toughness and low temperature ageing resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is however still not fully understood. In this study, 3Y-TZP materials hot pressed at 1300–1450 °C for 1 h were characterized. It was found that at a sintering temperature of 1375 °C, a transition from fine grain to coarse grain microstructure associated with a shift from tough and ageing resistant to brittle and prone to ageing was observed. The detailed analysis of the phase composition by X-ray diffraction revealed that TZPs consists of up to five crystallographically different phases of zirconia simultaneously whose contents dynamically change with sintering temperature. At low sintering temperature, the predominant phases are a tetragonal phase with low yttria content and large domain size and high tetragonality together with a cubic phase of high yttria content. At high temperature, a tetragonal phase of higher yttria content and lower tetragonality is formed together with a cubic phase of lower yttria content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Coatings Based on Organic/Non-Organic Composites on Bioinert Ceramics by Using Biomimetic Co-Precipitation
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 260-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020021 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Bioinert ceramics have been commonly used in the field of orthopedic and dentistry due to their excellent mechanical properties, esthetic look, good biocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, an activation of its bioinert surface could bring additional advantages for better implant-integration in vivo. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Bioinert ceramics have been commonly used in the field of orthopedic and dentistry due to their excellent mechanical properties, esthetic look, good biocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, an activation of its bioinert surface could bring additional advantages for better implant-integration in vivo. Therefore, we introduce an innovative biomimetic co-precipitation technique by using modified simulated body fluid (SBF) to obtain a composite coating made of organic/non-organic components. The zirconia samples were soaked in SBF containing different concentrations of protein (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 g/l). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as a standard protein. During the soaking time, a precipitation of calcium phosphate took place on the substrate surfaces. The proteins were incorporated into the coating during precipitation. Morphology changes of precipitated hydroxyapatite (HAp) due to the presence of proteins were observed on SEM-images. The presence of proteins within the coating was proven by using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and immunohistochemical analysis. We conclude that it is possible to co-precipitate the organic/non-organic composite on inert ceramic by using the wet-chemistry method. In future studies, BSA could be replaced by targeted proteins appropriate to the application area. This method could create new biomaterials, the surfaces of which could be tailored according to the desires and requirements of their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Ice-Templating for the Elaboration of Oxygen Permeation Asymmetric Tubular Membrane with Radial Oriented Porosity
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 246-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020020 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
An original asymmetric tubular membrane for oxygen production applications was manufactured in a two-step process. A 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (3YSZ) porous tubular support was manufactured by the freeze-casting technique, offering a hierarchical and radial-oriented porosity of about [...] Read more.
An original asymmetric tubular membrane for oxygen production applications was manufactured in a two-step process. A 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (3YSZ) porous tubular support was manufactured by the freeze-casting technique, offering a hierarchical and radial-oriented porosity of about 15 µm in width, separated by fully densified walls of about 2 µm thick, suggesting low pressure drop and boosted gas transport. The external surface of the support was successively dip-coated to get a Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ – 5mol%Co (CGO-Co) interlayer of 80 µm in thickness and an outer dense layer of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF) with a thickness of 30 µm. The whole tubular membrane presents both uniform geometric characteristics and microstructure all along its length. Chemical reactivity between each layer was studied by coupling X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) mapping at each step of the manufacturing process. Cation interdiffusion between different phases was discarded, confirming the compatibility of this tri-layer asymmetric ceramic membrane for oxygen production purposes. For the first time, a freeze-cast tubular membrane has been evaluated for oxygen permeation, exhibiting a value of 0.31 mL·min−1·cm−2 at 1000 °C under air and argon as feed and sweep gases, respectively. Finally, under the same conditions and increasing the oxygen partial pressure to get pure oxygen as feed, the oxygen permeation reached 1.07 mL·min−1·cm−2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice-Templated and Freeze-Cast Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of a Bleaching Agent on the Color Stability of Indirect Composite Resins Immersed in Dyes
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 235-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020019 - 01 Apr 2019
Viewed by 593
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a bleaching agent on the color of extrinsically pigmented indirect composite resins. Samples of five resins (Adoro, Resilab, Cristobal, Sinfony, Epricord) were manufactured and divided into five groups: red wine, coffee, orange juice, Coca-Cola, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a bleaching agent on the color of extrinsically pigmented indirect composite resins. Samples of five resins (Adoro, Resilab, Cristobal, Sinfony, Epricord) were manufactured and divided into five groups: red wine, coffee, orange juice, Coca-Cola, and artificial saliva (control). The stained samples were immersed in a 38% hydrogen peroxide solution for 30 min per week, over three weeks. Color readings were performed at the initial state (L0), after 21 days of dye immersion (ΔE1, L1), and after 7 (ΔE2, L2), 14 (ΔE3, L3), and 21 days (ΔE4, L4) of bleach immersion. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). The color alteration was greater in ΔE1, regardless of color solution, indicating extrinsic pigmentation. The Resilab group exhibited greater ΔE1 values than the other resins. The bleaching agent promoted bleaching action on the surfaces of the materials studied, removing the previously impregnated pigments. Full article
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