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Proceedings, 2019, CIGeo 2019

The II Geomatics Engineering Conference

Madrid, Spain | 26–27 June 2019

Volume Editors: María Belén Benito Oterino; Mercedes Farjas Abadía; Miguel-Ángel Manso-Callejo


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Cover Story (view full-size image) The II Geomatics Engineering Conference (CIGEO 2019), held in Madrid, Spain, on 26–27 June 2019, [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessProceedings
Collaborative Mapping for the Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability and Urban Resilience in Valdivia (Chile)
Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
The present work is part of the resilience study of urban areas, where the study area is the urban center of Valdivia (Chile). The aim is to catalog and identify buildings and urban blocks for the subsequent evaluation of exposure and vulnerability to [...] Read more.
The present work is part of the resilience study of urban areas, where the study area is the urban center of Valdivia (Chile). The aim is to catalog and identify buildings and urban blocks for the subsequent evaluation of exposure and vulnerability to seismic risk. This is done through a collaborative mapping with the participation of a local team of volunteers (of the Technological University of Chile INACAP) that was previously trained on vulnerability issues and OpenStreetMap platform. The study area comprises 83 urban blocks. Each urban block is subdivided into parcels, which contain buildings with different type of construction and different uses. In the future, this research will continue with the development of urban resilience indexes at physical and social scales. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Geodetic VLBI Analysis at the National Geographic Institute of Spain
Published: 12 July 2019
Viewed by 177 | PDF Full-text (500 KB)
Abstract
National Geographic Institute of Spain has a strong background concerning technical aspects of geodetic VLBI. As a step forward in this field, a VLBI analysis team has been set up and tests with different software packages have been carried out. In this sense, [...] Read more.
National Geographic Institute of Spain has a strong background concerning technical aspects of geodetic VLBI. As a step forward in this field, a VLBI analysis team has been set up and tests with different software packages have been carried out. In this sense, two VLBI software packages have been used for experimentation activities in order to compare and validate IGE capability to produce accurate and consistent geodetic products, specifically Earth Orientation Parameters, station coordinates and troposphere delays. The purpose of this contribution is to present the results of these analyses, including some tests to use GNSS-based troposphere delay in VLBI processing and the study of gravitational deformation in Yebes radiotelescope. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Remote Sensing Assessment of Biomass Evolution Depending on Forest Management
Published: 12 July 2019
Viewed by 179 | PDF Full-text (230 KB)
Abstract
Remote sensing and advanced statistical models have been used to assess actual biomass and to analyze the biomass growth in a mature forest of Pinus halepensis Mill. Biomass maps using Landsat-5 in 2011 and Landsat-8 imagery in 2017 and non-parametric models were achieved. [...] Read more.
Remote sensing and advanced statistical models have been used to assess actual biomass and to analyze the biomass growth in a mature forest of Pinus halepensis Mill. Biomass maps using Landsat-5 in 2011 and Landsat-8 imagery in 2017 and non-parametric models were achieved. Afterwards, a fast and affordable methodology has been developed to monitor the evolution depending on forest management or its abandonment. Significative statistical evidences have been found between two types of management, demonstrating that managed areas have bigger growth potential. This methodology spares the efforts of exhaustive inventories and encourage forest managers to maximize their forest allowances. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study of Natural Hazards in the Upper Part of the Mapocho River Basin, Metropolitan Region of Chile, Using Satellite Imagery
Published: 12 July 2019
Viewed by 278 | PDF Full-text (3299 KB)
Abstract
The upper section of the Mapocho river basin is in constant danger of landslides. This study had the objective of zoning the upper Mapocho river basin for the susceptibility of landslides using hydrological, geological, and geomorphological data. Areas with a high degree of [...] Read more.
The upper section of the Mapocho river basin is in constant danger of landslides. This study had the objective of zoning the upper Mapocho river basin for the susceptibility of landslides using hydrological, geological, and geomorphological data. Areas with a high degree of landslide susceptibility are located on the lower part of the main valleys as well as at the headwaters of the basins. Landslide events in the mountainous region of Central Chile are caused by two main factors: intense precipitation and seismic activity. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Lifecycle of Geospatial Data in a High-Voltage Electrical Infrastructure Project: Geodesign Framework in the Electrical Network of Spain (REE)
Published: 12 July 2019
Viewed by 150 | PDF Full-text (282 KB)
Abstract
This paper presents the advances in the design and implementation of a geodesign framework and workflow for the development of HVEI projects, which is supported by corporate methodologies and by the execution of automatic models guaranteeing the traceability of the development of each [...] Read more.
This paper presents the advances in the design and implementation of a geodesign framework and workflow for the development of HVEI projects, which is supported by corporate methodologies and by the execution of automatic models guaranteeing the traceability of the development of each project, in the different stages of its lifecycle. The ultimate goal is to minimize environmental, social and local impacts, while, at the same time, providing the system’s actors with support tools that facilitate planning and decision-making. Our framework integrates the principles of geodesign and harmonizes the corporate procedures in the project phases. It also takes into consideration the conditions alerted by other actors, through a design process guided by feedback-iteration-consensus mechanisms. In this way there is a participatory, transparent, visible and improved framework for the development of new electricity infrastructures. The geodesign framework that we present addresses the problem of managing geospatial information for the development of new HVEI projects with two fundamental approaches: (1) including all the geospatial information representative of each constraint or territorial restriction and, (2) defining procedures throughout the phases of each project to ensure that all projects are developed homogeneously in terms of scope, precision and depth of analysis. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Side-Lap Effect and Characterization of Understory Vegetation Using Full-Waveform ALS
Published: 12 July 2019
Viewed by 223 | PDF Full-text (290 KB)
Abstract
Airborne full-waveform LiDAR (ALSFW) is able to register forest structure properties, essential for fire prevention, in more detail than airborne discrete LiDAR (ALSD). However, few studies have analyzed ALSFW methodological parameters (i.e., voxel size and assignation value) due [...] Read more.
Airborne full-waveform LiDAR (ALSFW) is able to register forest structure properties, essential for fire prevention, in more detail than airborne discrete LiDAR (ALSD). However, few studies have analyzed ALSFW methodological parameters (i.e., voxel size and assignation value) due to the complexity and lack of processing tools. In this paper we analyze the influence of the pulse density and ALSFW methodological parameters on the ALSFW metrics, as well as the characterization of understory vegetation through ALSFW. Results show that the influence of pulse density on ALSFW metrics may be modelled and the differences reduced by modifying ALSFW methodological parameters. Additionally, the potential of ALSFW for characterizing the mean height (R2 = 0.949) and volume (R2 = 0.951) of the understory vegetation was also proved. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Designing a Volunteered Geographic Information System for Road Data Validation
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 255 | PDF Full-text (407 KB)
Abstract
The objective of this work is to build a Volunteered Geographic Information System (VGIS) using a methodological design process. The VGIS design focuses on coordinating its three main components—project (organization), participants (community), and technological infrastructure—by aligning the project goal, crowdsourcing strategy and participation [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to build a Volunteered Geographic Information System (VGIS) using a methodological design process. The VGIS design focuses on coordinating its three main components—project (organization), participants (community), and technological infrastructure—by aligning the project goal, crowdsourcing strategy and participation environment, the drivers and mechanisms that motivates volunteers, and the technological and data management tools that facilitate engaged participation. Following this process helped to design a solution based on the project’s information requirements to handle a road data tagging task, while offering an experience that meets the interests and needs of potential participants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assessment of Registration Methods for Cranial 3D Modelling
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 221 | PDF Full-text (291 KB)
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) models are a useful tool for cranial deformation analysis in infants. The registration of the head 3D models to a known coordinate system is vital for the obtainment of parameters and indexes that quantify deformation. In this study, three registration methodologies [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) models are a useful tool for cranial deformation analysis in infants. The registration of the head 3D models to a known coordinate system is vital for the obtainment of parameters and indexes that quantify deformation. In this study, three registration methodologies have been tested based on the principal component analysis (PCA) without tie points, and PCA measuring manually two and three identified tie points. Results show that the approach using PCA plus three manually identified tie points provides enough accuracy for the given application. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Development of a Mobile Mapping System for Multi-Purpose Applications Composed of a Low-Cost Inertial Measuring Unit, a GNSS-Receiver and a Close-Range LIDAR
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 166 | PDF Full-text (417 KB)
Abstract
The research project “Development of a Mobile Mapping System for multi-purpose applications composed of a low-cost inertial measuring unit, a GNSS receiver and a close-range LIDAR” consists on considerations about the design of an aerial and a sensor platform, which can also be [...] Read more.
The research project “Development of a Mobile Mapping System for multi-purpose applications composed of a low-cost inertial measuring unit, a GNSS receiver and a close-range LIDAR” consists on considerations about the design of an aerial and a sensor platform, which can also be used separately. The aim of the project is the development of a measurement platform, which performs a direct scan of the Earth’s surface by means of measurements with a laser scanner supported by several sensors to determine their position. The geo-referencing of the data will initially take place in post-processing. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Monitoring of Mining Subsidence in a Sector of Central Chile through the Processing of a Time Series of Sentinel 1 Images Using Differential Interferometry Techniques (DInSAR)
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 233 | PDF Full-text (3115 KB)
Abstract
The objective of this work is to monitor the mining subsidence in a mountain range sector of central Chile between 2014 and 2018 through the processing of a time series of Sentinel 1 images using differential interferometry techniques (DInSAR). As a pretest, nine [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to monitor the mining subsidence in a mountain range sector of central Chile between 2014 and 2018 through the processing of a time series of Sentinel 1 images using differential interferometry techniques (DInSAR). As a pretest, nine interferometric pairs were considered and processed using SNAP and SNAPHU software. Coherence levels obtained in complex topography sectors were low, due to both temporal and geometrical decorrelation. However, it is proposed that data from the PAZ project (X-band) and the Argentinean SAOCOM satellite (L-band) be used in the future. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sea Level Determination in the Spanish Coast Using GNSS-R
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 158 | PDF Full-text (609 KB)
Abstract
GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) a technique for the study of variations in the height of sea level and inland waters, and for the study of soil moisture, based on the comparison of the direct and reflected noise signal. The main advantage of this method [...] Read more.
GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) a technique for the study of variations in the height of sea level and inland waters, and for the study of soil moisture, based on the comparison of the direct and reflected noise signal. The main advantage of this method is that allows the connection between sea level measurements and the global reference frame. The purpose of this contribution is to present the GNSS-R analysis service at the Geodesy department of the National Geographic Institute of Spain and to compare the sea level time series determined by means of GNSS-R with tide gauge measurements. Two different GNSS-R methods using multi-constellation and multi-frequency data are compared: Lomb-Scargle Periodogram and Inverse Modelling. This analysis is performed for 3 GNSS antennas collocated to tide gauges along the Spanish coast. Eventually, advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Camera Characterisation Based on Skin-Tone Colours for Rock Art Recording
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 231 | PDF Full-text (4998 KB)
Abstract
Image-based characterisation offers accurate results for colour recording in cultural heritage documentation tasks. Although numerous researches are focused on improving either the mathematical model used or the workflow technical details, in this paper we propose the use of selected skin-tone colours instead of [...] Read more.
Image-based characterisation offers accurate results for colour recording in cultural heritage documentation tasks. Although numerous researches are focused on improving either the mathematical model used or the workflow technical details, in this paper we propose the use of selected skin-tone colours instead of the full colour checker dataset. Even though the two datasets yield good colourimetric results, an improvement is observed when using the skin-tone samples. The results reveal two key aspects in the characterisation procedure, specifically the number of samples and the use of training data near the chromatic range of the scene used in the characterisation procedure itself. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Daily Concentrations of PM2.5 in the Valencian Community Using Random Forest for the Period 2008–2018
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 153 | PDF Full-text (478 KB)
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a global problem that affects the population health and contributes to climate change. Remote sensing provides useful information for the development of air quality models. This work aims to obtain a daily model of PM2.5 [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a global problem that affects the population health and contributes to climate change. Remote sensing provides useful information for the development of air quality models. This work aims to obtain a daily model of PM2.5 levels in the Valencian Community with a resolution of 1 km for the period 2008–2018. MODIS-MAIAC images, meteorological parameters of the MERRA-2 project, land cover information and ground level measurements of PM2.5 levels were analysed with Random Forest. The verification of the model was carried out using cross-validation repeated ten times, and an evaluation of a test set with 20% of the collected information. The final model was used to generate maps of the daily concentrations of PM2.5 for the area of the Valencian Community throughout the study period. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The New Methods for Rapid Exposure and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment. How Do They Adapt to Different Scenarios?
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 166 | PDF Full-text (413 KB)
Abstract
We present a procedure for exposure and vulnerability evaluation that integrates LiDAR, orthophotos, and other ancillary datasets. It comprises three phases: (1) city stratification into homogeneous regions; (2) exposure database compilation; and (3) vulnerability allocation using predictive modelling. We have conducted two applications [...] Read more.
We present a procedure for exposure and vulnerability evaluation that integrates LiDAR, orthophotos, and other ancillary datasets. It comprises three phases: (1) city stratification into homogeneous regions; (2) exposure database compilation; and (3) vulnerability allocation using predictive modelling. We have conducted two applications in Lorca (Spain) and Port-au-Price (Haiti) and here we compare them. Each phase of the method is subject to variations due mainly to data availability; however, it does not affect the final accuracy that remains high in both scenarios (over 80%). It is a flexible procedure that is able to adapt to the particular features of two different cities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Automating the Detection and Classification of Active Deformation Areas—A Sentinel-Based Toolset
Published: 15 July 2019
Viewed by 198 | PDF Full-text (3421 KB)
Abstract
The H2020 MOMIT project (Multi-scale Observation and Monitoring of railway Infrastructure Threats, http://www.momit-project.eu/) is focused on showing how remote sensing data and techniques may help to monitor railway infrastructures. One of the hazards monitored are the ground movements nearby such infrastructures. Two methodologies [...] Read more.
The H2020 MOMIT project (Multi-scale Observation and Monitoring of railway Infrastructure Threats, http://www.momit-project.eu/) is focused on showing how remote sensing data and techniques may help to monitor railway infrastructures. One of the hazards monitored are the ground movements nearby such infrastructures. Two methodologies targeted at the detection of Active Deformation Areas (ADA) and the later classification of these using Persistent Scatterers (PS) derived from Sentinel-1 imagery had been developed prior to the start of MOMIT. Although the validity of these procedures had already been validated, no actual tools automating their execution existed—these were applied manually using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Such a manual process was slow and error-prone due to human intervention. This work presents two new applications, developed in the context of the MOMIT project, automating the aforementioned methodologies: ADAfinder and ADAclassifier. Their goal was (1) to reduce the possibility of human errors to a minimum and (2) to increase the performance/reduce the time needed to obtain results, thus allowing more room for experimentation. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Multirange Data in Cultural Heritage: Technologies, Formats and Visualization
Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
In this paper we briefly analyse the integration into web access of data recorded from the archaeological area of Khatm al Melaha (Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates), combining different geomatic techniques at different scales from a broad yet technical perspective. In order [...] Read more.
In this paper we briefly analyse the integration into web access of data recorded from the archaeological area of Khatm al Melaha (Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates), combining different geomatic techniques at different scales from a broad yet technical perspective. In order to improve scientific analysis, the documenting process should always consider every aspect of recording as well as preventive control, conservation and interpretation. Along these lines, some open–access, web–based 2D and 3D JavaScript libraries have been created to unify, simplify and analyse their different uses through a web platform called threeDcloud. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Deep Convolutional Neural Network to Detect the Existence of Geospatial Elements in High-Resolution Aerial Imagery
Published: 16 July 2019
Viewed by 264 | PDF Full-text (941 KB)
Abstract
This paper tackles the problem of object recognition in high-resolution aerial imagery and addresses the application of Deep Learning techniques to solve a challenge related to detecting the existence of geospatial elements (road network) in the available cartographic support. This challenge is addressed [...] Read more.
This paper tackles the problem of object recognition in high-resolution aerial imagery and addresses the application of Deep Learning techniques to solve a challenge related to detecting the existence of geospatial elements (road network) in the available cartographic support. This challenge is addressed by building a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained to detect roads in high resolution aerial orthophotos divided in tiles (256 × 256 pixels) using manually labelled data. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Development of Computer Vision Applications to Automate the Measurement of the Dimensions of Skin Wounds
Published: 16 July 2019
Viewed by 169 | PDF Full-text (362 KB)
Abstract
This paper shows the progress in the development of two computer vision applications for measuring skin wounds. Both applications have been written in Python programming language and make use of OpenCV and Scipy open source libraries. Their objective is to be part of [...] Read more.
This paper shows the progress in the development of two computer vision applications for measuring skin wounds. Both applications have been written in Python programming language and make use of OpenCV and Scipy open source libraries. Their objective is to be part of a software that calculates the dimensions of skin wounds in an objective and reliable way. This could be useful in the clinical follow-up, assessing the evolution of skin wounds, as well as in research, comparing the efficacy of different treatments. Merging these two applications into a single one would allow to generate two-dimensional results in real time, and three-dimensional results after a few hours of processing. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Geospatial Data Processing for Biometeorology. Mapping the Difference of Oxygen in the Atmospheric Surface
Published: 16 July 2019
Viewed by 182 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB)
Abstract
Biometeorology is the field that relates meteorological and climatic variables with humans, animals and the environment in order to be studied jointly with their geographical distribution. The wide variety of data sources and the highly specialised data formats are fundamental issues for users [...] Read more.
Biometeorology is the field that relates meteorological and climatic variables with humans, animals and the environment in order to be studied jointly with their geographical distribution. The wide variety of data sources and the highly specialised data formats are fundamental issues for users in this area. This paper presents some preliminary results and several underlying technologies used to create a system to manage spatial data. Some sources of information are presented as a basis for biometeorological studies, together with a procedure for downloading and transforming the datasets. The resulting maps and data files derived from this study are useful for data analysis in other scientific fields. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparative of Machine Learning Algorithms and Datasets to Classify Natural Coverage in the Cajas National Park (Ecuador) Based on GEOBIA Approach
Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
GEOBIA is an alternative to create and update land cover maps. In this work we assessed the combination of geographic datasets of the Cajas National Park (Ecuador) to detect which is the appropriate dataset-algorithm combination for the classification tasks in the Ecuadorian Andean [...] Read more.
GEOBIA is an alternative to create and update land cover maps. In this work we assessed the combination of geographic datasets of the Cajas National Park (Ecuador) to detect which is the appropriate dataset-algorithm combination for the classification tasks in the Ecuadorian Andean region. The datasets included high resolution data as photogrammetric orthomosaic, DEM and derivated slope. These data were compared with free Sentinel imagery to classify natural land covers. We evaluated two aspects of the classification problem: the appropriate algorithm and the dataset combination. We evaluated SMO, C4.5 and Random Forest algorithms for the selection of attributes and classification of objects. The best results of kappa in the comparison of algorithms of classification were obtained with SMO (0.8182) and Random Forest (0.8117). In the evaluation of datasets the kappa values of the photogrammetry orthomosaic and the combination of Sentinel 1 and 2 have similar values using the C4.5 algorithm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Modeling of Polyphenols and Color Index of Grape by Satellite Images, Colchagua Valley, VI Region, Chile
Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 374 | PDF Full-text (651 KB)
Abstract
The study looks forward to define a methodology that can improve the quality of the wine produced, through selective crop management, for which a multiple regression analysis was used between satellite images Sentinel 2 and polyphenols and color index. The estimated polyphenols, presents [...] Read more.
The study looks forward to define a methodology that can improve the quality of the wine produced, through selective crop management, for which a multiple regression analysis was used between satellite images Sentinel 2 and polyphenols and color index. The estimated polyphenols, presents the best results in the variables color index and tannins, with an R2 of 0.78 and 0.65 respectively. The preliminary methodology allows the identification of homogeneous zones in polyphenols and final color estimation, transforming it into a potential tool for harvesting. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Glacier Area Recession in Vodudahue River Basin and Its Relation with Climate Change
Published: 17 July 2019
Viewed by 150 | PDF Full-text (280 KB)
Abstract
This research analyses the glacier recession in the surface area of the Vodudahue river basin glaciers located in Chile, at Comau fjord. A multi-temporal analysis was performed by utilizing Landsat imagery from 1987 to 2017 at a 10-year interval. Also, climate variations regarding [...] Read more.
This research analyses the glacier recession in the surface area of the Vodudahue river basin glaciers located in Chile, at Comau fjord. A multi-temporal analysis was performed by utilizing Landsat imagery from 1987 to 2017 at a 10-year interval. Also, climate variations regarding temperature and precipitation provided by San Ignacio de Huinay weather station were analyzed. The results show a close relation between the glacier recession in the surface area of identified glaciers and the climate variability in recent years. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Testing and Application of Geospatial Techniques in Seismic Engineering
Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Identification and classification of the different structures and infrastructures that make up a city (conventional buildings, power stations, nuclear power stations, routes of communication, etc.) are of great importance at the time of characterize their vulnerability and carry out estimates of seismic risk. [...] Read more.
Identification and classification of the different structures and infrastructures that make up a city (conventional buildings, power stations, nuclear power stations, routes of communication, etc.) are of great importance at the time of characterize their vulnerability and carry out estimates of seismic risk. Different types have different physical damage to some seismic movement, hence the importance of correctly assign a class of vulnerability. For this reason, it is necessary to know, updated form, the distribution and composition of structures and infrastructure of a city. Behaviour that presented these elements to a seismic phenomenon is linked, among others, building material and its geometric shape. Today, cadastral information updated about the infrastructure of a city does not have the data necessary and useful to carry out a calculation of seismic risk. For decades, the way of being able to have such information, has been through the development of campaigns of field for the elaboration of databases. This practice entails long time of work and the need for qualified personnel for the identification of the constructive typologies of the different structures. Nowadays, there are different geospatial techniques that allow data acquisition on a massive scale in a short time. In particular, by means of laser measurements, it is possible to have clouds of millions of points with geometric and radiometric information in a matter of seconds. This article presents a line of research whose main objective is to innovate in the vulnerability mapping and seismic risk estimation methods using geospatial techniques: static and dynamic laser. The end is contributing to knowledge and more accurate risk results, on which will be supported after the emergency plans that facilitate post event actions. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of GNSS Methodologies to Obtain Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Its Comparison with Radiosonde Data
Published: 25 July 2019
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Abstract
A processing methodology with GNSS observations to obtain Zenith Tropospheric Delay using Bernese GNSS Software version 5.2 is revised in order to obtain Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV). The most traditional PWV observation method is the radiosonde and it is often used as a [...] Read more.
A processing methodology with GNSS observations to obtain Zenith Tropospheric Delay using Bernese GNSS Software version 5.2 is revised in order to obtain Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV). The most traditional PWV observation method is the radiosonde and it is often used as a standard to validate those derived from GNSS. For this reason, a location in the north of Spain, in A Coruña, which has a GNSS station with available data and also a radiosonde station, was chosen. Two GPS weeks, in different weather conditions were calculated. The result of the comparison between the GNSS- retrieved PWV and Radiosonde-PWV is explained in the last section of this paper. Full article
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