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Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The CaliPhoto Method
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040067 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
We propose an innovative method based on photography and image processing of interdisciplinary relevance, permitting the uncomplicated and inexpensive evaluation of material properties. This method—CaliPhoto—consists of using a dedicated colour plate with a specific design, placed in the field of view of a [...] Read more.
We propose an innovative method based on photography and image processing of interdisciplinary relevance, permitting the uncomplicated and inexpensive evaluation of material properties. This method—CaliPhoto—consists of using a dedicated colour plate with a specific design, placed in the field of view of a photograph of the material to be characterized. A specific image processing workflow is then applied to obtain colour vectors independent of illumination conditions. The method works using commercial colour cameras (e.g., smartphone cameras), and the colour plate can be printed on any colour printer. Herein, we describe the principle of the method and demonstrate that it can be used to describe and compare samples, identify materials or make relatively precise concentration measurements. The CaliPhoto method is highly complementary to any scientific research and may find applications across a range of domains, from planetary science to oceanography. The method may also be widely used in industry. Full article
Open AccessArticle
State of Charge Estimation of a Composite Lithium-Based Battery Model Based on an Improved Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040066 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
The battery State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the basic and significant functions for Battery Management System (BMS) in Electric Vehicles (EVs). The SoC is the key to interoperability of various modules and cannot be measured directly. An improved Extended Kalman [...] Read more.
The battery State of Charge (SoC) estimation is one of the basic and significant functions for Battery Management System (BMS) in Electric Vehicles (EVs). The SoC is the key to interoperability of various modules and cannot be measured directly. An improved Extended Kalman Filter (iEKF) algorithm based on a composite battery model is proposed in this paper. The approach of the iEKF combines the open-circuit voltage (OCV) method, coulomb counting (Ah) method and EKF algorithm. The mathematical model of the iEKF is built and four groups of experiments are conducted based on LiFePO4 battery for offline parameter identification of the model. The iEKF is verified by real battery data. The simulation results with the proposed iEKF algorithm under both static and dynamic operation conditions show a considerable accuracy of SoC estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Battery Systems and Energy Storage)
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Simple ImageJ-Based Method for Dynamic Blood Flow Tracking in Zebrafish Embryos and Its Application in Drug Toxicity Evaluation
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040065 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a simple and cost-effective method to measure blood flow in zebrafish by using an image-based approach. Three days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos were mounted with methylcellulose and subjected to video recording for tracking blood flow under an [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a simple and cost-effective method to measure blood flow in zebrafish by using an image-based approach. Three days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos were mounted with methylcellulose and subjected to video recording for tracking blood flow under an inverted microscope equipped with a high-speed CCD camera. In addition, Hoffman lens was used to enhance the blood cell contrast. The red blood cell movement was tracked by using the TrackMate plug-in in the ImageJ image processing program. Moreover, Stack Difference and Time Series Analyzer plug-in were used to detect dynamic pixel changes over time to calculate the blood flow rate. In addition to blood flow velocity and heart rate, the effect of drug treatments on other cardiovascular function parameters, such as stroke volume and cardiac output remains to be explored. Therefore, by using this method, the potential side effects on the cardiovascular performance of ethyl 3-aminobenzoate methanesulfonate (MS222) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) were evaluated. MS222 is a common anesthetic, while IBMX is a naturally occurring methylxanthine. Compared to normal embryos, MS222- and IBMX-treated embryos had a reduced blood flow velocity by approximately 72% and 58%, respectively. This study showed that MS222 significantly decreased the heart rate, whereas IBMX increased the heart rate. Moreover, it also demonstrated that MS222 treatment reduced 50% of the stroke volume and cardiac output. While IBMX decreased the stroke volume only. The results are in line with previous studies that used expensive instruments and complicated software analysis to assess cardiovascular function. In conclusion, a simple and low-cost method can be used to study blood flow in zebrafish embryos for compound screening. Furthermore, it could provide a precise measurement of clinically relevant cardiac functions, specifically heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Biotechnology and Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Storage Gravitational Energy for Small Scale Industrial and Residential Applications
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040064 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
Photovoltaic cells produce electric energy in a short interval during a period of low demand and show high levels of intermittency. One of the well-known solutions is to store the energy and convert it into a more stable form, to transform again into [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic cells produce electric energy in a short interval during a period of low demand and show high levels of intermittency. One of the well-known solutions is to store the energy and convert it into a more stable form, to transform again into electricity during periods of high demand, in which the energy has a higher value. This process provides economic viability for most energy-storage projects, even for the least efficient and most common, such as batteries. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a storage system that operates with gravitational potential energy, considering a small-scale use. The development of this methodology presents the mathematical modeling of the system and compares the main characteristics with other systems. The dimensions of the considered system are 12-m shaft, 5-m piston height, and 4 m of diameter; it presented an energy storage of 11 kWh. Also, it has an efficiency of about 90%, a lifetime of 50 years, and higher storage densities compared to other systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heat Pump Dryer Design Optimization Algorithm
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040063 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 129
Abstract
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions, and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying [...] Read more.
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions, and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container, and the technical specifications of the heat pump off-the-shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based on the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through three different stages: Changes in drying air properties, heat flow within dryer and product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different types of produces and quantities (Agaricus blazei mushroom with three different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Intelligence in Agriculture and Natural Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Flywheel vs. Supercapacitor as Wayside Energy Storage for Electric Rail Transit Systems
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040062 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 90
Abstract
Energy storage technologies are developing rapidly, and their application in different industrial sectors is increasing considerably. Electric rail transit systems use energy storage for different applications, including peak demand reduction, voltage regulation, and energy saving through recuperating regenerative braking energy. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Energy storage technologies are developing rapidly, and their application in different industrial sectors is increasing considerably. Electric rail transit systems use energy storage for different applications, including peak demand reduction, voltage regulation, and energy saving through recuperating regenerative braking energy. In this paper, a comprehensive review of supercapacitors and flywheels is presented. Both are compared based on their general characteristics and performances, with a focus on their roles in electric transit systems when used for energy saving, peak demand reduction, and voltage regulation. A cost analysis is also included to provide initial guidelines on the selection of the appropriate technology for a given transit system. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
How to Increase the Analog-to-Digital Converter Speed in Optoelectronic Systems of the Seed Quality Rapid Analyzer
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040061 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
This invention is relevant when working as part of optoelectronic systems, including non-destructive quality control of forest seeds. The possibility of synthesis of the ultrafast optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) providing conversion of analog information to digital in the sub-GHz range is considered. The [...] Read more.
This invention is relevant when working as part of optoelectronic systems, including non-destructive quality control of forest seeds. The possibility of synthesis of the ultrafast optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) providing conversion of analog information to digital in the sub-GHz range is considered. The functional scheme of the optical ADC, containing technologically well-developed optical elements is given; the principle of operation is described in detail. The possibility of increasing the speed of the ADC to make it potentially possible for optical data processing schemes is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Mixed Convection in a Cylindrical Lid Driven Cavity Filled with Water-Cu Nanofluid
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040060 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 179
Abstract
The present numerical research studies the effect of nano-materials in a lid-driven cylindrical cavity with rotation of circumferential top wall. The heat is transferred from two lateral walls to the domain by constant temperature conditions while other walls are kept isolated. The non-dimensional [...] Read more.
The present numerical research studies the effect of nano-materials in a lid-driven cylindrical cavity with rotation of circumferential top wall. The heat is transferred from two lateral walls to the domain by constant temperature conditions while other walls are kept isolated. The non-dimensional equations are solved by Finite Volume Method (FVM) and SIMPLEC method. The effect of Reynolds (Re = 100, 400, 1000), Ryleigh (Ra = 104, 105, 106) numbers are studied. In addition, the effect of concentration of nano materials ( ϕ = 0%, 1%, 5%), the Height Ratio (HR = 1, 0.5, 2) on Nusselt number, isotherm lines and streamlines are studied. The results show that Reynolds number also can change the effect of nano particles on the heat transfer rate. It is observed that the height ratio increase can improve the Nusselt number since the number and the size of vortices inside the cavity changes. In addition, increase of Ra number can change the flow structure inside the cavity which can help in increasing of Nusselt number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Innovative Project Management: Response to Improve Livability and Quality of Life: Case Studies: Iran and Germany
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040059 - 29 Sep 2019
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Nowadays, quality of life and livability are controversial phenomenon. A high quality of life and livability are demanded in cities; however, rapid and unplanned urbanization creates a lot of challenges such as poverty, slums, social instability, insecurity, diseases, environmental challenges and climate change, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, quality of life and livability are controversial phenomenon. A high quality of life and livability are demanded in cities; however, rapid and unplanned urbanization creates a lot of challenges such as poverty, slums, social instability, insecurity, diseases, environmental challenges and climate change, unemployment, economic problems, etc., which threaten the livability of the world. Therefore, it is vital to tackle urbanization challenges and create a sustainable urban setting with a high quality of life in order to make the world a better place to live. In particular, literature reviews, surveys, exploratory case studies, and the Kiwi and Kampenhood methodology based on Persian Zarathustra that is utilized in social science, engineering and management are the main method tools in this study. Fundamentally, modern livable and sustainable urban settings are suggested as a path to deal with urbanization challenges in order to improve livability and quality of life. Although sustainable cities provide opportunities to improve quality of life, urban planning and good governance with effective regulatory frameworks to create such modern settings are required. Thus, an innovative sustainable project management is introduced as a tool to design modern livable and sustainable areas. Innovation is declared as an accelerator to achieve sustainable project management in this research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simulator-Based Comparison of a Novel 3D and a Conventional 3D Vision System-Surgical Performance and Subjective Ratings
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040058 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
In laparoscopy, novel three-dimensional laparoscopic vision systems (3D LVS) without glasses (3D−) have been invented. While standard 3D LVS with glasses (3D+) have shown advantages over original two-dimensional systems, quantitative comparisons of surgical performance between 3D− and 3D+ systems are still lacking. The [...] Read more.
In laparoscopy, novel three-dimensional laparoscopic vision systems (3D LVS) without glasses (3D−) have been invented. While standard 3D LVS with glasses (3D+) have shown advantages over original two-dimensional systems, quantitative comparisons of surgical performance between 3D− and 3D+ systems are still lacking. The aim is to compare the systems in simulated robotic surgery tasks. In a crossover study, 18 medical students performed four basic laparoscopic tasks in the validated Simball Box simulator with authentic surgical instruments by using the 3D+ and 3D− systems. Performance was measured by the number of errors and the task’s duration. Subjective ratings of perceptions and preference were assessed after each test. There were significant, but still minor, advantages for the conventional 3D+ system regarding spatial orientation and sense of depth. Overall, ten and eight subjects preferred 3D+ and 3D− systems, respectively. No significant differences were found in performance, post-operative physicals or eye symptoms. The novel 3D− system was similar to the conventional 3D+ system regarding performance and overall preference, while there were minor advantages for the 3D+ system in the subjective ratings. Since the 3D− system is a new invention, it should have a higher potential of usability improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Open AccessArticle
Mixed Logic Dynamic Models for MPC Control of Wind Farm Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040057 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 308
Abstract
The use of electric power by wind generation in actual grids is hampered by its inherent stochastic nature and the penalty deviations adopted in several electricity regulation markets with respect to power quality requirements. Coupling wind farms with advanced Energy Storage Systems (ESS) [...] Read more.
The use of electric power by wind generation in actual grids is hampered by its inherent stochastic nature and the penalty deviations adopted in several electricity regulation markets with respect to power quality requirements. Coupling wind farms with advanced Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can help their integration within grids. In this direction, several studies have been conducted, but the problem is still open due to the constraints and limitations regarding the ESSs time autonomy, time response, degradation issues and overall costs. In order to take into account these relevant aspects, advanced control algorithms are needed. In this paper, a Model-Based Predictive Controller (MPC) is presented. Such a controller minimizes the degradation of the ESS and the load tracking error while fulfilling the operational constraints and dynamics. The ESS considered is hydrogen-based and the study has been developed within the EU-FCH 2 JU (European Union Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking) funded project HAEOLUS aiming at building and integrating advanced control strategies for a hydrogen-based ESS within a wind farm fence. Numerical simulations show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Determining the Initial Orientation for Navigation and Measurement Systems of Mobile Apparatus in Reforestation
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040056 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 156
Abstract
This paper considers the method of determining the initial orientation of the navigation and measuring complexes of mobile objects. The method is based on analytical gyrocompassing, using angular velocity sensors whose measurements are distorted by additive noise, with a priori uncertain statistical characteristics. [...] Read more.
This paper considers the method of determining the initial orientation of the navigation and measuring complexes of mobile objects. The method is based on analytical gyrocompassing, using angular velocity sensors whose measurements are distorted by additive noise, with a priori uncertain statistical characteristics. The proposed approach requires small computational costs and can be effectively used in the development of high-precision systems of initial orientation of navigation–measurement systems of various mobile objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Motion Time of a Scots Pine Single Seed on Mobile Optoelectronic Grader Efficiency: A Mathematical Patterning
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040055 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Research Highlights: Forest owners will be able to solve the problem of testing and selection of viable forest seeds on location and save financial, time, and material resources. The possibility of integrating non-destructive quality control and separation functions in a single portable apparatus [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: Forest owners will be able to solve the problem of testing and selection of viable forest seeds on location and save financial, time, and material resources. The possibility of integrating non-destructive quality control and separation functions in a single portable apparatus is extremely promising. The speed of the contemporary optoelectronic grader is limited by the speed of the slowest component—the mechanical system. Background and Objectives: The technological process of forest seed establishment and design of optoelectronic graders is based on a priori mathematical modeling of structural characteristics, taking into account these criteria. Known models of industrial photoseparators are expensive and have a high energy and material consumption not applicable in the field. Laboratory seed analyzers are characterized by a long time exposure, and the overall size and level of climatic performance do not allow them to be used in the field. Consequently, for small amounts of seed treatment, it is necessary to orient the seeds one by one and ensure clear and rapid coordinated actions of optoelectronic and mechanical systems. The main goal of this research is to increase the efficiency of grading forest seeds by patterning the speed of the mobile device. We will answer the following questions. What are effective geometric parameters for the seed pipe? What factors affect the speed of a single seed’s movement? Materials and Methods: This study is based on mathematical modeling, taking into account the basic principles of mechanics, using MatLab software. Results: A mechanical model of a single Scots pine seed’s motion in different zones of the seed pipe is designed, taking into account air resistance. The effective height of the seed pipe, taking into account the response time of optoelectronic grader systems, is determined. Conclusions: The time and speed of single seed movement through grader systems depends on the seed pipe’s height and radius of curvature. Other things being equal, through the use of the same optical scheme with a microprocessor to solve various problems, the compactness of the photodetector scheme allows, if necessary, to upgrade the grader to solve research problems and for use in forestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Open AccessArticle
Homotopy Semi-Numerical Modeling of Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Transport External to Multiple Geometries Using a Revised Buongiorno Model
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040054 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
A semi-analytical solution for the convection of a power-law nanofluid external to three different geometries (i.e., cone, wedge and plate), subject to convective boundary condition is presented. A revised Buongiorno model is employed for the nanofluid transport over the various geometries with variable [...] Read more.
A semi-analytical solution for the convection of a power-law nanofluid external to three different geometries (i.e., cone, wedge and plate), subject to convective boundary condition is presented. A revised Buongiorno model is employed for the nanofluid transport over the various geometries with variable wall temperature and nanoparticle concentration conditions (non-isothermal and non-iso-solutal). Wall transpiration is included. The dimensional governing equations comprising the conservation of mass, momentum, energy and nanoparticle volume fraction are transformed to dimensionless form using appropriate transformations. The transformed equations are solved using a robust semi-analytical power series method known as the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence and validation of the series solutions is considered in detail. The variation of order of the approximation and computational time with respect to residual errors for temperature for the different geometries is also elaborated. The influence of thermophysical parameters such as wall temperature parameter, wall concentration parameter for nanofluid, Biot number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and suction/blowing parameter on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction is visualized graphically and tabulated. The impact of these parameters on the engineering design functions, e.g., coefficient of skin fraction factor, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is also shown in tabular form. The outcomes are compared with the existing results from the literature to validate the study. It is found that thermal and solute Grashof numbers both significantly enhance the flow velocity whereas they suppress the temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction for the three different configurations, i.e., cone, wedge and plate. Furthermore, the thermal and concentration boundary layers are more dramatically modified for the wedge case, as compared to the plate and cone. This study has substantial applications in polymer engineering coating processes, fiber technology and nanoscale materials processing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids)
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