Automatic Control and System Theory

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019) | Viewed by 55148

Special Issue Editors


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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: circuits and systems for automatic control; dynamics of networks; electronic analog devices for sensor and controller; control of nonlinear circuits; biorobotics; nonlinear networks
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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (DIEEI), University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: two-phase microfluidics; 3D-printing micro-fabrication; micro-optofluidics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The Special Issue is addressed to explore new topics and new ideas in the Automatic Control and System Theory. 

Authors are invited to submit contributions that focus their contributions on innovative schemes, innovative applications, new theories in the Automatic Control and System Theory. Moreover, unsolved problems in Mathematical System and Control Theory is a fundamental topic for Control Scientists. The potential authors of the papers of this Special Issue can also take into account for their contributions to propose new unsolved problems. They could take, as a reference, the book edited by Vincent Blondel and Alexandre Megretski in 2004 to have a view of which were at that year the considered unsolved problems. 

The authors are, therefore, invited to make efforts to be visionary people and to propose papers not usual in Automatic Control journals; moreover, their efforts should also to be addressed focalizing new aspects of Mathematics of Systems. 

Proposal of papers that discuss as to improve the educational aspects of Automatic Control and System Theory will be welcome. Multidisciplinary papers where the emphasizing of integration among Control Theory, Human Sciences and History will be also strongly considered.

Prof. Luigi Fortuna
Prof. Maide Bucolo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • automatic control
  • system theory
  • invention of new control paradigms
  • theory of innovation and automatic control
  • unsolved problems in automatic control and system theory

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 10153 KiB  
Article
Lighting Control via Magnetic Field Communication
by Jia-Jing Kao, Chun-Liang Lin, Chih-Cheng Huang and Chung-Hsin Huang
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040070 - 2 Dec 2019
Viewed by 4657
Abstract
This invention proposes a novel light emitting diode (LED) lighting (dimmable) control scheme to transmit digital data through a magnetic field generated by a flyback driver that utilizes digitized data to adjust the brightness of LEDs for potential applications. This design would eliminate [...] Read more.
This invention proposes a novel light emitting diode (LED) lighting (dimmable) control scheme to transmit digital data through a magnetic field generated by a flyback driver that utilizes digitized data to adjust the brightness of LEDs for potential applications. This design would eliminate the cost of establishing wireless transmission hardware by simply relying on the magnetic field for communication to meet the management of the lighting control system. The method used a frequency-shift keying (FSK) technique on the secondary side of the system to send digitized data to the primary side. The primary side of the system interpreted the control commands by detecting the frequency change, and the corresponding lighting control was decoded. The inner communication connected the primary and secondary sides to the transformer through wirelessly transmitted data, which eliminated the requirements of optical coupling and peripheral circuits. For extended applications, the designed system can be combined with sensors at home for lighting management with the benefits of energy saving and potential emergency warnings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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6 pages, 329 KiB  
Communication
How to Increase the Analog-to-Digital Converter Speed in Optoelectronic Systems of the Seed Quality Rapid Analyzer
by Sergey Sokolov, Vladislav Kamenskij, Arthur Novikov and Vladan Ivetić
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040061 - 6 Oct 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4360
Abstract
This invention is relevant when working as part of optoelectronic systems, including non-destructive quality control of forest seeds. The possibility of synthesis of the ultrafast optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) providing conversion of analog information to digital in the sub-GHz range is considered. The [...] Read more.
This invention is relevant when working as part of optoelectronic systems, including non-destructive quality control of forest seeds. The possibility of synthesis of the ultrafast optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) providing conversion of analog information to digital in the sub-GHz range is considered. The functional scheme of the optical ADC, containing technologically well-developed optical elements is given; the principle of operation is described in detail. The possibility of increasing the speed of the ADC to make it potentially possible for optical data processing schemes is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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11 pages, 455 KiB  
Article
A Simulator-Based Comparison of a Novel 3D and a Conventional 3D Vision System-Surgical Performance and Subjective Ratings
by Annika Svenner, Xuelong Fan, Mikael Forsman, Ivan Shabo, M. Susan Hallbeck and Magnus Kjellman
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040058 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4436
Abstract
In laparoscopy, novel three-dimensional laparoscopic vision systems (3D LVS) without glasses (3D−) have been invented. While standard 3D LVS with glasses (3D+) have shown advantages over original two-dimensional systems, quantitative comparisons of surgical performance between 3D− and 3D+ systems are still lacking. The [...] Read more.
In laparoscopy, novel three-dimensional laparoscopic vision systems (3D LVS) without glasses (3D−) have been invented. While standard 3D LVS with glasses (3D+) have shown advantages over original two-dimensional systems, quantitative comparisons of surgical performance between 3D− and 3D+ systems are still lacking. The aim is to compare the systems in simulated robotic surgery tasks. In a crossover study, 18 medical students performed four basic laparoscopic tasks in the validated Simball Box simulator with authentic surgical instruments by using the 3D+ and 3D− systems. Performance was measured by the number of errors and the task’s duration. Subjective ratings of perceptions and preference were assessed after each test. There were significant, but still minor, advantages for the conventional 3D+ system regarding spatial orientation and sense of depth. Overall, ten and eight subjects preferred 3D+ and 3D− systems, respectively. No significant differences were found in performance, post-operative physicals or eye symptoms. The novel 3D− system was similar to the conventional 3D+ system regarding performance and overall preference, while there were minor advantages for the 3D+ system in the subjective ratings. Since the 3D− system is a new invention, it should have a higher potential of usability improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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5 pages, 368 KiB  
Communication
Determining the Initial Orientation for Navigation and Measurement Systems of Mobile Apparatus in Reforestation
by Sergey Sokolov, Arthur Novikov and Vladan Ivetić
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040056 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4081
Abstract
This paper considers the method of determining the initial orientation of the navigation and measuring complexes of mobile objects. The method is based on analytical gyrocompassing, using angular velocity sensors whose measurements are distorted by additive noise, with a priori uncertain statistical characteristics. [...] Read more.
This paper considers the method of determining the initial orientation of the navigation and measuring complexes of mobile objects. The method is based on analytical gyrocompassing, using angular velocity sensors whose measurements are distorted by additive noise, with a priori uncertain statistical characteristics. The proposed approach requires small computational costs and can be effectively used in the development of high-precision systems of initial orientation of navigation–measurement systems of various mobile objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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11 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Motion Time of a Scots Pine Single Seed on Mobile Optoelectronic Grader Efficiency: A Mathematical Patterning
by Arthur Novikov, Michael Drapalyuk, Olga Dornyak, Vladimir Zelikov and Vladan Ivetić
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040055 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4147
Abstract
Research Highlights: Forest owners will be able to solve the problem of testing and selection of viable forest seeds on location and save financial, time, and material resources. The possibility of integrating non-destructive quality control and separation functions in a single portable apparatus [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: Forest owners will be able to solve the problem of testing and selection of viable forest seeds on location and save financial, time, and material resources. The possibility of integrating non-destructive quality control and separation functions in a single portable apparatus is extremely promising. The speed of the contemporary optoelectronic grader is limited by the speed of the slowest component—the mechanical system. Background and Objectives: The technological process of forest seed establishment and design of optoelectronic graders is based on a priori mathematical modeling of structural characteristics, taking into account these criteria. Known models of industrial photoseparators are expensive and have a high energy and material consumption not applicable in the field. Laboratory seed analyzers are characterized by a long time exposure, and the overall size and level of climatic performance do not allow them to be used in the field. Consequently, for small amounts of seed treatment, it is necessary to orient the seeds one by one and ensure clear and rapid coordinated actions of optoelectronic and mechanical systems. The main goal of this research is to increase the efficiency of grading forest seeds by patterning the speed of the mobile device. We will answer the following questions. What are effective geometric parameters for the seed pipe? What factors affect the speed of a single seed’s movement? Materials and Methods: This study is based on mathematical modeling, taking into account the basic principles of mechanics, using MatLab software. Results: A mechanical model of a single Scots pine seed’s motion in different zones of the seed pipe is designed, taking into account air resistance. The effective height of the seed pipe, taking into account the response time of optoelectronic grader systems, is determined. Conclusions: The time and speed of single seed movement through grader systems depends on the seed pipe’s height and radius of curvature. Other things being equal, through the use of the same optical scheme with a microprocessor to solve various problems, the compactness of the photodetector scheme allows, if necessary, to upgrade the grader to solve research problems and for use in forestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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13 pages, 3752 KiB  
Article
2-Stroke Scavenging in Conventional and Minimally-Modified 4-Stroke Engines for Heavy Duty Applications at Low to Medium Speeds
by Dirk Rueter
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030044 - 9 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 9795
Abstract
The transformation of a standard 4-stroke cylinder head into a torque-improved and gradually more efficient 2-stroke design is discussed. The concept with an effective loop scavenging via an extended inlet valve holds promise for engines at low- to medium-rotational speeds for typical designs [...] Read more.
The transformation of a standard 4-stroke cylinder head into a torque-improved and gradually more efficient 2-stroke design is discussed. The concept with an effective loop scavenging via an extended inlet valve holds promise for engines at low- to medium-rotational speeds for typical designs of conventional 4-stroke cylinder heads. Calculations, flow simulations, and visualizations of experimental flows in relevant geometries and time scales indicate feasibility, followed by a small engine demonstration. Based on presumably long-forgotten and outdated patents, and the central topic of this contribution, an additional jockey rides on the inlet valve’s disk (facing away from the combustion chamber) and reshapes the in-cylinder flow into a reverted tumble. A quick gas exchange with a well-suppressed shortcut into the open exhaust is approached. For overall mechanical efficiency, the required charge pressure for scavenging is of paramount importance due to the short scavenging time and the intake’s reduced cross-section. Herein, still acceptable charging pressures are reported for scavenging periods equivalent to low or medium rotational speeds, as characteristic for heavy-duty applications. Using widely available components (charger, direct injection, variable camshaft angles) an increased engine efficiency is suggested due to the 2-stroke’s downsizing effect (relatively less internal friction as well as the promise of more torque and a decreased size). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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13 pages, 4047 KiB  
Article
Automatically Monitoring, Controlling, and Reporting Status/Data for Multiple Product Life Test Stands
by Richard Fertell and Hamed Ershad
Inventions 2019, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4010007 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5768
Abstract
This paper describes an industry laboratory implementation of local and remote automation monitoring and control of several product testing stands for status, safety, and an efficient use of resources, as well as the purpose and inter-relationship between the tests, product reliability estimations, customer [...] Read more.
This paper describes an industry laboratory implementation of local and remote automation monitoring and control of several product testing stands for status, safety, and an efficient use of resources, as well as the purpose and inter-relationship between the tests, product reliability estimations, customer applications, and possible solutions to test specification issues. Like an airport departure/arrival board, the summary statuses of several life stands are reported on a monitor using a mobile application interface. Detailed data analysis reports and emergency shutdown statuses are emailed to authorized-interested parties. The life stands include submersion tanks and flow rigs at different fluid temperatures (steady-state, slow cycling, thermal shock). To reduce equipment costs and lab space requirements, some life test stands are combined to share heating/cooling transfer fluids and pumping resources that are automatically controlled to direct different fluid temperature ranges through different flow paths. A heater/chilling system cycles between −80 °C and +140 °C with automated diverter valves to route −80 °C to +85 °C fluid through a set of products; when the fluid temperature is increased to > +85 °C, diverter valves route the > +85 °C fluid through a different set of products that are tested only between fluid temperatures of +85 °C to +140 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Review

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10 pages, 1116 KiB  
Review
The 5W’s for Control as Part of Industry 4.0: Why, What, Where, Who, and When—A PID and MPC Control Perspective
by Anca Maxim, Dana Copot, Cosmin Copot and Clara M. Ionescu
Inventions 2019, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4010010 - 10 Feb 2019
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 10307
Abstract
The advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has pushed technology beyond its physical limits, making the process prone to errors and poorer performance. Whether it is about smart manufacturing where mass customization is envisaged, or collaborative human–robot engineering systems, the pyramid of process operation [...] Read more.
The advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has pushed technology beyond its physical limits, making the process prone to errors and poorer performance. Whether it is about smart manufacturing where mass customization is envisaged, or collaborative human–robot engineering systems, the pyramid of process operation has changed to a matrix form and control is the backbone of all process elements. The paper gives a concise guideline as to how, when, where, and what to apply when it comes to choosing the most suitable control strategy as a function of multi-parameter objective optimization. Both proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and model predictive control (MPC) control are addressed in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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Other

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13 pages, 1770 KiB  
Tutorial
A Tutorial on Robust Control, Adaptive Control and Robust Adaptive Control—Application to Robotic Manipulators
by Bin Wei
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030049 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6743
Abstract
A tutorial on robust control, adaptive control, robust adaptive control and adaptive control of robotic manipulators is presented in a systematic manner. Some limitations of the above methods are also illustrated. The relationships between the robust control, adaptive control and robust adaptive control [...] Read more.
A tutorial on robust control, adaptive control, robust adaptive control and adaptive control of robotic manipulators is presented in a systematic manner. Some limitations of the above methods are also illustrated. The relationships between the robust control, adaptive control and robust adaptive control are demonstrated. Basic information on the joint space control, operational space control and force control is also given. This tutorial summarizes the most advanced control techniques currently in use in a very simple manner, and applies to robotic manipulators, which can provide an informative guideline for students who have little knowledge of controls or who want to understand the adaptive control of robotics in a systematic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory)
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