Modeling, Planning and Optimal Management of Mini/Micro-Grid in Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019) | Viewed by 29594

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources, ENEA, 00196 Rome, Italy
Interests: distributed generation; energy management; microgrids optimization; power electronics; electrical power engineering; photovoltaics; smart grid; power conversion; energy; electrical engineering; renewable energy technologies; renewable energy; power engineering; power generation; power system; energy efficiency; matlab simulation; electronic engineering; power systems analysis; power production; electricity; energy storage; industrial engineering; electrical; power systems; photovoltaic systems; solar inverters; wind; energy conversion; electrics; power systems simulation; power quality; microgrids; power converters; power systems modelling; power system stability; electric vehicles; grid; solar cells; e-government; grid integration
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Guest Editor
Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources, ENEA, Rome, Italy
Interests: design and operation optimization of distributed energy resources through multiobjective approaches; multienergy systems; microgrids and smart grid modeling and analysis; electricity markets; aggregators and demand response
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the growing concerns regarding the increase of energy demand and environmental problems, the efficient use of energy resources is a key topic for enhancing the sustainability of energy supplies. In such a context, flexible mini/micro-grids operating in both grid-connected and islanded modes, represent a promising solution for the decarbonization of the energy supply, due to the possibility of including low-carbon technologies and renewables to satisfy the needs of communities.

Mini/micro-grids involve distributed energy sources including renewables, storage devices and controllable loads, which, operating in a controlled and coordinated way, may offer several benefits to utilities and final users, such us improved energy efficiency, a reduction in energy consumption and environmental impacts, and an increase in reliability and resilience. In order to achieve these benefits and foster the effective penetration of mini/micro-grids, planning, operation and implementation aspects are crucial.

The objective of this Special Issue is to address and disseminate state-of-the-art R&D results on the implementation, planning and operation of mini/micro-grids, bringing together researchers from both academia and industry with the goal of fostering interactions among stakeholders. This Special Issue provides a strategic overview of various research topics on mini/micro-grids, addressing aspects related (but not limited) to:

  • Optimal design, stochastic programming and implementation of mini/micro-grids with renewables and energy storage;
  • Coordinated management of distributed energy devices in multi-carrier mini/micro-grids;
  • Implementation of control and optimization techniques for smooth planning and operation of mini/micro-grids in grid-connected and islanded modes;
  • Forecasting techniques to predict renewable power generation, residential load, etc.;
  • Importance of smart enabling technologies such as energy storage, demand response, electric vehicles, and ICT technologies for the effective penetration of mini/micro-grids;
  • Technical issues related to the implementation of mini/micro-grids, also demonstrated through case studies, best practices and experimental applications.

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Graditi
Dr. Marialaura Di Somma
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • DC/AC mini/micro-grids and off-grid mini/micro-grids
  • Optimal planning and operation
  • Control techniques
  • Distributed renewable energy supply
  • Smart enabling technologies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Mixed Logic Dynamic Models for MPC Control of Wind Farm Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems
by Muhammad Faisal Shehzad, Muhammad Bakr Abdelghany, Davide Liuzza, Valerio Mariani and Luigi Glielmo
Inventions 2019, 4(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4040057 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5738
Abstract
The use of electric power by wind generation in actual grids is hampered by its inherent stochastic nature and the penalty deviations adopted in several electricity regulation markets with respect to power quality requirements. Coupling wind farms with advanced Energy Storage Systems (ESS) [...] Read more.
The use of electric power by wind generation in actual grids is hampered by its inherent stochastic nature and the penalty deviations adopted in several electricity regulation markets with respect to power quality requirements. Coupling wind farms with advanced Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can help their integration within grids. In this direction, several studies have been conducted, but the problem is still open due to the constraints and limitations regarding the ESSs time autonomy, time response, degradation issues and overall costs. In order to take into account these relevant aspects, advanced control algorithms are needed. In this paper, a Model-Based Predictive Controller (MPC) is presented. Such a controller minimizes the degradation of the ESS and the load tracking error while fulfilling the operational constraints and dynamics. The ESS considered is hydrogen-based and the study has been developed within the EU-FCH 2 JU (European Union Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking) funded project HAEOLUS aiming at building and integrating advanced control strategies for a hydrogen-based ESS within a wind farm fence. Numerical simulations show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
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23 pages, 18293 KiB  
Article
How May Location Analytics Be Used to Enhance the Reliability of the Smart Grid?
by Vivian Sultan and Brian Hilton
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030039 - 2 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6785
Abstract
The United States (U.S.) electric infrastructure urgently needs renovation, as highlighted by recent major outages in California, New York, Texas, and Florida. The media has discussed the aging power infrastructure, and the Public Utilities Commission called for a comprehensive review of the causes [...] Read more.
The United States (U.S.) electric infrastructure urgently needs renovation, as highlighted by recent major outages in California, New York, Texas, and Florida. The media has discussed the aging power infrastructure, and the Public Utilities Commission called for a comprehensive review of the causes of recent power outages. Without optimization algorithms to account for the many operating parameters and outage scenarios, planning engineers may inadvertently choose non-optimal locations for new components such as automated distribution switches, thereby impacting circuit reliability. This study aims to address this problem by answering the research question: “How may location analytics should be used to enhance the reliability of the smart grid?” To address this problem, Insights for ArcGIS was used to build worksheets using a geographic information systems (GIS)-based approach to resolve the challenges faced by utilities to reduce power outage frequency. Three case studies demonstrate various risk scenarios wherein a utility can prepare for the unexpected. An artefact in Insights for ArcGIS was created using a design science research methodology. This research proposes a solution to facilitate storm/disaster planning and vegetation management, identify optimal grid locations needing inspection or work, and detect regions where new distribution switches may provide benefits, considering the many operating parameters and outage scenarios. The artefact demonstrates that GIS can play an integral role in resolving this problem. Full article
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13 pages, 3483 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hybrid Power Station Installation in the Operation of Insular Power Systems
by Nikolaos Bouzounierakis, Yiannis Katsigiannis, Konstantinos Fiorentzis and Emmanuel Karapidakis
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030038 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5368
Abstract
Greece has a large number of islands that are isolated from the main interconnected Greek power system; however, a majority of them are to be interconnected in the mainland grid over the next decade. A large number of these islands present a significant [...] Read more.
Greece has a large number of islands that are isolated from the main interconnected Greek power system; however, a majority of them are to be interconnected in the mainland grid over the next decade. A large number of these islands present a significant amount of wind and solar potential. The nature of load demand and renewable production is stochastic; thus, the operation of such isolated power systems can be improved significantly by the installation of a large-scale energy storage system. The role of storage is to compensate for the long and short-term imbalances between power generation and load demand. Pumped hydro storage (PHS) systems represent one of the most mature technologies for large-scale energy storage. However, their advantages have not been proven in practice for cases of medium and small-sized isolated insular systems. Regarding Greece, which contains a large number of isolated insular systems, a PHS system in the island of Ikaria started its test operation in 2019, whereas in Europe only one PHS system operates in El Hierro (Canary Islands). This paper studies the effect of installing a wind-PHS hybrid power station in the operation of the insular power system of Samos, Greece, according to the latest regulatory framework. The implemented analysis uses real hourly data for a whole year, and examines the effects of such an installation considering investors’ and power system operators’ viewpoints. More specifically, the economic viability of this project under different billing scenarios is compared, and its impact on the insular power system operation for various PHS sizes is examined. Full article
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20 pages, 4098 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Stochastic Multi-Agent-Based Energy Management Approach for Microgrids Considering Uncertainties
by Sajad Ghorbani, Rainer Unland, Hassan Shokouhandeh and Ryszard Kowalczyk
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030037 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5150
Abstract
In microgrids a major share of the energy production comes from renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines. The intermittent nature of these types of producers along with the fluctuation in energy demand can destabilize the grid if not dealt [...] Read more.
In microgrids a major share of the energy production comes from renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines. The intermittent nature of these types of producers along with the fluctuation in energy demand can destabilize the grid if not dealt with properly. This paper presents a multi-agent-based energy management approach for a non-isolated microgrid with solar and wind units and in the presence of demand response, considering uncertainty in generation and load. More specifically, a modified version of the lightning search algorithm, along with the weighted objective function of the current microgrid cost, based on different scenarios for the energy management of the microgrid, is proposed. The probability density functions of the solar and wind power outputs, as well as the demand of the households, have been used to determine the amount of uncertainty and to plan various scenarios. We also used a particle swarm optimization algorithm for the microgrid energy management and compared the optimization results obtained from the two algorithms. The simulation results show that uncertainty in the microgrid normally has a significant effect on the outcomes, and failure to consider it would lead to inaccurate management methods. Moreover, the results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed approach. Full article
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14 pages, 3465 KiB  
Article
Smart Integration of a DC Microgrid: Enhancing the Power Quality Management of the Neighborhood Low-Voltage Distribution Network
by Ahmed F. Ebrahim, Ahmed A. Saad and Osama Mohammed
Inventions 2019, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4020025 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6059
Abstract
The fast development of the residential sector regarding the additional integration of renewable distributed energy sources and the modern expansion usage of essential DC electrical equipment may cause severe power quality problems. For example, the integration of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) may cause unbalance, [...] Read more.
The fast development of the residential sector regarding the additional integration of renewable distributed energy sources and the modern expansion usage of essential DC electrical equipment may cause severe power quality problems. For example, the integration of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) may cause unbalance, and voltage fluctuation, which can add constraints for further PV integrations to the network, and the deployment of DC native loads with their nonlinear behavior adds harmonics to the network. This paper demonstrates the smart integration of a DC microgrid to the neighborhood low-voltage distribution network (NLVDN). The DC microgrid is connected to the NLVDN through a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), in which the VSI works as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). Unlike previous STATCOM work in the literature, the proposed controller of the VSI of the DC smart building allows for many functions: (a) it enables bidirectional active/reactive power flow between the DC building and the AC grid at point of common coupling (PCC); (b) it compensates for the legacy unbalance in the distribution network, providing harmonics elimination and power factor correction capability at PCC; and (c) it provides voltage support at PCC. The proposed controller was validated by Matlab/Simulink and by experimental implementation at the lab. Full article
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