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Sexes, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 14 articles

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21 pages, 467 KiB  
Article
Food-Related Behaviours of Female and Male Tourists before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Antonia Matalas, Dimitris Panaretos, Milia Tzoutzou and Georgios Lazaridis
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 167-187; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010014 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
The literature contains scant information on the relationship between tourists’ gender and their attitudes toward food while vacationing. The present study had as its main aim to examine the role of gender in key behaviours concerning tourists’ food choices and eating habits; in [...] Read more.
The literature contains scant information on the relationship between tourists’ gender and their attitudes toward food while vacationing. The present study had as its main aim to examine the role of gender in key behaviours concerning tourists’ food choices and eating habits; in addition, our study evaluated the hypothesis that gender interacts with the “pandemic effect” in modifying tourists’ food-related behaviour. By implementing a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive methodology, an online questionnaire was developed based on existing literature. To this end, data derived from 474 female and 370 male tourists visiting Greece in 2019 (before) or in 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) were analysed and evaluated. The results indicate that, compared to men, women were more motivated to taste local food, especially with respect to obtaining cultural experience and excitement, promoting interpersonal relations, and as a result of health concerns. In addition, they dined at facilities at their place of stay, as well as at Greek restaurants and taverns at a higher rate compared to men. Women also reported being more satisfied than men by their food experiences during their trips, and was found that during the pandemic they spent, on average, more on food than before. The study showed that the pandemic affected both genders; however, the most significant of the differences observed relates to the choice of dining facilities, in all likelihood, as a result of women being more sensitive to the risks of COVID-19. Overall, during the pandemic, women appeared more likely than men to adopt behaviours that are in line with the principles of sustainability, such as a positive attitude and motivation to consume foods produced locally in the country. Differences detected between genders can be used by various stakeholders as a benchmark to further improve the food services offered at tourist destinations. Full article
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12 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Vicious Cycle: Relationships between Nonconsensual Sexting Behaviours and Cyberbullying Perpetration
by Yunhao Hu, Elizabeth Mary Clancy and Bianca Klettke
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 155-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010013 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2739
Abstract
With the increased ubiquity of digital technology, sexting behaviours, defined as the online sending, receiving, or disseminating of sexually explicit messages, images, or videos, have become increasingly frequent, particularly among young adults. While prior research found sexting behaviours to be associated with cyberbullying [...] Read more.
With the increased ubiquity of digital technology, sexting behaviours, defined as the online sending, receiving, or disseminating of sexually explicit messages, images, or videos, have become increasingly frequent, particularly among young adults. While prior research found sexting behaviours to be associated with cyberbullying behaviours, the role of consent as part of this association has been largely unexplored. The current study investigates whether the relationship between sexting behaviours and cyberbullying perpetration might be explained by a subset of nonconsensual sexting behaviours, such as engagement in nonconsensual sext dissemination and sext-hassling. A large convenience sample of young Western cisgendered adults (n = 1688, M age = 23.15, SD = 3.23, 52.7% women) completed an anonymous online survey exploring harmful online behaviours (nonconsensual sext dissemination, sext-hassling, cyberbullying victimisation/perpetration). A hierarchical logistic regression was used to analyse predictive relationships between variables. The results showed no significant association between consensual sext-sending and cyberbullying perpetration in young adults. However, nonconsensual sexting behaviours, particularly sext-hassling and nonconsensual sext dissemination, were predictive of cyberbullying perpetration. Finally, cyberbullying victimization appeared to be the most strongly associated factor with cyberbullying perpetration. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts surrounding sexting and cyberbullying perpetration would benefit from a focus on consent and the bidirectional nature of cyberbullying behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers Collection of the Editorial Board of Sexes)
22 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of an Unguided Online Intervention for Sexual Pleasure in Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
by Michèle Borgmann, Lucca Michelle Brandner, Linda Affolter, Julia Vonesch and Stefanie Gonin-Spahni
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 133-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010012 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3143
Abstract
The importance of sexual pleasure as a factor promoting sexual and public health is increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, hardly any theory-based and empirically tested interventions exist for fostering sexual pleasure. Consequently, we developed an unguided online intervention called PleaSure to promote sexual pleasure in [...] Read more.
The importance of sexual pleasure as a factor promoting sexual and public health is increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, hardly any theory-based and empirically tested interventions exist for fostering sexual pleasure. Consequently, we developed an unguided online intervention called PleaSure to promote sexual pleasure in women. In a randomized controlled pilot trial with a mixed-method design, we evaluated the effectiveness of PleaSure by comparing the intervention group to a waitlist control group in pre–post measurements over 4 weeks. With 657 participants (Mage = 31.46, SDage = 8.78), we evaluated an index of sexual pleasure and five facets: sensual pleasure, pleasure-related mastery, pleasure-related validation, interaction pleasure, and bonding pleasure. The results show that the online intervention primarily strengthened the intrapersonal domain of sexual pleasure by increasing pleasure-related mastery. Neither the other facets nor the index was significantly influenced by the intervention. Although the effects of the quantitative data are small, the qualitative data support overall positive effects on participants’ sexual experience. We discuss the content of the intervention and the methods used. Our pilot study suggests that sexual pleasure can be promoted but that major improvements are needed to the intervention’s content and design to do so effectively. Therefore, future studies are encouraged to further develop and implement such resource-efficient interventions in clinical and non-clinical samples to better understand the importance of sexual pleasure to sexual health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Sexual Pleasure)
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15 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Three Quarks for Hypersexuality Research
by Piet Van Tuijl, Peter Verboon and Jacques J. D. M. Van Lankveld
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 118-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010011 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
In some areas of sex research, we note room for methodological improvement of research practices. In particular, in the field of hypersexuality research, where societal norms have been influential, methodological improvement might advance goals of objectivity in research. We propose that hypersexuality research [...] Read more.
In some areas of sex research, we note room for methodological improvement of research practices. In particular, in the field of hypersexuality research, where societal norms have been influential, methodological improvement might advance goals of objectivity in research. We propose that hypersexuality research should: firstly, take into account relevant subpopulations; secondly, use Item Response Theory (IRT) to construct item banks for measurement instruments; and, thirdly, measure sexual desire and related important constructs where and how they play out—in daily life, changing from moment to moment. We show that comparing relevant subpopulations can lead to depathologizing normative, but highly frequent, sexual behavior. Using IRT can lead to more precise measurement instruments by assessment of characteristics of individual items. Measuring sexual desire as an inherently fluctuating process in everyday life, and as part of emotion regulation processes, can direct research towards relevant associations other research methods might miss. Bringing into practice our three proposals for improvement can procure a number of advantages. We illustrate these advantages mainly for the field of hypersexuality research, but our suggestions might also be beneficial for sex research in general. Full article
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16 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Telling Disabled and Autistic Sexuality Stories: Reflecting upon the Current Research Landscape and Possible Future Developments
by Alex Toft
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 102-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010010 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3977
Abstract
Developments in the study of sexuality in the lives of disabled people have been relatively slow, as the spectre of a medicalised model continues to dominate most debates and invalidate any form of sexual identity. The social model of disability has enabled the [...] Read more.
Developments in the study of sexuality in the lives of disabled people have been relatively slow, as the spectre of a medicalised model continues to dominate most debates and invalidate any form of sexual identity. The social model of disability has enabled the amplification of voices that have been previously silenced; however, progress has stalled. Within autism studies, however, the rise of neurodiversity studies coupled with intersectionality, has presented an opportunity to explore sexualities in terms of difference rather than deficiency, therefore bypassing deficit models which have dominated any study of non-heterosexual lives. Such deficit models have focussed upon discovering what it is about autism that leads autistic people to think they are non-heterosexual, often resulting in a lack of support for young LGBT+ people as sexuality is dismissed as a result of autism. Reflecting upon findings from my own ongoing work alongside emerging social research, this article explores important developments and potential future directions. This will highlight the progress made and the barriers remaining. Using a sociological approach and a framework inspired by Plummer, which focusses upon the importance of sexual stories, the article will show that much needs to be done. The diversity of goals and multiplicity of stories means that disabled and autistic sexuality stories have not been accepted into the public consciousness. Full article
8 pages, 1190 KiB  
Communication
Is Japan Pronatalism Justified? Fear of Hinoeuma Women and Sex Selection
by Shizuko Takahashi and Eisuke Nakazawa
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 94-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010009 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3380
Abstract
Japan, having had the longest isolationist policy in the world, is averse to options, such as migration to increase the population. What kinds of pronatalist policies to increase fertility and lower the population’s age are ethical? Two questions can be raised: is it [...] Read more.
Japan, having had the longest isolationist policy in the world, is averse to options, such as migration to increase the population. What kinds of pronatalist policies to increase fertility and lower the population’s age are ethical? Two questions can be raised: is it ethical for the government to intercede, and is it ethical for individuals to exercise this choice? In addition to the gradually decreasing birth rate, Japan is faced with the challenge of a possible sharp decline in the birth rate in 5 years. Astrology and superstition have influenced the sex preference of a child in Japan, and in 1966, there was a 26% drop in the birth rate. It was the year of Hinoeuma, occurring at 60-year intervals, and women born that year are believed to have a potentially dangerous ‘headstrong temperament’ and murder their husbands. Abortion rates spiked that year, and many forged the birth date of their child. The next Hinoeuma is in 2026. Although the bioethical debate about pronatalism exists in the literature, there is no literature addressing the question of sex selection in the context of a decreasing population. This paper argues that even if the Japanese government’s current pronatalist approach is ethically warranted, it should not extend to sex selection since it would promote misogyny and stereotypical gender roles. Full article
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14 pages, 1649 KiB  
Article
Intrasexual Competition in Women’s Likelihood of Self-Enhancement and Perceptions of Breast Morphology: A Hispanic Sample
by Ray Garza and Farid Pazhoohi
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 80-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010008 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Women’s breasts are considered sexually attractive because they may infer a woman’s residual reproductive value. Given that men find women’s breasts attractive, women may compete with other women to enhance their physical attractiveness when primed with an intrasexual competitive cue. The current study [...] Read more.
Women’s breasts are considered sexually attractive because they may infer a woman’s residual reproductive value. Given that men find women’s breasts attractive, women may compete with other women to enhance their physical attractiveness when primed with an intrasexual competitive cue. The current study investigated women’s intrasexual competition when viewing variations in breast morphology. Women (N = 189) were randomly assigned to a partner threat condition and shown images of women’s breasts that included variations in breast size, ptosis (i.e., sagginess), and intermammary distance (i.e., cleavage). Women were more likely to report an increase in enhancing their appearance, wearing revealing clothing, dieting and exercising, and perceiving the breasts as a sexual threat as a function of larger breast sizes with low ptosis and intermediate distances. The partner threat prime did not play a role in ratings. Interestingly, there was a moderating role for women’s dispositional levels in intrasexual competition. Women with higher levels of intrasexual competition were more likely to enhance their appearance when viewing large breast sizes. The study points to the role that breast morphology indicative of residual reproductive value has on increasing enhancement strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sexual Behavior and Attitudes)
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15 pages, 600 KiB  
Systematic Review
How Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Teachers Experience Physical Education—A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies
by Johannes Müller and Nicola Böhlke
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 65-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010007 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7715
Abstract
Research on sexual diversity in physical education (PE) focuses primarily on students and rarely on teachers. Against this background, this study takes a look at teachers and explores the question of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) teachers experience PE. Our study was [...] Read more.
Research on sexual diversity in physical education (PE) focuses primarily on students and rarely on teachers. Against this background, this study takes a look at teachers and explores the question of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) teachers experience PE. Our study was conceived as a systematic literature review of qualitative studies published between 1990 and 2022. The processual study selection was carried out according to PRISMA. A total of nine studies were identified that met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed and compared the findings of these studies. On an overarching level, our analysis shows that the identified studies predominantly focus on the challenges and problems associated with the sexuality of LGB teachers. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the PE teachers interviewed in the studies perceive and anticipate school as a homophobic context. From the teachers’ perspective, PE is a special subject that they experience as particularly risky due to their sexuality. Against the backdrop of these experiences, many PE teachers use protective strategies, which mainly consist of hiding their own sexuality and ignoring the perceived homophobia. In the end, research implications are discussed, highlighting the need for ongoing research on LGB PE teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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10 pages, 3806 KiB  
Case Report
Management of Persistent Erectile Dysfunction after COVID-19 Infection: An 18-Month Follow-Up Case Report
by Stefano Iuliano, Giuseppe Seminara, Maria Carmela Zagari, Luigi Di Luigi and Antonio Aversa
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 55-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010006 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5856
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019 the new virus has spread all over the world and has become a major health problem also because of the public measures that could affect [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019 the new virus has spread all over the world and has become a major health problem also because of the public measures that could affect people’s sexual activity. We report a case of a 35-year-old married male admitted to the andrology outpatient clinic in July 2021 because of sudden onset erectile dysfunction (ED). The diagnostic workup showed no risk factor for ED, normal levels of testosterone, increased levels of endothelial dysfunction markers, such as CRP (C-Reactive Protein) and Endothelin-1, and reduced Vitamin D (VD) levels. Dynamic penile duplex ultrasound (D-PDU) revealed dysfunctional penile arterial flow. The five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) showed a reduction in all domain scores. The patient, initially unresponsive to the high dose oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5is), was treated with vitamin-D and then submitted to LI-SWT (low intensity shockwave treatment), with a progressive clinical benefit at the 12-month follow-up. After 18 months, hormone levels persisted in normal ranges, with a consistent reduction in CRP and Endothelin-1. Additionally, IIEF-5, SF-36 and arterial flow significantly improved over the follow-up period. Thus far, the erectile function was restored and the patient is no more treated with PDE-5i. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Andrology and Urology)
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15 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Description of and Relationships among Potential Variables Supported for the Diagnosis of Delayed Ejaculation
by David L. Rowland, Sean M. McNabney, Lijana G. Teague, Sarah M. Padilla, Katelyn R. Bacys and Krisztina Hevesi
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 40-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010005 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
The lack of empirically based diagnostic criteria for delayed ejaculation (DE) not only undermines confidence in the reported prevalence rates for this sexual dysfunction, but it has also resulted in a lack of validated patient reported outcomes (PROs) for assessing this condition. The [...] Read more.
The lack of empirically based diagnostic criteria for delayed ejaculation (DE) not only undermines confidence in the reported prevalence rates for this sexual dysfunction, but it has also resulted in a lack of validated patient reported outcomes (PROs) for assessing this condition. The current study was designed to describe and evaluate six face-valid variables previously shown to discriminate between men with and without DE for their utility as diagnostic measures for DE. A sample of 1285 men (mean age = 37.8, SD = 12.7) free of erectile problems and premature ejaculation completed an online sexual health survey that included potential questions intended for use in the diagnosis of DE. Questionnaire items included ones reflective of previously proposed diagnostic constructs related to DE: ejaculation timing/latency, ejaculation efficacy/control, and negative effects of DE. Results indicated that five of the six proposed items showed moderate intercorrelations, suggesting that each constituted a distinct (i.e., non-redundant) though relevant criterion related to the diagnosis of DE. Based on the level of interrelatedness, the better items representing each construct were included in commonality analysis to assess their unique contributions to the diagnosis of DE. Perceived lack of ejaculatory efficacy/control contributed the largest portion of the variance to the diagnosis of DE (58%), with bother/distress (an index of the negative effects of DE) contributing the second largest portion (25%), and ejaculation timing/latency contributing only a small portion of the variance (6%) to the diagnosis of DE. The relevance of these findings to developing a patient report outcome (PRO) for diagnosing DE that considers both empirically supported questions/items and an appropriate balance of items regarding the three constructs was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Andrology and Urology)
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2 pages, 131 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Sexes in 2022
by Sexes Editorial Office
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 38-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010004 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 950
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
12 pages, 234 KiB  
Article
Occupational Health and Safety among Female Commercial Sex Workers in Ghana: A Qualitative Study
by Andrea A. Antwi, Michael W. Ross and Christine Markham
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 26-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010003 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2596
Abstract
The topic of occupational health and safety (OHS) has been investigated for many years and continues to be a concept often researched today. Generally speaking, OHS research has been centered around food safety, construction safety, transportation safety, fire safety, drug and alcohol testing, [...] Read more.
The topic of occupational health and safety (OHS) has been investigated for many years and continues to be a concept often researched today. Generally speaking, OHS research has been centered around food safety, construction safety, transportation safety, fire safety, drug and alcohol testing, health and medical management, and industrial hygiene, to name a few. However, the concept of OHS concerning female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) has rarely been investigated, often neglected, seldom discussed, and is lacking in sound research. Although regarded as the “oldest profession”, commercial sex work (CSW) has consistently been ignored, disregarded, and under-researched due to the illegality and stigmatization of prostitution. This paper reviews occupational safety and health issues faced by FCSWs in Tema and Accra, Ghana, through in-depth interviews, visits to women’s homes, fieldwork, informal conversations, and observations with FCSWs during the summer of May 2012–July 2012. Facets of OHS that emerged among FCSWs included: sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with harassment and violence from police and clients, alcohol and drug use, irregular hospital visits or lack of hospital visits, immigration issues, legal hazards, and working conditions. We argue that CSW be viewed as an occupation in great need of interventions to reduce workplace risks. Full article
19 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Stigmatisation of People with Deviant Sexual Interest: A Comparative Study
by Kirra Combridge and Michele Lastella
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 7-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010002 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3909
Abstract
Background: Pedophilia is a deviant sexual interest subject to more public stigma and punitive attitudes than others. Pedophilia has received a disproportionate amount of scholarly attention in comparison to other deviant sexual interests. To address this, the present study offers a comparison of [...] Read more.
Background: Pedophilia is a deviant sexual interest subject to more public stigma and punitive attitudes than others. Pedophilia has received a disproportionate amount of scholarly attention in comparison to other deviant sexual interests. To address this, the present study offers a comparison of the public stigma and punitive attitudes associated with pedophilia, fetishism, and hypersexuality. Methods: Recruited in Australia, one-hundred and twelve individuals participated in an anonymous online survey. Stigmatising and punitive attitudes toward pedophilia, fetishism, and hypersexuality were assessed via sub-scales of perceived dangerousness, deviance, intentionality, and punitive attitudes. Results: Participants held harsher punitive attitudes toward people with pedophilia and thought them to be more deviant and dangerous than people with fetishism and hypersexuality. Participants perceived hypersexuality to be more dangerous and deviant than fetishism. No consistent combination of perceived dangerousness, deviance, and intentionality predicted punitive attitudes toward all conditions. Rather, combinations of punitive attitude predictors were unique across conditions. Conclusions: This research articulates the unparalleled public stigma and punitive attitudes faced by people with pedophilia, compared to people with fetishism and hypersexuality. Findings which suggest that public stigma is stronger for hypersexuality than it is for fetishism are relatively novel, as are the observed predictors of punitive attitudes toward each condition. Knowledge produced by this study contributes to an improved conceptualisation of how the public views individuals who experience deviant sexual interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sexual Behavior and Attitudes)
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6 pages, 356 KiB  
Communication
Long-Term Effects of a U.S. University Human Sexuality Course on Use of Contraception
by Courtney E. Sciarro, Shelby L. Mozingo, Elenah B. Rosopa and Bruce M. King
Sexes 2023, 4(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes4010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2016
Abstract
This study examined long-term effects of taking a university sexuality course on use of contraception. A questionnaire was given to two groups of students: 602 students enrolled in the first week of a comprehensive sexuality course, and 352 students who had completed the [...] Read more.
This study examined long-term effects of taking a university sexuality course on use of contraception. A questionnaire was given to two groups of students: 602 students enrolled in the first week of a comprehensive sexuality course, and 352 students who had completed the course 1–1.5 years earlier. A significantly smaller percentage of former students had used no contraception at last sexual intercourse (p < 0.005). Former students were less likely to have used a dual method, and favored either IUDs, implants, or birth control pills used alone. There was no notable change in the percentage of former students using withdrawal or condoms. Former students showed evidence of better communication about sex with their partners. The effect size for use of contraception was small, but if this result is true of other college sexuality courses, nationwide it translates into thousands of students who may have avoided unintentional pregnancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers Collection of the Editorial Board of Sexes)
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