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Magnetochemistry, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 8 articles

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34 pages, 12724 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Different Molecular Weights of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating Agents on the Magnetic Targeting Characteristics of Functionalized Magnetoresponsive Nanoclusters
by Sandor I. Bernad, Alexander Bunge, Maria C. Ioncica, Rodica Turcu, Monica Dan, Vlad Socoliuc, Daniela Susan-Resiga and Elena S. Bernad
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070051 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
In this article, we investigated the influence of molecular weight (Mw) on particle deposition efficiency after PEG-functionalized (polyethylene glycol-PEG) magnetoresponsive magnetic cluster targeting. In this work, the clusters were obtained by the solvothermal polyol method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a coating agent. [...] Read more.
In this article, we investigated the influence of molecular weight (Mw) on particle deposition efficiency after PEG-functionalized (polyethylene glycol-PEG) magnetoresponsive magnetic cluster targeting. In this work, the clusters were obtained by the solvothermal polyol method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a coating agent. So, we investigated three kinds of magnetoresponsive clusters: MNC-2000, MNC-6000, and MNC-10,000. These clusters were coated with PEG, and had molecular weights (Mw) of 2000 Da, 6000 Da, and 10,000 Da, respectively. The authors propose that the key to achieving maximum efficiency in targeted drug delivery is to deposit a thin, uniform layer of medication that covers the vascular wall in the area of interest. We defined a set of efficiency criteria to focus on the most essential characteristics of the targeting results. These are the obstruction degree, which measures the level of vessel obstruction; the magnet coverage degree, which evaluates the quality of particle deposition along the vessel wall; and the proximal deposition degree, which assesses the effect of pulsatile flow on deposition length. We performed several tests to determine how molecular weight affected these efficiency parameters. These tests examined (a) the effect of the injected cluster quantities, (b) the effect of the magnet distance, and (c) the effect of the injection period. Our findings indicate that an increase in PEG’s molar weight significantly impacts magnetic particle targeting efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Materials: Synthesis, Structure and Application)
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25 pages, 6926 KiB  
Review
Magnon Excitation Modes in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Systems
by Xing Chen, Cuixiu Zheng and Yaowen Liu
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070050 - 14 Jul 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Magnons, recognized as the quanta of spin waves, offer a pathway for transmitting information without the need for electron motion, thus emerging as a leading candidate for the next generation of low-power electronics. Firstly, this study gives an overview by examining magnon modes [...] Read more.
Magnons, recognized as the quanta of spin waves, offer a pathway for transmitting information without the need for electron motion, thus emerging as a leading candidate for the next generation of low-power electronics. Firstly, this study gives an overview by examining magnon modes possessing infinite wavelengths or zero wave numbers (known as ferromagnetic resonance) in classical ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and synthetic antiferromagnetic systems. It delves into the dynamics of magnetization, particularly focusing on magnetic moments precession and the corresponding dispersion relationships under two distinct acoustic and optic eigenmodes. Furthermore, it elaborates on a novel hybrid quantum system termed magnon-magnon coupling. The study elucidates the mechanism behind the robust coupling between acoustic and optic magnon modes. Finally, we briefly discuss the current challenges and future research directions in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin Waves in Magnonic Crystals and Hybrid Ferromagnetic Structures)
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19 pages, 7513 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Medicinal Plant Extracts against Resistant Bacterial Strains
by Sereen M.B. Bataineh, Isam M. Arafa, Samya M. Abu-Zreg, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Hanan M. Hammouri, Yaser H. Tarazi and Homa Darmani
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070049 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Nanoparticles are emerging as a fascinating alternative to antibiotics. When stabilized by chemical compounds, magnetite nanoparticles (MagNPs) consistently exhibit bactericidal effects across different types of bacteria. This study describes the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties of magnetite MagNPs prepared by the coprecipitation method [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are emerging as a fascinating alternative to antibiotics. When stabilized by chemical compounds, magnetite nanoparticles (MagNPs) consistently exhibit bactericidal effects across different types of bacteria. This study describes the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties of magnetite MagNPs prepared by the coprecipitation method under continuous sonication. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques revealed Fe3O4-NPs as spherical, uniform particles with an average size of approximately 16 nm. The antibacterial efficacy of MagNPs was investigated by combining them with methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants known for their antibacterial properties: Aloysia triphylla, Sarcopoterium spinosum, and Urtica pilulifera. The combined effect was assessed against both wild type and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial synergistic effect of MagNPs and plant extracts was evaluated by the MIC test, which showed significant inhibitory properties against the growth of the four bacterial strains as compared to control samples of plant extracts alone. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of MagNPs combined with extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Anchusa azurea, Quercus infectoria, and Urtica pilulifera significantly prevented biofilm development in both sensitive and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
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15 pages, 3571 KiB  
Article
Structural, Morphological and Ferroelectric Properties of Sr-Cd Co-Doped Nickel Ferrite for Energy Storage Devices
by Huda A. Alburaih, Muhammad Ahsan ul Haq, Abdul Jabbar, Atiq ur Rehman, Amel Laref, Mohamed Musa Saad Hasb Elkhalig and Naveed Ahmad Noor
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070048 - 2 Jul 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Ferroelectric materials, renowned for their capacity to demonstrate spontaneous electric polarization reversible through an external electric field, are essential in numerous technological applications owing to their distinctive characteristics. For this, a series of spinel Sr-Cd co-doped nickel ferrite nanomaterials Cd0.5−xSrx [...] Read more.
Ferroelectric materials, renowned for their capacity to demonstrate spontaneous electric polarization reversible through an external electric field, are essential in numerous technological applications owing to their distinctive characteristics. For this, a series of spinel Sr-Cd co-doped nickel ferrite nanomaterials Cd0.5−xSrxNi0.5Fe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were prepared through the standard sol-gel auto combustion method The XRD patterns showed that the prepared samples have a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of the samples vary from 29 to 40 nm. The morphology of prepared samples showed uniformly distributed spheres. Magnetic properties showed the soft magnetic nature of the prepared ferrites. The ferroelectric study revealed that Sr-Cd substituted ferrites exhibited the elliptical nature of ferroelectric loops at normal room temperature. The maximum polarization has been achieved at x = 0.3. The understanding of current and voltage (I–V) showed a slowly decreasing tendency of leakage current on both sides symmetrically against the increasing Sr content. The conductivity of the prepared spinel increases as a function of higher Sr doping. The real part of dielectric constant increases with increasing frequency. The materials show large elliptical loops indicating high asymmetric ferroelectric energy storage capability. Full article
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12 pages, 2436 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Core–Shell Exchange Coupling on the Approach to Magnetic Saturation in a Ferrimagnetic Nanoparticle
by Sergey V. Komogortsev, Sergey V. Stolyar, Alexey A. Mokhov, Vladimir A. Fel’k, Dmitriy A. Velikanov and Rauf S. Iskhakov
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070047 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
The generally accepted model of the magnetic structure of an iron oxide core–shell nanoparticle includes a single-domain magnetically ordered core surrounded by a layer with a frozen spin disorder. Due to the exchange coupling between the shell and core, the spin disorder should [...] Read more.
The generally accepted model of the magnetic structure of an iron oxide core–shell nanoparticle includes a single-domain magnetically ordered core surrounded by a layer with a frozen spin disorder. Due to the exchange coupling between the shell and core, the spin disorder should lead to nonuniform magnetization in the core. Suppression of this inhomogeneity by an external magnetic field causes the nonlinear behavior of the magnetization as a function of the field in the region of the approach to magnetic saturation. The equation proposed to describe this effect is tested using a micromagnetic simulation. Analysis of the approach to magnetic saturation of iron oxide nanoparticles at different temperatures using this equation can be used to estimate the temperature evolution of the core–shell coupling energy and the size of the uniformly magnetized nanoparticle core and the temperature behavior of this size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ferrimagnetic Materials: State of the Art and Future Perspective)
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29 pages, 10787 KiB  
Review
Current Application of Magnetic Materials in the Dental Field
by Yilin Yu and Xiaolei Li
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070046 - 29 Jun 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Integrating magnetic materials into dentistry has emerged as a promising advance for addressing diverse dental conditions. Magnetic particles comprising a magnetic core encapsulated within a biocompatible coating offer precise manipulation through external magnetic fields, rendering them invaluable in targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance [...] Read more.
Integrating magnetic materials into dentistry has emerged as a promising advance for addressing diverse dental conditions. Magnetic particles comprising a magnetic core encapsulated within a biocompatible coating offer precise manipulation through external magnetic fields, rendering them invaluable in targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia therapy, and diagnostic assays. Their tunable properties allow optimization for specific applications, enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing off-target effects. Additionally, pre-adjust magnets showcase exceptional magnetic field strength and energy density. Their utilization in dental implants and orthodontic treatments facilitates tissue engineering and tooth movement, augmenting clinical outcomes and patient comfort. This review synthesizes current research directions and clinical applications of magnetic materials in dentistry, offering insights into their potential to transform dental healthcare and enhance patient well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Magnetic Materials on Dental Diseases)
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16 pages, 6463 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Magnetic Performance of FeNi50 Soft Magnetic Composites with Double-Layer Insulating Coating for High-Frequency Applications
by Weizhong Zheng, Zixin Zhou, Rongyu Zou and Minghui Yang
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070045 - 29 Jun 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) such as FeNi50 are indispensable in modern electronics due to their high magnetic permeability and low-loss characteristics, meeting the requirements for miniaturization and high-frequency operation. However, the integration of organic materials, initially aimed at reducing the total losses, [...] Read more.
Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) such as FeNi50 are indispensable in modern electronics due to their high magnetic permeability and low-loss characteristics, meeting the requirements for miniaturization and high-frequency operation. However, the integration of organic materials, initially aimed at reducing the total losses, presents challenges by introducing thermal stability issues at high frequencies. To overcome this obstacle, we propose a double-layer insulating coating method, applying a complete inorganic/organic composite insulation layer to the surface of iron–nickel magnetic powder. The double-layer insulating coating insulation method aims to reduce the total losses, particularly the eddy-current losses prevalent in SMCs. Additionally, the double-layer insulating coating method helps alleviate the thermal stability issues associated with organic materials at high frequencies, ultimately enhancing the magnetic properties of SMCs. We systematically investigated the influence of different resin types on the microstructure of the double-layer insulating coating, accompanied by a comprehensive comparison of the magnetic properties of the resulting samples. The experimental findings demonstrate a significant reduction in the eddy-current losses through the double-layer insulating coating method, with the total losses decreasing by over 95% compared to the initial FeNi50 magnetic powder composite (MPC) materials. Notably, the sodium silicate and silicone resins exhibited superior performances as double-layer insulating coatings, achieving total loss reductions of 1350 W/kg and 1492 W/kg, respectively. In conclusion, the double-layer insulating coating method addresses the challenges related to the total losses and thermal stability in SMCs, offering a promising approach to improve their performance in various electrical and electronic applications. Full article
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17 pages, 4217 KiB  
Article
One-Step Preparation Method and Rapid Detection Implementation Scheme for Simple Magnetic Tagging Materials
by Xianxiao Song, Weiting Ma, Ping Song and Hongying Wang
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(7), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10070044 - 22 Jun 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
With the widespread application of tagging materials, existing chemical tagging materials exhibit limitations in stability and detection under field conditions. This study introduces a novel magnetic detection scheme. Hydrophilic material-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (COOH-PEG@Fe3O4 NPs) were synthesized using [...] Read more.
With the widespread application of tagging materials, existing chemical tagging materials exhibit limitations in stability and detection under field conditions. This study introduces a novel magnetic detection scheme. Hydrophilic material-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (COOH-PEG@Fe3O4 NPs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation technique. The content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the magnetic tagging liquid can reach up to 10 wt% and remain stable in an aqueous phase system for seven days. This research details the preparation process, the characterization methods (IR, 1HNMR, EDX, XRD, SEM, TEM, VSM, DLS), and the performance effects of the materials in magnetic tagging. Experimental results indicate that COOH-PEG@Fe3O4 NPs exhibit high remanence intensity (Br = 1.75 emu/g) and considerable stability, making it possible to quickly detect tagged liquids in the field using portable flux meters and optical pump magnetometers. This study provides new insights into the design and application of magnetic tagging materials, making it particularly suitable for long-term tagging and convenient detection in field scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applications of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials)
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