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C, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessReview A Metal-Free Carbon-Based Catalyst: An Overview and Directions for Future Research
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
Metal-free carbon porous materials (CPMs) have gained the intensive attention of scientists and technologists because of their potential applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage. Various simple and facile strategies are proposed for the preparation of CPMs with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and modifications
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Metal-free carbon porous materials (CPMs) have gained the intensive attention of scientists and technologists because of their potential applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage. Various simple and facile strategies are proposed for the preparation of CPMs with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and modifications on the surface. The extraordinary tenability of the pore structure, the environmental acceptability, the unique surface and the corrosion resistance properties allow them to be suitable materials for a large panel of catalysis applications. This review briefly outlines the different signs of progresses made towards synthesizing CPMs, and their properties, including catalytic efficiency, stability, and recyclability. Finally, we make a comparison of their catalytic performances with other nanocomposites, and we provide an outlook on the expected developments in the relevant research works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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Open AccessReview Design and Preparation of Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Supercapacitors: A Review
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
The synthesis and application of biomass-derived carbon in energy storage have drawn increasing research attention due to the ease of fabrication, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the meso/microporous carbon produced from various biological precursors, including plants, fruits, microorganisms, and animals. Compared to the artificial
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The synthesis and application of biomass-derived carbon in energy storage have drawn increasing research attention due to the ease of fabrication, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the meso/microporous carbon produced from various biological precursors, including plants, fruits, microorganisms, and animals. Compared to the artificial nanostructured carbons, such as fullerene, carbon nanotube and graphene, the biomass-derived carbons may obtain superior capacitance, rate performance and stability in supercapacitor applications ascribing to their intrinsic nanoporous and hierarchical structures. However, challenges remain in processing techniques to obtain biomass-derived carbons with high carbon yield, high energy density, and controllable graphitic microstructures, which may require a clear understanding over the chemical and elemental compositions, and the intrinsic microstructural characteristics of the biological precursors. Herein we present comprehensive analyses over the impacts of the chemical and elemental compositions of the precursors on the carbon yield of the biomass, as well as the mechanism of chemical activation on the nanoporous structure development of the biomass-derived carbons. The structure–property relationship and functional performance of various biomass-derived carbons for supercapacitor applications are also discussed in detail and compared. Finally, useful insights are also provided for the improvements of biomass-derived carbons in supercapacitor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Kinetic and Equilibrium Study of the Adsorption of CO2 in Ultramicropores of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels Obtained in Acidic and Basic Medium
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
In this work, aerogels were prepared using resorcinol-formaldehyde as a precursor in two synthetic routes, one basic and one acidic, to perform the adsorption of CO2 at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure. Aerogels were Characterization by N2 and CO2 Physisorption,
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In this work, aerogels were prepared using resorcinol-formaldehyde as a precursor in two synthetic routes, one basic and one acidic, to perform the adsorption of CO2 at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure. Aerogels were Characterization by N2 and CO2 Physisorption, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Infrared Spectroscopy. In general, was found that aerogels have a polymeric, disordered, three-dimensional structure and have a microporous surface. Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth equilibrium models present a good data fit of CO2 adsorption at relative pressure ranging between 1 × 10−4 and 3 × 10−2. The diffusion intra-particle kinetic model explains the setps of this process; the Elovich model also showed a good fit, therefore, there are an energetic heterogeneity of the CO2 superficial adsorption sites. The aerogel carbonized in basic medium at 1050 °C (ACB 1050) material was the best adsorbent of this pollutant, reaching an adsorption capacity of 6.43 mmol g−1. Full article
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