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A Tailor-Made Protocol to Synthesize Yolk-Shell Graphene-Based Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
3
CERICOL—Centro Ricerche Colorobbia, Via Pietramarina 123, 50053 Sovigliana—Vinci, Firenze, Italy
4
Advanced (magnetic) Theranostic Nanostructures Lab, Life Sciences Department, INL—International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga, Portugal
5
Department for Materials Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6
MEtRICs—Centro de Engenharia Mecânica e Sustentabilidade de Recursos, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
7
CEFT—Centro de Estudos de Fenómenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent C-based materials and nanopowders for magnetic sensing)
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Abstract

A simple tailor-made protocol to synthesize graphene-based magnetic nanoparticles (GbMNPs) for nanomedicine is herein reported. Different GbMNPs with very distinctive physicochemical and toxicological properties were synthesized by adjusting the number of carbon precursors in the coating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In vitro tests show the ability to use these GbMNPs as intelligent and on-demand drug nanocarrier systems for drug delivery, exhibiting the following features: good colloidal stability, good loading capacity of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, high pH-controlled release of the encapsulated drug (targeting tumour acidic pH conditions), superparamagnetic behaviour and biocompatibility. Due to their combined properties (i.e., physicochemical, magnetic, and biocompatibility), GbMNPs show high potentiality to be combined with other biomedical techniques, such as magnetic hyperthermia, which can represent an enhancement in the treatment of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene magnetic nanocomposites; drug delivery; DOX cancer graphene magnetic nanocomposites; drug delivery; DOX cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rodrigues, R.O.; Baldi, G.; Doumett, S.; Gallo, J.; Bañobre-López, M.; Dražić, G.; Calhelha, R.C.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Lima, R.; Silva, A.M.T.; Gomes, H.T. A Tailor-Made Protocol to Synthesize Yolk-Shell Graphene-Based Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine. C 2018, 4, 55.

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